nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2017‒03‒19
five papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Immigration externalities, knowledge flows and brain gain By Ernest MIGUELEZ; Claudia NOUMEDEM TEMGOUA
  3. The fuzziness of knowledge intensive production: the new economic space of Poblenou (Barcelona) (L?ambigüitat de la producció intensiva en coneixement: el nou espai econòmic del Poblenou) By Dot Jutgla, E.; Casellas, A.; Pallares-Barbera, M.
  4. The employment impact of R&D expenditures and capital formation By Mariacristina Piva; Marco Vivarelli
  5. Intelligence and the Ease of Doing Business: Does Intellectual Class Facilitate Leadership and Entrepreneurship? By Burhan, Nik Ahmad Sufian; Che Razak, Razli; Salleh, Fauzilah; Labastida Tovar, María Elena

    Abstract: This paper documents the influence of networks of highly-skilled migrants on international knowledge flows. It adds to the growing literature on highly-skilled international migration and its contribution to international knowledge diffusion, in migrants’ home as well as host countries. In particular, it first explores knowledge feedbacks to home countries generated by migrant inventors, a representative category of high-skilled migrants, most of them scientists and engineers. Second, it investigates the knowledge inflows to host countries brought by inventors. We test our hypothesis of a positive relationship between knowledge flows and highly skilled migration in a country-pair gravity model setting, for the period 1990-2010, using patent citations across countries as a measure of international knowledge diffusion. Our results confirm our initial assumption on the positive impact of highly skilled migrants on knowledge flows to their homelands as well as to their host countries. We find doubling the number of inventors of a given nationality at a destination country, leads to an 8.3% increase in knowledge outflows to their home economy from that same host land; while a similar increase in the number of migrant inventors produces a 6% increase in the knowledge inflows to the host economy.
    Keywords: migration, brain gain, diaspora, diffusion, inventors, patents, PCT patents
    JEL: C8 J61 O31 O33
    Date: 2017
  2. By: BEN KHALIFA, Adel
    Abstract: This paper defends the idea that the transition of countries, particularly developing countries, to the knowledge economy depends on the ability of their territories (sub-national levels) to diffuse and appropriate the new ICT paradigm. This paper proposes a framework for modeling the process of diffusion and appropriation of ICTs and suggests an ideal-type model of territory that supports the diffusion and appropriation of ICTs. This model of '' Appropriating Territory '' questioned the resources and the possible actions that will develop any territory to enter the knowledge economy based on ICT. While ICT offer potentials for all spaces, the ways and effectiveness with which territory exploit these potentials vary from one territory to another. We distinguish between ‘‘Appropriating Territories’’ and connected to the archipelago economy (architecture of the knowledge economy) and other non Appropriating and thus disconnected and marginalized.
    Keywords: Knowledge economy, ICT paradigm, Appropriating Territory
    JEL: O33 R11 R12 R58
    Date: 2017–03–14
  3. By: Dot Jutgla, E.; Casellas, A.; Pallares-Barbera, M.
    Abstract: At the beginning of the 21st century the economic activity of the Poblenou (Barcelona) has been transformed and it has been producing deep changes that affect the urban morphology and the behavior of economical and social agents of the neighborhood. This transformation takes place within a political structural frame, which involves an urban reform plan to convert this axis of the city into a new competitive technological and digital cluster. To study and evaluate the urban and economic transformation process of the area, this paper is divided into two parts. First, from a literature review approach, the paper analyzes the concept of knowledge economy and the implications that this productive model has on cities. Second, the paper focuses on the study of the development of the economic space of Poblenou and the implantation of the 22@Barcelona plan in period 2000-2006. Then, the definition and classification of economic knowledge activities is discussed. The analysis demonstrates that the definition of knowledge economy is fuzzy. The concept of knowledge as added value in the production is not easy to measure due to its intangible character; however, knowledge is included in the production process through new technologies and in other economic sectors. Key words: new economy, knowledge economy, urban regeneration, 22@Barcelona.
  4. By: Mariacristina Piva (DISCE, Università Cattolica); Marco Vivarelli (DISCE, Università Cattolica - UNU-MERIT, Maastricht, The Netherlands and IZA, Bonn, Germany)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is twofold. On the one hand, the economic insights about the employment impact of technological change are disentangled starting from the classical economists to nowadays theoretical and empirical analyses. On the other hand, an empirical test is provided; in particular, longitudinal data - covering manufacturing and service sectors over the 1998-2011 period for 11 European countries - are used to run GMM-SYS and LSDVC estimates. Two are the main results: 1) a significant labour-friendly impact of R&D expenditures (mainly related to product innovation) is found; yet, this positive employment effect appears to be entirely due to the medium-and high-tech sectors, while no effect can be detected in the low-tech industries; 2) capital formation is found to be negatively related to employment; this outcome points to a possible labour-saving effect due to the embodied technological change incorporated in gross investment (mainly related to process innovation).
    Keywords: technological change, employment, sectoral analysis, EU
    JEL: O33
    Date: 2017–01
  5. By: Burhan, Nik Ahmad Sufian; Che Razak, Razli; Salleh, Fauzilah; Labastida Tovar, María Elena
    Abstract: Does the intelligence quotient (IQ) in a nation regulate the ease of doing business in the society? Based on the normal distribution of IQ scores within a nation, the population was classified into three groups, specifically intellectual class, average ability, and non-intellectual class, which were represented by the 95th, 50th, and the 5th percentiles of IQ level respectively. Using a robust regression method with Huber’s weight function, the impact of each IQ class on the ease of doing business (EDB) index was examined. The sub-indicators of the ten business regulatory environment across 71 countries were studied. In this study, the effect of IQ was controlled for the levels of economic freedom, GDP per capita, freedom of corruption, and tertiary education. Results revealed strong evidence that the IQ of the intellectual class had contributed most to the enhancement of the regulatory environment, which is supportive for entrepreneurship. This result was consistent with the term ‘creative minority’ coined by the prominent historian Arnold Toynbee. It was concluded that the IQ of the people from the intellectual class is the most significant factor for creating a business regulatory environment that favours and eases the new and experienced entrepreneurs. This occurs through their competent and virtuous leadership that enhances the quality and efficiency of institutions across countries.
    Keywords: doing business; entrepreneurship; intelligence; intellectual class; leadership; non-intellectual class; robust regression
    JEL: J24 L26 O11 Z13
    Date: 2017–02

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