nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2016‒05‒28
ten papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Knowledge diversity and firm growth: Searching for a missing link By Grillitsch, Markus; Schubert, Torben; Srholec, Martin
  2. Studying Complementarities between Modes of Innovation Strategies in Transition Economies By Berulava, George; Gogokhia, Teimuraz
  3. Innovative Strategies in Technical and Vocational Education and Training for Accelerated Human Resource Development in South Asia: Nepal By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  4. Regional synergies of migration, human rights, trade, investment and knowledge transfer to maximize development in countries of origin of the migrants By Daniel Rais
  5. Innovations in Knowledge and Learning for Competitive Higher Education in Asia and the Pacific By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  6. A Cross Matrix for Modeling Open Innovation in Production Management By Gratiela Boca
  7. Collecting new pieces to the regional knowledge spillovers puzzle: high-tech versus low-tech industries By Carlos Carreira; Luís Lopes
  8. Offshoring R&D By Tuhkuri, Joonas; Lööf, Hans; Mohammadi, Ali; Rouvinen, Petri
  9. University merging process: a guideline proposal for excellence-enhancing By Marisa Hidalgo-Hidalgo; Guadalupe Valera
  10. Knowledge creates markets: The influence of entrepreneurial support and patent rights on academic entrepreneurship By Czarnitzki, Dirk; Doherr, Thorsten; Hussinger, Katrin; Schliessler, Paula; Toole, Andrew A.

  1. By: Grillitsch, Markus (CIRCLE, Lund University); Schubert, Torben (CIRCLE, Lund University); Srholec, Martin (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: The link between knowledge and firm growth has been a core topic in economics of innovation for a long time. However, despite strong theoretical arguments, empirical evidence remains inconclusive. One important reason for this conundrum may be the failure of standard indicators to comprehensively capture firm innovation activities. We contribute to overcoming this limitation by zooming in on the knowledge processes that drive variegated forms of innovation and aim thereby to establish a solid relationship with firm growth. The paper draws on the differentiated knowledge base approach, distinguishing between analytical, synthetic, and symbolic knowledge, and measures these types of knowledge with detailed longitudinal linked-employer-employee micro data from Sweden. Econometric findings indicate positive relationships between the three knowledge types, in particular combinations thereof, and firm growth. These relationships remain robust in a wide range of models. Our analysis therefore suggests that the seemingly weak relationship between firm growth and innovation may be explained by the narrow measurement concepts that have dominated in this literature so far.
    Keywords: Knowledge; innovation; firm growth; micro data; Sweden
    JEL: C33 D22 O12 O32 O33
    Date: 2016–04–21
  2. By: Berulava, George; Gogokhia, Teimuraz
    Abstract: This paper explores the existing interrelationships between the firm’s innovation activities and productivity performance as well as studies complementarities among innovation strategies in transition economies. Specifically, on the basis of BEEPS V dataset and using extended CDM model, we have investigated the existence of possible complementarities between various types of innovation modes (product, process, marketing and organizational innovations) in their impact on the firm’s productivity. The traditional CDM framework was modified through accounting for the simultaneous occurrence of different types of innovation inputs - in-house and out-house knowledge generation activities - and through the estimation of their joint effects on various modes of innovation. In compliance with the results of previous studies, we find that CDM model properly describes the existing interrelations between the firm’s innovation activity and its productivity performance in transition economies. In particular, our results show that the firm’s decisions on in-house and out-house knowledge development processes are interdependent. The study results suggest that implementation of internal R&D strategy can stimulate not only technological innovations but non-technological innovative activity as well. However, we find that external knowledge acquisition strategy has positive and statistically significant effect on innovation output only when the firm’s innovation mix incorporates non-technological novelties. Our results show that only those modes of innovation output combinations that assume all the types of innovations and/or the combination of process and non-technological innovations have positive and statistically significant impact on the firm’s productivity. Another vital point of this analysis is that conducting either product or process innovation in isolation will result in a negative productivity performance. The important contribution of this paper is that it tests for complementarity between innovation strategies of firms in transition economies. Our tests reveal complementarity between the following two combinations of innovations: product/process and process/non-technological innovations. The key policy implication of our findings is that while performing all the three innovation modes jointly has a positive impact on firm’s performance, economically preferred options are: either to choose pure technological innovation strategy (product&process mode) or to perform strategy focused on organizational restructuring (process/non-technological mode).
    Keywords: R&D, external knowledge acquisition, innovation, productivity, CDM model, complementarity, transition economies
    JEL: C12 L25 O12 O31 P31
    Date: 2016–05–13
  3. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (South Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (South Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: This publication consists of six country reports on technical and vocational education and training and higher education in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Each report presents current arrangements and initiatives in each of the three countries’ skills development strategies, complemented by critical analysis to reveal key issues, challenges, and opportunities for innovative strategies toward global competitiveness, increased productivity, and inclusive growth. The emphasis is to make skills training more relevant, efficient, and responsive to emerging domestic and international labor markets. The reports were conducted under the Australian AID-supported Phase 1 of Subproject 11 (Innovative Strategies for Accelerated Human Resource Development) of RETA 6337 (Development Partnership Program for South Asia).
    Keywords: nepal tvet, nepal skills development, south asia, human capital, nepal human resources, vocational education, technical education, skills training, global competitiveness, increased productivity, inclusive growth, labor markets, adb ta 6337
    Date: 2015–11
  4. By: Daniel Rais
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to explore how to raise the synergies of migration, human rights, trade, investment and knowledge transfer to maximize development in countries of origin of the migrants. To reach a deeper understanding of the inter-governmental coherence this paper will additionally examine the level of coherence between free trade and related agreements (such as Regional trade agreement) and Migration agreements as well as certain migration partnership agreements in certain regions: the context of the EU between Spain and France as well as Switzerland with certain African countries and; 2. in the context of NAFTA (Mexico –USA/Canada).
