nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2016‒11‒06
twelve papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. The co-evolution of knowledge and collaboration networks: The role of technology life-cycle in Structural Composite Materials By Johannes VAN DER POL
  2. Organizational learning in the context of performing arts By Lisa Balzarin; Monica Calcagno; Francesco Casarin
  3. Towards a Democratization of Knowledge with Topological Emphasis in Economics By Rosas-Martinez, Victor H.
  4. Knowledge Elites and Modernization: Evidence from Revolutionary France By Mara P. Squicciarini; Nico Voigtländer
  5. The Meaning of Digitalization for Research Skills: Challenges for Sti Policy By Meissner Dirk; Narkhova Anastasiia; Plekhanov Dmitry
  6. Innovation Network By Daron Acemoglu; Ufuk Akcigit; William Kerr
  7. International R&D Funding and Patent Collateral in an R&D-Growth Model By Huang, We-Chi; Chen, Ping-ho; Lai, Ching-Chong
  8. The Gain from the Drain: Skill-biased Migration and Global Welfare By Biavaschi, Costanza; Burzyński, Michał; Elsner, Benjamin; Machado, Joel
  9. Entrepreneurial teams' acquisition of talent: a two-sided approach By Florence Honoré; Martin Ganco
  10. Looking Back on the Lessons of "Higher Education and Developing Countries: Peril and Promise": Perspectives on China and India By Bloom, David E.; Altbach, Philip G.; Rosovsky, Henry
  11. Forward Guidance without Common Knowledge By George-Marios Angeletos; Chen Lian
  12. Inequalities in Educational Outcomes: How Important Is the Family? By Bredtmann, Julia; Smith, Nina

  1. By: Johannes VAN DER POL
    Abstract: One of the objectives of the analysis of innovation networks is to explain the structure of the network. The latter is important because it reveals strategic decisions of the firms in terms of collaboration. Different factors have already been identified (e.g technological and geographical proximity), the role of the life-cycle of the technology has however not yet been analysed.\r\nThe aim of this paper is to extend the existing literature on innovation networks in two ways. First we show that the International Patent Classification can be used to generate a knowledge network that can be used as a proxy for the identification of the technology life-cycle. Second we show that there is a correlation between the structural dynamics of the network and the life-cycle of the technology.
    Keywords: Network analysis ; Innovation network ; technology life-cycle ; Knowledge network
    JEL: L14 D83 O32 O33
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Lisa Balzarin (Dept. of Management, Università Ca' Foscari Venice); Monica Calcagno (Dept. of Management, Università Ca' Foscari Venice); Francesco Casarin (Dept. of Management, Università Ca' Foscari Venice)
    Abstract: Organizational learning is the focus of the present research, with an empirical investigation on the dynamics of knowledge acquisition adopted by two cultural organizations operating in the field of performing arts. In particular, data reveals how the artistic metaphor assumes the role of a context from which acquiring useful data and concepts for the managerial development of the cultural enterprise. Also the use of interviews to professionals working in other enteprises, as a planned way to access data, produced useful information.
    Keywords: organizational learning, knowledge acquisition, cultural enterprises, knowledge management, art management.
    JEL: D83 L26 L82
    Date: 2016–10
  3. By: Rosas-Martinez, Victor H.
    Abstract: We formulate and prove a theorem which consists in how the natural endogenous antagonist interaction of agents who look for understanding a generalizable phenomenon, results in a tendency towards chaos. This takes us to the final absolution of implementing the majority rule as the only instrument that generates socially acceptable knowledge, escaping from the chaos tendency. Finally, we extend our analysis to consider the arise of multiple simultaneous antagonist postures on the explanation of a phenomenon, and through an application of the Pythagoras theorem, we prove that it takes less effort or sacrifice for an agent to learn strategically to get an explanation, than if she was the creator of the concerning knowledge, which implies different consequences of possible topological private and public tendencies.
    Keywords: Antagonist Endogenous Knowledge; Social Entropy; Chaos Theorem; Social Choice
    JEL: B50 O31 O35
    Date: 2016–10
  4. By: Mara P. Squicciarini; Nico Voigtländer
    Abstract: This paper examines the role of knowledge elites in modernization. At the eve of the French Revolution, in the spring of 1789, King Louis XVI solicited lists of grievances (Cahiers de Doléances), in which the public could express complaints and suggestions for reforms of the Ancien Regime. We show that the demand for mass education and democratization was particularly high in regions that had a thick knowledge elite, measured by subscribers to the famous Encyclopédie in the 1770s. Historical evidence suggests that this pattern is driven by the spirit of enlightenment of French knowledge elites. Pre-revolution literacy, in contrast, is not correlated with demand for mass education or with the density of knowledge elites. After the French Revolution, knowledge elites played a key role in implementing schooling reforms at the local level. We show that by the mid-19th century, schooling rates were significantly higher in regions with thicker knowledge elites. The same is true of other proxies for modernization, such as association membership, Republican votes, and the share of French-speaking pupils. Our results highlight an important interaction between local culture (the spirit of enlightenment) and nation-wide institutions in economic development: the French Revolution opened a window of opportunity for local elites to pursue their agenda of modernization.
    JEL: J24 N13 O14
    Date: 2016–10
  5. By: Meissner Dirk (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Narkhova Anastasiia (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Plekhanov Dmitry (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper gives an overview of the impact of the current digital evolution of S&T systems, in particular on STI policies and research skills development. Within this context digitalization demonstrates strong impact on human capital and tangible assets (infrastructures and information processing tools etc.) by means of enhancing sources of new knowledge. Hence, challenges arise on the useful and proper utilization of numerous opportunities which emerged from digitalization. What are the new challenges for S&T systems caused by digitalization and what mechanisms could be implemented for system adaptation to them? What are the new research skills that are a high priority to acquire both by individuals and system as a whole? The paper argues that STI policy thus far hasn’t demonstrated sufficient responses to the changing requirements on researcher skills but remains at the infrastructural discussion.
