nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2017‒01‒29
eleven papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. The knowledge economy, the crash and the depression By Ugo Pagano; Maria Alessandra Rossi
  2. Property, Possession and Knowledge By Ugo Pagano
  3. Reversed Citations and the Localization of Knowledge Spillovers By Ashish Arora; Sharon Belenzon; Honggi Lee
  4. Quantile regression for Panel data: An empirical approach for knowledge spillovers endogeneity By Aldieri, Luigi; Vinci, Concetto Paolo
  5. International knowledge flows and the administrative barriers to mobility By Sultan Orazbayev
  6. Consumer Knowledge, Perception and Acceptance of GMOs By Berning, Joshua; Campbell, Ben
  7. Knowledge as a Global Common and the Crisis of the Learning Economy By Ugo Pagano
  8. Enhancing skills to boost growth in Hungary By Gabriel Machlica
  9. Joint and Cross-border Patents as Proxies for International Technology Diffusion By Chia-Lin Chang; Michael McAleer; Ju-Ting Tang
  10. Private Providers' Knowledge, Attitudes and Misconceptions Related to Long-Acting and Permanent Contraceptive Methods: A Case Study in Bangladesh By Jorge Ugaza; Kathryn Banke; Stephen Rahaim; Wahiduzzaman Chowdhury; Julie Williams
  11. Improving the Management of Technologies Transfer System and Development of Information Infrastructure of Innovative Activity in Uzbekistan By Otajonov, Shukhrat

  1. By: Ugo Pagano; Maria Alessandra Rossi
    Abstract: This paper reviews a recent strand of research emphasizing how the present institutions of the knowledge economy may be jeopardizing the very promise of growth and prosperity that the increased use of knowledge is generally reported to bring about. The excessive privatization of knowledge generates self-reinforcing vicious and virtuous circles of accumulation of intellectual property and investment in human capital, which increase global inequality. The present institutions of the global economy entail also a reduction of global investment opportunities that is one of the causes of the present global depression. Absent spontaneous antidotes to these phenomena, economic and science policies should aim at redressing the balance between public and private knowledge. Because of the distortion of incentives, stemming from uncompensated knowledge externalities at the international level, these policies should necessarily be coordinated at global level
    JEL: H41 L20 O34 O12
    Date: 2016–12
  2. By: Ugo Pagano
    Abstract: As Hodgson has nicely pointed out, capitalism can be only understood if we accept that, unlike possession, property is a social construction and a relation among individuals. Unlike possession, property does not require a material thing on which it should be applied. Property rights can create fictitious commodities on intangible assets symbolizing the relationships among persons. The commoditization of knowledge and the emergence of contemporary intellectual monopoly capitalism must be understood in this framework. Knowledge is a non-rival good and its possession by others is not incompatible. Since we can all possess the same piece of knowledge, the so-called knowledge economy is often seen as place where capitalist relations should weaken. However this view confuses property with possession. In modern societies, intellectual property is becoming the most important part of capital. In spite of the non-rival possession of knowledge, intellectual property rights can be defined as the exclusive right to a piece of knowledge involving the corresponding restriction of others' liberties to use it. Modern intellectual monopoly capitalism is built on sophisticated property rights that should be not confused with any sort of primitive possession
    JEL: K11 K30 B15 B41
    Date: 2016–12
  3. By: Ashish Arora; Sharon Belenzon; Honggi Lee
