nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2016‒05‒14
nine papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Determinants of R&D University-Frim Collaboration and Its Impact on Innovation: a Perspective from the Italian Food and Drink Industry By Maietta, Ornella Wanda
  2. A note on innovations from subjective ideas maps By Goorha, Prateek
  3. Knowledge-based economy By Michal Wilinski
  4. Concentration on the few? R&D and innovation in German firms between 2001 and 2013 By Rammer, Christian; Schubert, Torben
  5. Policy-effective Financial Knowledge and Attitude Factors By Gabriel Garber; Sergio Mikio Koyama
  6. Does innovation foster or mitigate the corruption obstacle? Firm-level evidence from Tunisia By Sdiri, Hanen; Ayadi, Mohamed
  7. Complementarity and Substitutability between Tangible and Intangible Capital: Evidence from Japanese firm-level data By HOSONO Kaoru; MIYAKAWA Daisuke; TAKIZAWA Miho; YAMANOUCHI Kenta
  8. Relational knowledge transfers By Luis Garicano; Luis Rayo
  9. Do tax incentives for research increase firm innovation? An RD Design for R&D By Elias Einiö; Dechezleprêtre; - Martin Antoine; - Nguyen Ralf; - Van Reenen Kieu-Trang; John

  1. By: Maietta, Ornella Wanda
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to examine R&D collaboration between firms, on the one hand, and universities or public research labs, on the other, with particular attention to the role such collaboration plays among the determinants of product and process innovation in the Italian food and drink industry. The firm data are sourced from four waves of the Capitalia survey. The approach is a multivariate probit analysis in which the dependent variables are intra muros R&D investment, R&D collaboration with universities, public labs and private firms, process and product innovation. The independent variables consist of firm, territory and university characteristics. The results of the analysis demonstrate that R&D university–firm collaboration determines process innovation and, to a lesser extent, product innovation. A firm’s product innovation is positively affected by its geographical proximity to a university but negatively affected by the amount of its codified knowledge production.
    Keywords: university–industry interaction, R&D collaborations, product and process innovation, academic research quality, geographical distance, university education, Agricultural and Food Policy, O3, D22, R1,
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Goorha, Prateek
    Abstract: In this note the author proposes an approach to examine how innovations might arise from a knowledge commons with agents that interact on the basis of their subjective assessment of the relationships between ideas. Two types of knowledge commons emerge from this dynamic - a pure knowledge commons, with a pursuit of knowledge for its own sake and a satisficing knowledge commons, where members seek a predetermined value for their ideas.
    Keywords: idea maps,knowledge commons,innovation,subjectivity
    JEL: D85 O34
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Michal Wilinski (Nicolaus Copernicus University)
    Abstract: The purpose of this article is to present a model of knowledge-based economy in relation to the OECD or Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The work will be explained the difference between economic growth and economic development. This article aims is to show how the use of factors of knowledge and innovation by the economy affect its faster development. Model presented work shows the extent to which a variable that is known to be action - lovers expressing or measuring knowledge and innovation impact on the economy and the extent to which contributed to its growth, which will be expressed by the Gross Domestic Product.
    Keywords: innovation; knowledge; economic development; OECD, KBE
    JEL: A11 D83 O43
    Date: 2016–05
  4. By: Rammer, Christian; Schubert, Torben
    Abstract: [Introduction] Innovation expenditures in Germany have increased at an impressive rate in the course of the last two decades. Between 1995 and 2013, businesses in Germany raised their spending for developing and introducing new products and new processes from €60.8bn to €144.6bn resulting in a compound annual growth rate of 4.9% (Rammer et al. 2015). While these numbers suggest that German firms have become ever more focused on innovation, they hide the fact that this rise has mainly been driven by large firms belonging to a few sectors. When we look at the above numbers by firm size we find that firms with fewer than 500 employees experienced only a very modest increase in their innovation expenditures (€25.7bn in 1995 vs. €34.5bn in 2013, i.e. 1.6% per year) whereas large firms with more than 500 employees increased their spending from €35.1bn in 1995 to €110.1bn in 2013 (6.6% per year). In line with these observations we also find a concentration of the activities on fewer firms. In particular, the share of innovators – firms that have introduced at least one product or process innovation during the preceding three years – has similarly declined since the late 1990s. Having reached a peak in 1999 at 55.5%, it dropped to 43.7% in 2007 and further declined to 37.1% in 2013. A look at the sector distribution conveys a similar concentration. In 1995, the R&D intensive manufacturing sectors (pharmaceuticals, chemicals, electronics, machinery & equipment, vehicles) spent €30.9bn on innovation and increased that figure to €92.6bn in 2013 (+6.3% per year). Low-tech manufacturing and service sectors expanded their innovation expenditure by an average annual rate of 3.1%. These developments would not be problematic if they were due to firms from high-tech sectors growing at an above-average rate. While some well-known examples of this phenomenon also exist in Germany, e.g. the software company SAP, the absolute numbers of such cases is very limited. Moreover, the share of value added of highly R&D-intensive sectors has remained fairly stable in Germany. This makes this explanation implausible. [...]
