nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2017‒01‒01
six papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Knowledge Creates Markets: The Influence of Entrepreneurial Support and Patent Rights on Academic Entrepreneurship By Dirk Czarnitzk; Thorsten Doherr; Paula Schliessler; Katrin Hussinger; Andrew Toole
  2. In Search for the Not-Invented-Here Syndrome: The Role of Knowledge Sources and Firm Success By Katrin Hussinger; Annelies Wastyn
  3. Technology Diffusion, Pareto Distribution, and Patent Policy By Keiichi Kishi
  5. International knowledge flows and the administrative barriers to mobility By Sultan Orazbayev
  6. Fiscal Decentralisation, the Knowledge Economy and School Teachers’ Wages in Urban China By Yi Long; Chris Nyland; Russell Smyth

  1. By: Dirk Czarnitzk (KU Leuven, Belgium); Thorsten Doherr (Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), Mannheim); Paula Schliessler (Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), Mannheim); Katrin Hussinger (CREA, Université du Luxembourg); Andrew Toole (US Patent and Trademark Office, Alexandria, USA)
    Abstract: We use an exogenous change in German Federal law to examine how entrepreneurial support and the ownership of patent rights influence academic entrepreneurship. In 2002, the German Federal Government enacted a major reform called Knowledge Creates Markets that set up new infrastructure to facilitate university-industry technology transfer and shifted the ownership of patent rights from university researchers to their universities. Based on a novel researcher-level panel database that includes a control group not affected by the policy change, we find no evidence that the new infrastructure resulted in an increase in start-up companies by university researchers. The shift in patent rights may have strengthened the relationship between patents on university-discovered inventions and university start-ups; however, it substantially decreased the volume of patents with the largest decrease taking place in faculty-firm patenting relationships.
    Keywords: Intellectual property, patents, technology transfer, policy evaluation
    JEL: O34 O38
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Katrin Hussinger (CREA, Université du Luxembourg); Annelies Wastyn (IDEA Consult, Brussels, Belgium)
    Abstract: The not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome refers to a negative attitude of employees against externally developed knowledge. We show that the sources of external knowledge and the success of the company that acquires knowledge externally are factors that impact the occurrence of an NIH syndrome. In line with social identity theory, we hypothesize that internal resistance is most likely to occur if knowledge is acquired from similar organizations. This hypothesis is supported by our empirical finding that internal resistance against external knowledge is more likely to occur when knowledge is acquired from competitors rather than from suppliers, customers or universities. Further, we show that the NIH syndrome is more likely to arise within successful companies that acquire knowledge from competitors. This is in line with our hypothesis that firm success increases the extent to which employees identify themselves with their company resulting in stronger in-group favoritism and a superior tendency to reject externally generated knowledge.
    Keywords: not-invented-here syndrome; external knowledge sources; firm success; social identity theory; organizational identity
    JEL: O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Keiichi Kishi (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University)
    Abstract: We develop a Schumpeterian growth model based on technology diffu- sion. Each rm has a different productivity level. New entrants enter into the targeted industries by learning the existing technologies owned by the other rms. Some of the new entrants succeed to adopt the frontier tech- nology. The other new entrants may adopt the non-frontier technologies. We show that if it is extremely difficult to adopt the frontier technology, the technology diffusion generates the Pareto distributions of rm size, productivity, and innovation size. Further, we introduce the minimum innovation size required for a patent into the model. That is, the patent office grants the patents only for superior inventions. We show that an increase in minimum innovation size may reduce the average patentable innovation size because of an endogenous response of the distribution of innovation size. This implies that if the patent office requires the superior innovations for the patents, it may cause innovators to produce a larger amount of inferior patentable innovations.
