nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2016‒11‒20
six papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Patent Assertion Entities in Europe: Their impact on innovation and knowledge transfer in ICT markets By Nikolaus Thumm; Garry Gabison
  2. Pervasive enough? General purpose technologies as an emergent property By Korzinov, Vladimir; Savin, Ivan
  3. “Breakthrough innovations: The impact of foreign acquisition of knowledge" By Damián Tojeiro-Rivero; Rosina Moreno; Erika Badillo
  4. R&D, Embodied Technological Change and Employment: Evidence from Italian Microdata By Barbieri, Laura; Piva, Mariacristina; Vivarelli, Marco
  6. Demand and Supply Effects and Returns to College Education - Evidence from a Natural Experiment with Engineers in Denmark By Hans-Peter Y. Qvist; Anders Holm; Martin D. Munk

  1. By: Nikolaus Thumm (European Commission - JRC); Garry Gabison (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: Patent assertion has become a common practice in shaping the balance between technology creation and technology dissemination in the Information and Communication Industry (ICT). The importance of this practice for the functioning of ICT markets has given rise to new entities that enforce patents but do not utilise the patented technology, commonly referred to as patent assertion entities (PAEs). This study provides an overview of patent assertion practices and of PAEs in Europe, taking into consideration their impact on innovation and technology transfer in European ICT markets.
    Keywords: Patenting, patent assertion entities, patent trolls, innovation
    Date: 2016–10
  2. By: Korzinov, Vladimir; Savin, Ivan
    Abstract: We propose a novel model of knowledge discovery shedding light on the emergence of General Purpose Technologies (GPTs), the process which has been largely neglected in the literature on technological change. We demonstrate that GPTs emerge only when certain conditions with regard to the following techno-economic factors are met: knowledge diffusion, coordination on technological trajectories and volatility in the rank of expected returns on products. Furthermore, our model provides intuitive explanation for technological lock-ins, S-shaped curves of technology adoption, temporal clustering of innovations in time and replicates distinct features of empirical networks of relatedness among technologies and products.
    Keywords: general purpose technology,technology networks,pervasiveness of technologies,knowledge diffusion,innovation
    JEL: C63 D83 D85 L16 O3
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Damián Tojeiro-Rivero (AQR Research Group-IREA. University of Barcelona. Av.Diagonal 696; 08034 Barcelona, Spain.); Rosina Moreno (AQR Research Group-IREA. University of Barcelona. Av.Diagonal 696; 08034 Barcelona, Spain.); Erika Badillo (AQR Research Group-IREA. University of Barcelona. Av.Diagonal 696; 08034 Barcelona, Spain.)
    Abstract: Based on the Spanish Technological Innovation Panel, this paper explores the role of R&D offshoring on innovation performance from 2004 to 2013. Specifically, we focus our attention on the impact of different types of offshoring governance models on the profitability of developing breakthrough innovations. Using a novel methodology for panel data sets, we control for the heterogeneity of firms as well as for the sample selection and endogeneity. Our study provides evidence that firms developing breakthrough innovations tend to benefit more from the external acquisition of knowledge than those engaged in incremental innovations. We also find evidence that acquiring knowledge from firms outside the group is more profitable than doing so with firms within the group. Moreover, the external acquisition of knowledge tends to present a higher return on breakthrough innovation in the case of taking such knowledge from the business sector rather than from universities or research institutions. Finally, the recent financial crisis has led to an increase in the return of the foreign acquisition of knowledge on the generation of breakthrough innovations.
    Keywords: Endogeneity; Panel data; R&D offshoring; Spanish firms; Sample selection; Technological and organizational space. JEL classification:
    Date: 2016–11
  4. By: Barbieri, Laura (Università Cattolica di Piacenza); Piva, Mariacristina (Università Cattolica di Piacenza); Vivarelli, Marco (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)
    Abstract: This paper explores the employment impact of innovation activity, taking into account both R&D expenditures and embodied technological change (ETC). We use a novel panel dataset covering 265 innovative Italian firms over the period 1998-2010. The main outcome from the proposed fixed effect estimations is a labor-friendly nature of total innovation expenditures; however, this positive effect is barely significant when the sole in-house R&D expenditures are considered and fades away when ETC is included as a proxy for innovation activities. Moreover, the positive employment impacts of innovation activities and R&D expenditures are totally due to firms operating in high-tech industries and large companies, while no job-creation due to technical change is detectable in traditional sectors and SMEs.
    Keywords: technology, innovation, R&D, embodied technological change, employment
    JEL: O31 O33
    Date: 2016–11
  5. By: Elena PELINESCU (Institute of Economic Forecasting, Romanian Academy)
    Abstract: The human capital is the main driver of development and economic growth. This paper is focused on human capital and tries to show how the human capital, as an important economic factor contributes to the growth of the economy. Romer (1969) identified a positive relation between the initial level of literacy and its rate of growth and the increase of income per capita. Benhabib, and Spiegel (1994) showed that the growth rate of total factor productivity depends on the human capital stock level. Wilson and Briscoe (2004) in a literature review of relation between human capital and economic performance at macroeconomic level highlighted that the increases in economic growth across the EU are associated with increases in both education and training. This paper is focused on the relation between human capital and development in Romania and uses econometric techniques to highlight the role of human capital in increasing the country’s wealth.
    Keywords: human capital, development, inovation
    JEL: E24 J24 F63 O15 O31
    Date: 2016–11
  6. By: Hans-Peter Y. Qvist (Department of Sociology and Social Work, Aalborg University); Anders Holm (The University of Western Ontario); Martin D. Munk (Department of Political Science, Aalborg University)
    Abstract: The demand and supply model predicts that a larger relative net supply of a particular skill group will negatively affect its relative wage. To test this, we use the opening of a new university in Denmark as a natural experiment. We show that the opening of Aalborg University created a shock to the supply of structural engineers in the mid-1980s. Because Aalborg University did not have a chemical engineering program, we use chemical engineers as a control group and find that the wages of structural engineers dropped in and around 1984, when the supply of structural engineers peaked.
    Date: 2016

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