nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2016‒06‒09
eleven papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Academic Knowledge Spillovers and the Role of Geographic Proximity in Regional Agriculture-related Sectors: The impact of agricultural research at Colorado State University on the Colorado economy, and beyond By Lee, Yoo Hwan; Graff, Gregory D.
  2. Knowledge-Based Regional Development in Albania and Kosovo - Reducing social and economic disparities through social and economic innovation By Blerjana Bino; Ketrina Çabiri; Erjon Curraj; Alban Hashani; Ilire Mehmeti
  3. Creating an environment for economic growth: creativity, entrepreneurship or human capital? By Faggian, Alessandra; Partridge, Mark; Malecki, Ed
  4. Innovations in management of human resources: from traditional to the innovative By Nesterenko Nadezhda Anatolyevna
  5. Features of Development of Regional Research and Innovation Systems (On the Example of Russia and Kazakhstan) By Kleeva, Lyudmila Petrovna; Kleev, Ivan Vladimirovitch; Nikitova, Anna; Krotov, Alexander Yurievitch
  6. Inherited Advantage and Spinoff Success By Broström, Anders; Lööf, Hans; Nabavi, Pardis
  7. Tie creation versus tie persistence in cluster knowledge networks By Sándor Juhász; Balázs Lengyel
  8. What is the Causal Impact of Knowledge on Preferences in Stated Preference Studies? By Jacob LaRiviere; Mikolaj Czajkowski; Nick Hanley; Katherine Simpson
  9. Exports diversification and knowledge sharing from south-south and south-north economic cooperation: evidence from the Central and West Africa By Ndambendia, Houdou
  10. The Founding of an Urban Charter School: Three Years of Academic Growth and Key School Characteristics By Cleo Jacobs Johnson; Ava Madoff; Scott Richman; Matthew Johnson; Claudia Gentile
  11. Financing innovation By Kerr, William R.; Nanda, Ramana

  1. By: Lee, Yoo Hwan; Graff, Gregory D.
    Abstract: This study examines the mechanisms and geographic scope of the impact of university knowledge spillovers on the agricultural economy, using the case of Colorado State University (CSU) and the state’s agricultural economy. Our findings show that the spillover impacts of journal publications are rarely localized within Colorado; rather, the geographic scope of these impacts is national and even global. However, the extent to which the spillover impacts of patented knowledge is localized within Colorado is open to question because it is possible to control permissions for use, but at the same time it is impossible to limit everyone’s awareness and use of it, particularly in foreign jurisdictions where patents are not taken out by the university. The collaboration mechanism of knowledge dissemination, such as indicated by industry coauthorship on journal articles and private sponsorship of grants and contracts, which are more rivalrous by virtue of the more tacit qualities of knowledge being disseminated and because of the higher transaction costs, requires closer interaction and greater geographic proximity, which usually prevents global dissemination. Thus, we observe geographic proximity is significantly important for these channels. Finally, university start-ups are highly geographically bounded near universities because in the early stages start-up companies need support from their host university.
    Keywords: knowledge spillovers, geographic proximity, innovation, agriculture, university research, non-parametric model, Agribusiness, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Industrial Organization, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Q16, R12, O33, D23, C14,
    Date: 2016–08–02
  2. By: Blerjana Bino; Ketrina Çabiri; Erjon Curraj; Alban Hashani; Ilire Mehmeti
    Date: 2015–02
  3. By: Faggian, Alessandra; Partridge, Mark; Malecki, Ed
    Abstract: Researchers have long searched for the underlying causes of growth. In developed countries, as they shifted from industrial to knowledge economies, researchers have recently stressed the following sources of growth embodied in its workforce: human capital (linked to education), entrepreneurship (variously measured), and the creative class (associated with worker occupations). This study first proposes new conceptual ways to portray the interrelationship of these knowledge-based attributes. Then simultaneously considers all of these factors in an empirical model using U.S. counties. We find that human capital as measured by educational attainment and the intensity of small and medium-sized firms are statistically associated with subsequent growth, while other factors such as the share of creative class workers or the share of advanced technology industries are insignificant. We conclude that economic development strategies are too focused on attracting large outside firms and attracting advanced technology firms and not enough attention is given to building a foundation of competitive small and medium-sized firms.
    Keywords: Economic growth, human capital, entrepreneurship, creative class, US counties
    JEL: J24 O1 R11
    Date: 2016–05–17
  4. By: Nesterenko Nadezhda Anatolyevna (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration- Stolypin Volga Region Institute of administration)
    Abstract: value of the concepts "innovation", "innovative activity", "management of human resources" is considered. The attention to continuity of the technologies of management of human resources existing in the organization is paid, connecting them with the perspective future of the organization which activity will become effective and productive exactly thanks to introduction of the innovative technologies of management of human resources, but at observance which are available already in the organization of traditional values, approaches and the principles of human resource management.
    Keywords: innovation, innovative technologies, innovative directions, innovative activity, traditional values, diffusion of innovations, creative activity, human resource management, management of human resources
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Kleeva, Lyudmila Petrovna (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Kleev, Ivan Vladimirovitch (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Nikitova, Anna (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Krotov, Alexander Yurievitch (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of regional research and educational facilities for the development of Russia and Kazakhstan. Revealed their negative impact on the development of depressed regions, and this applies not only underdeveloped complexes Kostroma (Russian Federation) and Kyzylorlinskoy (Republic of Kazakhstan) regions, but also a well-developed scientific and educational complex in Irkutsk region. Research has shown that this paradox is due to the fact that the development of science and education in the region is associated not only with all the elements of regional research and innovation system (including research and development, education, innovation infrastructure, real production and regional governments), but and with the elements of research and development and education of a higher level: the national economy, and even megaekonomiki. Because communication within the spheres of science and education are professional, they're pretty close. Therefore, in the case where there is no effective system of functioning of the regional research and innovation system as a whole, the achievements of science and education sector (skilled workers) as a result of professional contacts within the framework of science and education leave the region, reducing its capacity, and are used in other regions and countries. The findings make it possible to generate proposals for a regional research and innovation policy.