    Keywords: Technology diffusion, Innovation, Pareto distribution
    JEL: O30 O33 O34
    Date: 2016–12
  4. By: Slavo Radosevic (UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies); Esin Yoruk (University of Coventry, Coventry Business School)
    Abstract: We explore the issues of measurement of technology upgrading of the economies moving from middle to high-income status. In particular, our focus is on the central and eastern European economies (CEE) within the context of a sample of 42 economies ranging from lower middle income to upper high-income level economies. Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs) are largely middle-income economies, but it is not certain whether they have achieved a threshold of technological capability required for catching up to high-income economies status. In exploring this issue, we apply theoretically relevant and empirically grounded middle level conceptual and statistical framework based on three dimensions: intensity and breadth of technological upgrading, and technology and knowledge exchange. As an outcome, we construct a composite indicator of technology upgrading based on 35 indicators which reflect different drivers and patterns of technology upgrading of countries at different income levels. Based on the simple statistical analysis we show that the middle-income trap is present in all dimensions of technology upgrading, but their importance varies across different dimensions. A trap seems to be higher for dimensions of ‘breadth’ of technology upgrading than for index of ‘intensity’ of technology upgrading. We explore in detail positioning of the CEE economies in the broader comparative context. Among the many interesting results, we highlight the following. The highest ranked countries regarding index of technology upgrading are Sweden, Korea, Japan and Germany. Poland has been fast growing CEE economy in the last 20 years, but its potential for technology- based growth is moderate. China’s ranking regarding index of technology upgrading is well above its income per capita which suggests room for further growth based on technology. CEECs are spread widely along index of technology upgrading which reflects partly their income per capita levels but also the different potential for further growth. An important structural feature of the CEE technology upgrading is their openness regarding technology and knowledge flows. A comparative analysis of technology upgrading profiles shows that there is a quite significant EU North – South technology upgrading gap. Regarding index of technology upgrading index, EU regions are ordered from EU North, South, Central and East with the difference between South and Central being relatively small. Regarding technology capability, EU has very strong core – periphery features as the gap between North and three other regions is quite substantial. In this working paper, we explore the issues related to the measurement of technology upgrading of the economies moving from middle to high-income status. In particular, our focus is on the central and eastern European economies (CEE) within the context of a sample of 42 economies ranging from lower middle income to upper high-income level economies.
    Keywords: Technology upgrading
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Sultan Orazbayev (University College London)
    Abstract: The literature on diffusion of knowledge has shown positive influence of physical and cultural proximity, common Language and contiguity on the speed and magnitude of international knowledge flows. Knowledge diffusion is also facilitated by co-location, even temporary one, which helps researchers form personal ties and exchange tacit information through face-to-face contact. However, the ability of researchers to disseminate the results of their work, especially recent or on-going research, through temporary co-location (including international conferences, workshops and seminars) will be affected by the administrative barriers to mobility (‘paper walls’), for example travel visas. This paper uses a gravity-style empirical model to examine the link between the administrative barriers to mobility of the skilled work- ers (and students) and the magnitude/direction of international knowledge flows between 45 countries from 1990 to 2014. Additional calculations use information on travel visa requirements between 134 countries in year 2004. The results suggest that higher administrative barriers to mobility between countries are associated with reduced bilateral knowledge flows, especially of recent knowledge, and this negative effect can persist for about 9 years. The persistent effect of ‘paper walls’ is asymmetric and a country’s ability to import knowledge is affected more by the administrative barriers of the knowledge-exporting country, suggesting that co-location plays an important role for successful transfer of knowledge.
    Keywords: visa; diffusion of knowledge; academic mobility; skilled workers; immigration policy
    JEL: F10 F29 O33 R10
    Date: 2016–12–22
  6. By: Yi Long; Chris Nyland; Russell Smyth
    Abstract: We examine how fiscal decentralisation and progress towards the development of a knowledge-intensive economy has impacted on teachers’ wages in China, utilising a panel dataset of 31 provincial administrations from 2001 to 2013. We find that fiscal decentralisation has a negative impact on teachers’ wages and this effect is further enhanced by a deepening of the knowledge intensity of the economy, while knowledge economy itself has no significant impact on teachers’ wages. The findings suggest that incentives being offered to local administrators need to be revisited if the national government is convinced of the need to increase teacher quality in ways suited to the knowledge economy China wishes to construct.
    Keywords: fiscal decentralisation, knowledge economy, teachers, wages, human capital, China
    JEL: H73 J31 J45
    Date: 2016–11

This nep-knm issue is ©2017 by Laura Ştefănescu. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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