nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2016‒06‒25
five papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  2. Knowledge transfer at the science-policy interface: How cognitive distance and the degree of expert autonomy shapes the outcome By Broström, Anders; McKelvey, Maureen
  3. OpenCases: Case Studies on Openness in Education By Manuel Souto-Otero; Andreia Inamorato dos Santos; Robin Shields; Predrag Lazetic; Jonatan Castaño Muñoz; Axelle Devaux; Stephanie Oberheidt; Yves Punie
  4. Implementing Smart Specialisation in Sparsely Populated Areas By Jukka TERÄS; Alexandre DUBOIS; JENS SÖRVIK; MARTINA PERTOLDI
  5. Stimulating digital innovation for growth and inclusiveness: The role of policies for the successful diffusion of ICT By OECD

  1. By: Mohammad Saleh Farazi (Department of Business Organization and Marketing, Universidad Pablo de Olavide); Ana Pérez-Luño (Department of Business Organization and Marketing, Universidad Pablo de Olavide); Shanthi Gopalakrishnan (School of Management, New Jersey Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: This study focuses on knowledge structuration and its strategic implications for new research-intensive firms. These firms mainly pursue growth strategies by leveraging their knowledge-based resources and capabilities in inter-organizational relationships, while they are typically constrained on other resources. Therefore, they need to strategically develop and structure their knowledge resources in a way that guarantees their survival and serves their future goals best. Taking biotechnology firms as our research setting, we first identify groups of firms with similar generic knowledge structuration, i.e. depth and breadth of knowledge possessed by the firm. Then, drawing from organizational learning theory and knowledge-based view, we discuss how strategically structuring the technological knowledge of the firm can affect the benefits it gains from collaborating with other organizations. We provide research propositions for different strategic groups and theoretically link knowledge structuration to both exploration and exploitation alliances.
    Keywords: Knowledge strategy, structuration, depth, breadth, alliance, biotechnology
    Date: 2016–01
  2. By: Broström, Anders (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); McKelvey, Maureen (Institute of Innovation & Entrepreneurship, Department of Economy & Society, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg.)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the conditions for successful knowledge transfer between the spheres of science and public policy. It does so by focusing upon the science-policy interface, specifically the processes of direct interaction between scientists and scientifically trained experts on the one hand and agents of policy-making organizations on the other. The paper defines two dimensions – cognitive distance and expert autonomy – which are argued to influence knowledge exchange, in such a way as to shape the outcome. A case study on the implementation of congestion charges in Stockholm, Sweden illustrates how the proposed framework pinpoints three central issues for understanding these processes: 1) differentiating the roles of e.g. a science-based consultancy firm and an academic environment in policy formation; 2) examining the fit between the organizational form of the science-policy interface and the intended goals; and 3) increasing our understanding of when policy makers themselves need to develop scientific competence in order to interact effectively with scientific experts.
    Keywords: organizational learning; science-based policy; evidence-based policy; interaction; cognitive distance; congestion charges
    JEL: A14 R41
    Date: 2016–06–02
  3. By: Manuel Souto-Otero (University of Bath); Andreia Inamorato dos Santos (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Robin Shields (University of Bath); Predrag Lazetic (University of Bath); Jonatan Castaño Muñoz (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Axelle Devaux (ICF International); Stephanie Oberheidt (ICF International); Yves Punie (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: OpenCases is a study which is part of the OpenEdu Project. It is a qualitative study consisting of a review of literature on open education and nine in-depth case studies of higher education institutions, a consortium of universities, a private organisation and a national initiative. It analysed the rationale and enabling conditions for involvement in open education, open education activities, strategies, impact, challenges and prospects. The main outcome of this study is evidence that a large number of OER have reached a large group of learners. However, completion rates of MOOCs are low. Accreditation is not formalised and in general its impact on employability is not measured.
    Keywords: open education, openness, higher education, open science, open research, OER, MOOC, open educational resources, universities
    Date: 2016–05
  4. By: Jukka TERÄS (Nordregio, Stockholm (Sweden)); Alexandre DUBOIS (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); JENS SÖRVIK (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); MARTINA PERTOLDI (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: This Working Paper explores Research and Innovation Strategies for Smart Specialisation (RIS3) in Sparsely Populated Areas (SPA). The paper discusses the most significant elements of Smart Specialisation (S3) in SPA focusing on its theoretical background as well as on the empirical processes related to the introduction and implementation of the S3 concept in selected European regions. Presenting both issues emerging from theoretical debates and practice-based examples, this paper provides a critical discussion on the operationalisation of S3 in the specific context of European Sparsely Populated Areas. SPA should not be seen as regions lagging behind by definition but as regions with specific characteristics including challenges and opportunities. The analysis of the case-study regions demonstrates that SPA have been able to create innovative environments in sparsely populated and remote areas and that there is a mind-set and willingness to utilise the possibilities provided by S3 processes. However, in doing so SPA need to strengthen their competitiveness with extra-regional knowledge and networking pipelines and even more so than other types of regions in consideration of the lack of critical mass. The specific characteristics and features of SPA often with abundant natural resources, but with limited human capital and lack of agglomeration economies need to be carefully studied and the regional actors need not only to be heard but also to be invited to an inclusive S3 process. The cases discussed enlighten the need to address S3 as an overarching framework for territorial development based on the integration of complementary policies.
    Keywords: Regional Policy, Smart Specialisation, Sparsely Populated Areas, territorial diversity, place-based approach, policy integration
    Date: 2015–11
  5. By: OECD
    Abstract: This report analyses the importance of the adoption and the effective use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for enabling digital innovation for growth and inclusiveness, and discusses the role of public policies in stimulating such adoption and use. Given the emergence of a new digital divide caused by a possible breakdown of the “diffusion machine”, and given the strong interest of governments in furthering ICT adoption and use in particular by SMEs and disfavoured social groups, emphasis is put on policies stimulating ICT diffusion across society, i.e. ICT demand side policies.
    Date: 2016–06–16

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