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Gabriel Garber; Sergio Mikio Koyama
    Abstract: In this paper, we consolidate two objectives of the financial inclusion literature: producing meaningful measures of financial knowledge and financial attitudes and providing guidance to policymakers in cost-benefit analysis for the comparison of financial education interventions. We call them policy-effective factors. For this, we estimate a system of equations in which the dependent binary variables represent financial behavior and explanatory variables include knowledge and attitude variables and controls. Using Brazilian data from OECD/INFE survey 2015, we find one knowledge factor and two attitude factors that help predict behavior outcomes
    Date: 2016–04
  6. By: Sdiri, Hanen; Ayadi, Mohamed
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the extent to which Tunisian firms regard corruption as a major obstacle to their product and process innovation. Using firm-level data from the World Bank Enterprise Survey conducted in 2013, we empirically test how innovation accentuates or mitigates the corruption obstacle. We show that innovation has a negative and statistically significant effect on the corruption obstacle. Besides, we prove that competition and the obstacle to corruption are negatively related. This result teaches that the Tunisian firms face a rent-shifting corruption.
    Keywords: Innovation, Corruption obstacle, Rent-shifting.
    JEL: D73 L80 O31 O32
    Date: 2016–05–04
    Abstract: Using Japanese firm-level panel data spanning from 2000 to 2013, we estimate industry-level production functions that explicitly take into account the substitutability and complementarity between tangible and intangible capital. The estimation results show substantial heterogeneity among industries in terms of substitutability and complementarity between tangible and intangible capital. We further find that the relation between tangible and intangible capital in the production function accounts for their relation in investments. These findings show the necessity to take into account the relation between the dynamics of tangible and intangible capital for precisely understanding the mechanisms governing a firm's growth.
    Date: 2016–03
  8. By: Luis Garicano; Luis Rayo
    Abstract: An expert with general knowledge trains a cash-constrained novice. Faster training increases the novice’s productivity and his ability to compensate the expert; it also shrinks the stock of knowledge yet to be transferred, reducing the expert’s ability to retain the novice. The profit-maximizing agreement is a multi-period apprenticeship in which knowledge is transferred gradually over time. The expert adopts a "1/e rule" whereby, at the beginning of the relationship, the novice is trained just enough to produce a fraction 1/e of the efficient output. This rule causes inefficiently lengthy relationships that grow longer the more patient the players. We discuss policy interventions.
    Keywords: general human capital; international joint ventures; relational contracts
    JEL: J24 M0
    Date: 2016–03
  9. By: Elias Einiö; Dechezleprêtre; - Martin Antoine; - Nguyen Ralf; - Van Reenen Kieu-Trang; John
    Abstract: We present the first evidence showing causal impact of research and development (R&D) tax incentives on innovation outcomes. We exploit a change in the asset-based size thresholds for eligibility for R&D tax subsidies and implement a Regression Discontinuity Design using administrative tax data on the population of UK firms. There are statistically and economically significant effects of the tax change on both R&D and patenting, with no evidence of a decline in the quality of innovation. R&D tax price elasticities are large at about 2.6, probably because the treated group is from a sub-population subject to financial constraints. There does not appear to be pre-policy manipulation of assets around the thresholds that could undermine our design, but firms do adjust assets to take advantage of the subsidy post-policy. We estimate that over 2006-11 business R&D would be around 10% lower in the absence of the tax relief scheme.
    Keywords: R&D, patents, tax, innovation, Regression Discontinuity design
    JEL: H32 O31 H23 O32 H25
    Date: 2016–04–13

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