    Date: 2014–11–11
  5. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: Higher education institutions in Asia and the Pacific are modeled on industrial age thinking that promotes routinized capacities and lacks the ability to innovate and create new knowledge enterprises. The transition to a knowledge economy is affecting the purpose, content, pedagogy, and methodologies of higher education. Nontraditional stakeholders such as professional bodies, industry experts, think tanks, research institutes, and field experts/practitioners are now involved not only in planning but in providing higher education services. The traditional model of “knowledge versus skills” is no longer relevant. Higher education programs must consider lived experiences, contextual knowledge, and indigenous knowledge.
    Keywords: education, information resources, electronic information resource, open educational resources, oer, free educational resources, education and oer, education and open educational resources, jouko sarvi, hitendra pillay
    Date: 2015–12
  6. By: Gratiela Boca (Department of Economics and Physics, Technical University of Cluj Napoca)
    Abstract: Innovation has become the industrial religion of the late 20th century. Business sees it as the key to increasing profits and market share. Governments automatically reach for it when trying to fix the economy. Around the world, the rhetoric of innovation has replaced the post-war language of welfare economics. Innovation: nothing new? Recent years have seen much focus on how innovation can lead to improvements in productivity assisting in economic development The article present the big difference between making culture in a particular field and practicing it. Innovation is the instrument of entrepreneurship. It invests resources with a new capacity to produce prosperity.
    Keywords: cost, open innovation, quality, product life cycle. quality, cross culture, management change
    Date: 2014–06
  7. By: Carlos Carreira (GEMF and Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra, Portugal); Luís Lopes (GEMF and Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra, Portugal)
    Abstract: This paper revisits the puzzling question regarding the role of spatial agglomeration of production activities and knowledge on firm’s total factor productivity (TFP). In particular, it addresses the overlooked issue of a plausible non-linear effect and different across industries. Using a panel of Portuguese manufacturing firms, we found that specialization economies have a positive impact on firms’ productivity, especially for those operating in medium-high and high-tech sectors. Diversity externalities, for its part, have an inverted U-shaped relationship with firms’ TFP in low, medium-low and medium-high tech sectors. The relationship between regional R&D employment and productivity differs across sectors: in all manufacturing firms and firms from medium-low and high-tech sectors, there is an inverted U-shaped relationship; in low-tech sector, there is a U-shaped relationship and a positive elasticity for any employment level higher than the 20th percentile. Overall, agglomeration economies differ substantially across industries and they are non-linear.
    Keywords: Regional knowledge spillovers, agglomeration economies, low-tech vs. high-tech industries, total factor productivity. JEL Classification:
    Date: 2016–05
  8. By: Tuhkuri, Joonas; Lööf, Hans; Mohammadi, Ali; Rouvinen, Petri
    Abstract: Abstract This paper explores offshoring of firms’ research and development functions. Our analysis employs a previously untapped and unique Eurostat International Sourcing Survey. The results are easy to summarize. First, the magnitude of R&D offshoring is small. Second, a large majority of R&D is offshored within the enterprise group, in contrast to offshoring outside of the enterprise group. Third, most of R&D offshoring from Europe is directed to high-income European countries, not so to low-cost countries in Europe, China, or India. Fourth, R&D jobs do have been lost from offshoring; however, the negative employment impact has been moderate. But the Eurostat International Sourcing Survey does not allow entangling the full net employment effect of R&D offshoring, which could be either negative or positive.
    Keywords: R&D, offshoring, outsourcing, innovation, product development
    JEL: O3 O32 F0 F2 F16 L2 J44
    Date: 2016–05–04
  9. By: Marisa Hidalgo-Hidalgo (Department of Economics, Universidad Pablo de Olavide); Guadalupe Valera (Department of Economics, Universidad Pablo de Olavide)
    Abstract: There is a recent trend toward encouraging universities to merge. This policy is based on the idea that mergers create synergy gains that enhance the prestige of universities by increasing their international visibility. However, this process may reduce competition for both research funds and professors in national higher education markets. This paper analyses whether mergers among universities are optimal from an excellence perspective. We find that the higher the heterogeneity between the initial reputations of potentially merging institutions, the greater the amount of funds required for mergers to achieve higher excellence than competition.
    Keywords: Higher Education, Economics of Science, University Competition, University Mergers
    JEL: H52 I23 I28 J24
    Date: 2016–05
  10. By: Czarnitzki, Dirk; Doherr, Thorsten; Hussinger, Katrin; Schliessler, Paula; Toole, Andrew A.
    Abstract: We use an exogenous change in German Federal law to examine how entrepreneurial support and the ownership of patent rights influence academic entrepreneurship. In 2002, the German Federal Government enacted a major reform called Knowledge Creates Markets that set up new infrastructure to facilitate university-industry technology transfer and shifted the ownership of patent rights from university researchers to their universities. Based on a novel researcher-level panel database that includes a control group not affected by the policy change, we find no evidence that the new infrastructure resulted in an increase in start-up companies by university researchers. The shift in patent rights may have strengthened the relationship between patents on university-discovered inventions and university start-ups; however, it substantially decreased the volume of patents with the largest decrease taking place in faculty-firm patenting relationships.
    Keywords: intellectual property,patents,technology transfer,policy evaluation
    JEL: O34 O38
    Date: 2016

This nep-knm issue is ©2016 by Laura Ştefănescu. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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