    Keywords: Open access, open science, researcher skills, digitalization, STI policy
    JEL: O31 O38
    Date: 2016
  6. By: Daron Acemoglu; Ufuk Akcigit; William Kerr
    Abstract: Technological progress builds upon itself, with the expansion of invention in one domain propelling future work in linked fields. Our analysis uses 1.8 million U.S. patents and their citation properties to map the innovation network and its strength. Past innovation network structures are calculated using citation patterns across technology classes during 1975-1994. The interaction of this pre-existing network structure with patent growth in upstream technology fields has strong predictive power on future innovation after 1995. This pattern is consistent with the idea that when there is more past upstream innovation for a particular technology class to build on, then that technology class innovates more.
    JEL: D85 O31 O32 O33 O34
    Date: 2016–10
  7. By: Huang, We-Chi; Chen, Ping-ho; Lai, Ching-Chong
    Abstract: This paper develops an R&D-based growth model featuring international R&D funding and patent collateral. It then uses the model to examine how the international borrowing interest rate and the fraction of patent collateral will affect innovations and economic growth.
    Keywords: International R&D funding, patent collateral, R&D-based growth model
    JEL: E44 O31 O40
    Date: 2016–11–03
  8. By: Biavaschi, Costanza (University of Reading); Burzyński, Michał (University of Luxembourg); Elsner, Benjamin (IZA); Machado, Joel (University of Luxembourg)
    Abstract: High-skilled workers are four times more likely to migrate than low-skilled workers. This skill bias in migration – often called brain drain – has been at the center of a heated debate about the welfare consequences of emigration from developing countries. In this paper, we provide a global perspective on the brain drain by jointly quantifying its impact on the sending and receiving countries. In a calibrated multi-country model, we compare the current world to a counterfactual with the same number of migrants, but those migrants are randomly selected from their country of origin. We find that the skill bias in migration significantly increases welfare in most receiving countries. Moreover, due to a more efficient global allocation of talent, the global welfare effect is positive, albeit some sending countries lose. Overall, our findings suggest that more – not less – high-skilled migration would increase world welfare.
    Keywords: migration, brain drain, global welfare
    JEL: F22 O15 J61
    Date: 2016–10
  9. By: Florence Honoré; Martin Ganco
    Abstract: While it is crucial for startups to hire high human capital employees, little is known about what drives the hiring decisions. Considering the stakes for both startups and their hires (i.e., joiners), we examine the phenomenon using a two-sided matching model that explicitly reveals the preferences of each side. We apply the model to a sample of startups from five technological manufacturing industries while examining a range of variables grounded in prior work on startup human capital. The analysis is based on the Longitudinal Employer Household dynamics from the U.S. Census Bureau. Our findings indicate that, in the context of entrepreneurship, both startups and joiners rely heavily on signals of quality. Further, quality considerations that are important for the match play a minimal role in determining earnings. Our approach refines our understanding of how entrepreneurial human capital evolves.
    Date: 2016–01
  10. By: Bloom, David E. (Harvard University); Altbach, Philip G. (Boston College); Rosovsky, Henry (Harvard University)
    Abstract: In 2000, Higher Education in Developing Countries: Peril and Promise was published. This influential report, cosponsored by The World Bank and UNESCO, came at a time of transition in higher education worldwide and had some influence on higher education policy and thinking in several developing countries. This article looks at some of the main arguments in Peril and Promise. It focuses particularly on how two key countries, China and India, have developed in light of the key recommendations in Peril and Promise.
    Keywords: higher education, developing countries, higher education policy, peril and promise, China, India
    JEL: I25 I28 I29
    Date: 2016–10
  11. By: George-Marios Angeletos; Chen Lian
    Abstract: Forward guidance relies on shifting expectations of income and inflation. These expectations matter through general-equilibrium mechanisms, including two known as the deflationary spiral and the income multiplier. Recasting these expectations and these mechanisms in terms of higher-order beliefs reveals how the predictions of the New-Keynesian model—and some of its anomalies—hinge of the combination of a strong equilibrium concept with strong informational assumptions. Relaxing these assumptions anchors the expectations and attenuates the mechanisms. This attenuation increases with the horizon at which forward guidance operates, as well as with the degree of price flexibility. We thus lessen, not only the forward-guidance puzzle, but also the paradox of flexibility. We also operationalize the notion that policy makers may find it hard to shift expectations of income and inflation even if they can easily shift expectations of policy.
    JEL: C72 D82 E03 E32 E43 E52 E58
    Date: 2016–10
  12. By: Bredtmann, Julia (RWI); Smith, Nina (Aarhus University)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate sibling correlations in educational outcomes, which serve as a broad measure of the importance of family and community background. Making use of rich longitudinal survey and register data for Denmark, our main aim is to identify the parental background characteristics that are able to explain the resemblance in educational outcomes among siblings. We find sibling correlations in educational outcomes in the range of 15 to 33 percent, suggesting that up to a third of the variation in educational achievement can be explained by family and community background. Our results further reveal that parents' socio-economic background can account for a large part of the sibling correlation. Other family characteristics such as family structure, the incidence of social problems, and parents' educational preferences also play a role, though these factors only contribute to explaining sibling similarities at lower levels of the educational distribution.
    Keywords: intergenerational mobility, sibling correlations, education
    JEL: I21 I24 J13
    Date: 2016–10

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