nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2016‒09‒04
four papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. From Science to Technology: The Value of Knowledge From Different Energy Research Institutions By David Popp
  2. The Heterogeneous Impacts of Business Cycles on Educational Attainment By Boffy-Ramirez, Ernest
  3. Smithian Growth through Creative Organization By Patrick Legros; Andrew F. Newman; Eugenio Proto
  4. Factors Influencing the Diffusion of Information and Communications Technology: Are Developing Countries Different? By Tara Mitchell

  1. By: David Popp
    Abstract: Using an original data set of both scientific articles and patents pertaining to alternative energy technologies, this paper provides new evidence on the flows of knowledge between university, private sector, and government research. Better understanding of the value of knowledge from these institutions can help decision makers target R&D funds where they are most likely to be successful. I use citation data from both scientific articles and patents to answer two questions. First, what information is most useful to the development of new technology? Does high quality science lead to commercial success? I find that this is the case, as those articles most highly cited by other scientific articles are also more likely to be cited by future patents. Second, which institutions produce the most valuable research? Are there differences across technologies? Research performed at government institutions appears to play an important translational role linking basic and applied research, as government articles are more likely to be cited by patents than any other institution, including universities. Universities play a less important role in wind research than for solar and biofuels, suggesting that wind energy research is at a more applied stage where commercialization and final product development is more important than basic research.
    JEL: O38 Q42 Q48 Q55
    Date: 2016–08
  2. By: Boffy-Ramirez, Ernest (University of Colorado Denver)
    Abstract: In this study I examine the impact of fluctuations in the unemployment rate before high school graduation on educational attainment measured 30 years later. I find evidence that educational attainment is countercyclical, as found in other studies, but also find that the impact of the unemployment rate varies across the ability distribution. Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this analysis identifies individuals who are on the boundary between pursuing and not pursuing additional education. Exposure to a higher unemployment rate at age 17 is associated with higher educational attainment for men in the 60-80th quintile of the ability distribution. There is little to no evidence of an effect beyond this quintile – highlighting the heterogeneous impacts of higher unemployment on educational attainment.
    Keywords: educational attainment, unemployment, heterogeneous impacts, ability distribution
    JEL: I2 I22 J1 J18 J24
    Date: 2016–08
  3. By: Patrick Legros; Andrew F. Newman; Eugenio Proto
    Abstract: We model technological progress as an external effect of organizational design, fo- cusing on how factories, based on labor division, could spawn the industrial revolution. Dividing labor, as Adam Smith argued, facilitates invention by observers of production processes. However, entrepreneurs cannot internalize this benefit and choose labor di- vision to facilitate monitoring. Equilibrium with few entrepreneurs features low wage shares, high specialization, but a limited market for innovations. Conversely, with many entrepreneurs there is a large market for innovation, but little specialization be- cause of high wage shares. Technological progress therefore occurs with a moderate scarcity of entrepreneurs. Institutional improvements affect growth ambiguously.
    Keywords: factory system, industrial revolution, technological change, contracts
  4. By: Tara Mitchell (Department of Economics, Trinity College Dublin)
    Abstract: This paper uses a logistic model of technology diffusion to investigate the relationship between rates of mobile phone, internet and broadband use and a number of economic, geographic and institutional variables, in a sample of 144 countries from 1990 to 2013. It pays particular attention to the differences in the process of diffusion between high- and low-income countries. The aim of the paper is to identify the main characteristics of countries that have had success in adopting these new technologies in order to gain some insight into the barriers which may be faced by those countries that have been less successful. The results suggest that there are important differences between high- and low-income countries in terms of the factors that influence the diffusion of digital technologies.
    Keywords: Digital divide, technology diusion, mobile phones, internet
    JEL: O1 O3 O33
    Date: 2016–09

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