    Abstract: Spillover of knowledge is considered to be an important cause of agglomeration of inventive activity. Many studies argue that knowledge spillovers are localized based on the observation that patents tend to cite nearby patents disproportionately. Specifically, patent citations are interpreted as mapping the transmission of knowledge from the cited invention to the citing invention. The localization of patent citations is therefore taken as evidence that such knowledge transmission is also localized. Localization of knowledge transmission, however, may not be the only reason for why patent citations are localized. Using a set of citations that are unlikely to be associated with knowledge transmission from the cited to the citing invention, we present evidence that challenges the view that localization of citations is driven by localized knowledge transmission. Though localized knowledge transmission may well exist, it is unlikely to be captured by patent citations
    JEL: O32 O34
    Date: 2017–01
  4. By: Aldieri, Luigi; Vinci, Concetto Paolo
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent to which knowledge spillovers effects are sensitive to different levels of innovation. We develop a theoretical model in which the core of spillover effect is showed and then we implement the empirical model to test for the results. In particular, we run the quantile regression for panel data estimator (Baker, Powell and Smith, 2016), to correct the bias stemming from the endogenous regressors in a panel data sample. The findings identify a significant heterogeneity of technology spillovers across quantiles: the highest value of spillovers is observed at the lowest quartile of innovation distribution. The results might be interpreted to provide some useful implications for industrial policy strategy
    Keywords: Innovation; Spillovers; Quantile regression; Knowledge diffusion
    JEL: C21 O32 O33
    Date: 2017–01
  5. By: Sultan Orazbayev
    Abstract: Face-to-face contact, even temporary one, helps researchers form personal ties and transfer tacit knowledge. The ability of researchers to colocate, including attendance at international conferences, workshops and seminars, is affected by the administrative barriers to international mobility. This paper uses a gravity-style empirical framework to examine the link between international knowledge flows and immigration policies. The results suggest that the paper walls erected by such policies reduce not just the mobility of individuals, but also the diffusion of knowledge. A moderately restrictive mobility barrier reduces incoming and outgoing knowledge flows by about 0.8-1.3% per year. The effect of knowledge-exporting country's policy persists for nearly 10 years. There is also a short-term asymmetry: diffusion of recent knowledge is affected more by the immigration policy of a knowledge-exporter rather than a knowledge-importer.
    Keywords: diffusion of knowledge; academic mobility; immigration policy; visa policy; migration
    JEL: F10 F29 O33 R10
    Date: 2017–01
  6. By: Berning, Joshua; Campbell, Ben
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2017–01–18
  7. By: Ugo Pagano
    Abstract: This paper analyzes two interrelated problems characterizing a learning society. On the one hand, there is a tension between the non-rival nature of knowledge and its private appropriation. On the other hand, there is an institutional mismatch between the global public good nature of knowledge and the fragmentation of political power among different nations. We will argue that these two contradictions are a fundamental cause of economic stagnation and of inequality. The excessive monopolization of knowledge decreases the rate of growth but, at the same time, it increases the share of profits and shareholders’ wealth. The discounted rents of privatized knowledge are a clear example of what Joe Stiglitz has aptly named capitaldestructive wealth. Whereas the wealth (of few) increases, knowledge-capital decreases because its available uses are dramatically restricted.