    Keywords: Russia, Kazakhstan, depressed regions, development, innovation
    Date: 2016–04–05
  6. By: Broström, Anders (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Lööf, Hans (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Nabavi, Pardis (Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum & Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH))
    Abstract: This paper investigates how incumbent firm characteristics affect the viability of its spinoffs. The survival patterns of spinoffs with roots in exporting firms and in technologically innovative firms are compared to the survival of other spinoffs. Using comprehensive Swedish employer-employee panel data sets, three possible outcomes are identified: survival,acquisition and complete exit from the market. Experience from an exporting parent is positively associated with spinoff survival. These inheritance benefits do, however, decrease with the tenure of ex-employees. This suggests that inherited advantages in this case is not primarily driven by enhanced opportunities for on-the-job learning. Above-average attractiveness to employees, and associated ability sorting and opportunity costs mechanisms, provides explanations for the superior survival of spin-offs from exporting firms that seem more congruent with data. The study also suggest that technological innovativeness, captured by parent's patenting activity, is negatively associated with spinoff survival when controlling for exports. This result support the view that knowledge inside innovative firms is "sticky" and not easily transferable to new ventures by ex-employees.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; exports; organizational heritage; innovation; spinoff; entrepreneurial spawning
    JEL: C25 F14 L26 M13 O33
    Date: 2016–04–27
  7. By: Sándor Juhász; Balázs Lengyel
    Abstract: Knowledge networks in industrial clusters are frequently analyzed but we know very little about creation and persistence of ties in these networks. We argue that tie creation primarily depends on opportunities and thus the position ofactors in the network and in space; while tie persistence is influenced by the value of the tie. Accordingly, results from a Hungarian printing and paper product cluster suggest that reciprocity, triadic closure, and geographical proximity between firms increase the probability of tie creation. Tie persistence is positively affected by technological proximity between firms and the number of their extra-regional ties.
    Keywords: knowledge networks, clusters, network dynamics, stochastic actor-oriented models
    JEL: D85 L14 R11 O31
    Date: 2016–05
  8. By: Jacob LaRiviere (Department of Economics, University of Tennessee); Mikolaj Czajkowski (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Nick Hanley (Department of Geography and Sustainable Development, University of St. Andrews); Katherine Simpson (Economics Division, University of Stirling, Scotland)
    Abstract: This paper reports the results of a stated preference experiment designed to test for how information provided in a survey affects knowledge, and how knowledge affects preferences for a public good. A novel experimental design allows us to elicit subjects’ ex ante knowledge levels about a good’s attributes, exogenously vary how much new objective information about these attributes we provide to subjects, elicit subjects’ valuation for the good, and elicit posterior knowledge states about the same attributes. We find evidence of incomplete learning and fatigue: as subjects are told more information, their marginal learning rates decrease. We find there is no marginal impact of knowledge on the mean nor the variance of WTP for changes in the environmental good; but that ex ante knowledge does affect stated WTP. Our results are consistent with preference formation models of confirmation bias, costly search, or timing differences in learning and preference formation. Our results raise questions about the purpose and effects of providing information in stated preference studies.
    Keywords: Learning, Information, Behavioral Economics, Decision Making Under Uncertainty
    JEL: D83 D81 Q51
    Date: 2016
  9. By: Ndambendia, Houdou
    Abstract: In this paper, we address the issue of knowledge sharing from FDI inflows and imports from the north and south on exports diversification of selected African economies. Applying Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) and Random-Effects Probit with control of endogeneity, we find that FDI inflows and imports from the north and the south affect differently horizontal and vertical exports diversification. Indeed, FDI inflows have the strongest effect on vertical diversification whereas imports impact strongly horizontal export diversification. Moreover, imports from the south have the strongest impact on horizontal exports diversification whereas only FDI from the north significantly affect exports diversification irrespective of its nature. In addition, we find no evidence of knowledge sharing through education, meaning that lack of education significantly reduces the marginal effects of FDI inflows and imports on exports diversification. However, taking knowledge separately, we find that higher education is required to vertically diversify an economy. As policy recommendation, further human capital investment and set up of incentive mechanisms to attract FDI are needed to truly diversify economies of selected countries.
    Keywords: exports diversification, knowledge, FDI, imports, endogeneity
    JEL: C23 C26 F14 I25 O55
    Date: 2014
  10. By: Cleo Jacobs Johnson; Ava Madoff; Scott Richman; Matthew Johnson; Claudia Gentile
    Abstract: After years of operating programs focused on improving education in Kansas City, Kauffman Foundation leaders decided to establish charter school. The path they followed and the lessons they learned may be of interest to those working to found and/or improve charter schools.
    Keywords: Kauffman, Charter School, Academic growth, education
    JEL: I
    Date: 2016–03–16
  11. By: Kerr, William R.; Nanda, Ramana
    Abstract: We review the recent literature on the financing of innovation, inclusive of large companies and new startups. This research strand has been very active over the past five years, generating important new findings, questioning some long-held beliefs, and creating its own puzzles. Our review outlines the growing body of work that documents a role for debt financing related to innovation. We highlight the new literature on learning and experimentation across multi-stage innovation projects and how this impacts optimal financing design. We further highlight the strong interaction between financing choices for innovation and changing external conditions, especially reduced experimentation costs.
    Keywords: finance, innovation, entrepreneurship, banks, venture capital, experimentation
    JEL: G21 G24 L26 M13 O31 O32
    Date: 2015–12–11

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