    JEL: O34 O15 O16 P14
    Date: 2016–12
  8. By: Gabriel Machlica
    Abstract: Skill requirements in the labour market have significantly changed over the past two decades. The restructuring of the economy is making the labour market increasingly knowledge-based. The education system has reacted to this structural change, but as the pace has been relatively slow, many graduates remain without adequate skills and insufficiently prepared to apply knowledge in unfamiliar settings. Moreover, strong selectivity early in the education system reinforces student’s socio‑economic background, leading to an excess of low skilled workers with poor labour market prospects. This contributes to persistently low employment rates and low productivity gains, slowing down the income convergence process. The education system needs to improve learning outcomes by better aligning student qualifications with labour market needs. Improving overall educational outcomes would also make the education system more equitable and inclusive. Bolstering the supply of skills requires lifelong learning and improving the access to labour market to those who have left the education system without proper skills. In return, this will also increase “on‑the‑job” training, which is a key driver of acquiring competences after graduation. In addition, mobilising untapped skill resources, particular educated younger women, would raise employment, which is needed to confront the labour market problem arising from population ageing. Améliorer les compétences pour dynamiser la croissance en Hongrie Les compétences recherchées sur le marché du travail ont sensiblement changé au cours des vingt dernières années. Du fait de la restructuration de l'économie, le marché de l'emploi est de plus en plus fondé sur la connaissance. Le système d'enseignement s'est adapté à cette évolution structurelle, mais dans la mesure où le rythme de cet ajustement a été relativement lent, de nombreux diplômés restent privés de compétences adéquates et insuffisamment préparés à appliquer leurs connaissances dans des situations qui ne leur sont pas familières. En outre, la sélectivité forte et précoce qui caractérise le système éducatif accentue l'influence du milieu socioéconomique des élèves et des étudiants, ce qui se traduit par un excédent de travailleurs peu qualifiés dont les perspectives d'emploi sont médiocres. Cela contribue à la faiblesse persistante des taux d'emploi et des gains de productivité, ce qui ralentit le processus de convergence des revenus. Il faut améliorer les résultats du système d'enseignement, en assurant une meilleure correspondance entre les qualifications acquises et les besoins du marché du travail. Une amélioration globale des résultats du système d'enseignement le rendrait également plus équitable et inclusif. Pour renforcer l'offre de main-d'oeuvre qualifiée, il faut s'appuyer sur la formation tout au long de la vie et améliorer l'accès au marché du travail des personnes ayant quitté le système scolaire sans compétences adéquates. Cela se traduira par un développement de la formation « en cours d'emploi », qui est un vecteur essentiel d'acquisition de compétences après l'achèvement de la formation initiale. En outre, mobiliser les ressources en main-d'oeuvre qualifiée inexploitées, en particulier les femmes jeunes ayant reçu une formation, permettrait de rehausser le taux d'emploi, ce qui est nécessaire pour s'attaquer au problème que représente le vieillissement démographique pour le marché du travail.
    Keywords: active labour market policies, labour market, skills, training, vocational education
    JEL: I23 I25 I28 J48
    Date: 2017–01–25
  9. By: Chia-Lin Chang (Department of Applied Economics Department of Finance National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan.); Michael McAleer; Ju-Ting Tang
    Abstract: With the advent of globalization, economic and financial interactions among countries have become widespread. Given technological advancements, the factors of production can no longer be considered to be just labor and capital. In the pursuit of economic growth, every country has sensibly invested in international cooperation, learning, innovation, technology diffusion and knowledge, and outward direct investment. In this paper, we use a panel data set of 40 countries from 1981 to 2008 and a negative binomial model, using a novel set of cross-border patents and joint patents as proxy variables for technology diffusion, in order to investigate such diffusion. The empirical results suggest that, if it is desired to shift from foreign to domestic technology, it is necessary to increase expenditure on R&D for business enterprises and higher education, exports and technology. If the focus is on increasing bilateral technology diffusion, it is necessary to increase expenditure on R&D for higher education and technology. It is also found that outward foreign direct investment has no significant impact on either joint or cross-border patents, whereas inward foreign direct investment has a significant negative impact on cross-border patents but no impact on joint patents. Moreover, government expenditure on higher education has a significant impact on both cross-border and joint patents.
    Keywords: International technology diffusion, Exports, Imports, Joint patent, Cross-border patent, R&D, Negative binomial panel data.
    JEL: F14 F21 O30 O57
    Date: 2016–12
  10. By: Jorge Ugaza; Kathryn Banke; Stephen Rahaim; Wahiduzzaman Chowdhury; Julie Williams
    Abstract: This study demonstrates the existence of biases, poor knowledge and misconceptions among private healthcare providers towards long-acting and permanent methods of contraception in urban areas of Bangladesh.
    Keywords: Private providers, Bangladesh, long-acting methods, family planning
    JEL: F Z I
  11. By: Otajonov, Shukhrat
    Abstract: The selected paper presented at the IAMO Samarkand Conference
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession,
    Date: 2016–11–02

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