nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2016‒04‒04
seven papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Sharing Knowledge in a Shared Services Center Context: An Explanatory Case Study of the Dialectics of Formal and Informal Practices By Dragos Vieru; Pierre-Emmanuel Arduin
  2. The Impact of Entrepreneurship on Knowledge Economy in Africa By Asongu, Simplice; Tchamyou, Vanessa
  3. Open Innovation in clusters: The Portuguese case By Santos, Antonio Bob
  4. Innovation and collaboration patterns between research establishments By Inoue, Hiroyasu; Nakajima, Kentaro; Saito, Yukiko Umeno
  5. The behavioural aspect of green technology investments: a general positive model in the context of heterogeneous agents By F. Knobloch; J. -F. Mercure
  6. Migration, Knowledge Diffusion and the Comparative Advantage of Nations By Bahar, Dany; Rapoport, Hillel
  7. Agricultural knowledge and information system: Lessons learned in the postsocialist period in Romania and Bulgaria By Rusu, Marioara; Dirimanova, Violeta; Simionescu, Violeta Maria

  1. By: Dragos Vieru (Université du Québec - Université du Québec - Université du Québec); Pierre-Emmanuel Arduin (DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - Université Paris IX - Paris Dauphine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This study focuses on how knowledge sharing across boundaries of merging entities during an information system (IS) implementation project in a shared services center (SSC) context affects the resulting system functionality. Although the literature stresses the growing adoption of the SSC as an outsourcing model, there is a lack of studies that examine shared services as a dynamic process of knowledge sharing across the organizational boundaries. We draw on a sociomaterial practice perspective and on the theory of workarounds to analyze an IS implementation project in a healthcare organization resulting from a merger of previously independent hospitals. The results suggest that new technology can be enacted in different ways as it links up with practices of different communities of users. We propose a multilevel process model that indicates at the end of the project a resulting mix of formal and informal (workarounds) practices that emerged from a dialectic process of resistance to, and negotiation of, the IS configuration during its implementation.
    Keywords: Shared services center,Knowledge sharing,Sociomaterial practice perspective,Workarounds,Performativity,Sociomaterial assemblages
    Date: 2016–02
  2. By: Asongu, Simplice; Tchamyou, Vanessa
    Abstract: Purpose - The paper assesses how entrepreneurship affects knowledge economy (KE) in Africa. Design/methodology/approach – Entrepreneurship is measured by indicators of starting, doing and ending business. The four dimensions of the World Bank’s index of KE are employed. Instrumental variable panel fixed effects are applied on a sampled of 53 African countries for the period 1996-2010. Findings –The following are some findings. First, creating an enabling environment for starting business can substantially boost most dimensions of KE. Second, doing business through mechanisms of trade globalisation has positive effects from sectors that are not ICT and High-tech oriented. Third, the time required to end business has negative effects on KE. Practical implications – Our findings confirm the narrative that the technology in African countries at the moment may be more imitative and adaptive for reverse-engineering in ICTs and high-tech products. Given the massive consumption of ICT and high-tech commodities in Africa, the continent has to start thinking of how to participate in the global value chain of producing what it consumes. Originality/value – This paper has a twofold motivation. First, given the ambitions of African countries of moving towards knowledge based economies, the line of inquiry is timely. Second, investigating the nexus may have substantial poverty mitigation and sustainable development implications. These entail inter alia: the development of technology with value-added services; enhancement of existing agricultural practices; promotion of conditions that are essential for competitiveness and adjustment of globalization challenges.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Knowledge Economy; Development; Africa
    JEL: L59 O10 O20 O30 O55
    Date: 2015–02
  3. By: Santos, Antonio Bob
    Abstract: Given the lack of academic research linking open innovation with the clusters literature, this paper analyze the determinants of open innovation adoption in clusters, based on the Portuguese case. This paper is structured as follows: 1) introduction; 2) methodology; 3) theoretical analysis of clusters and open innovation; 4) cluster policy evolution in Portugal; 5) results of an online questionnaire launched to the Portuguese clusters members, identifying the main constraints for the development of open innovation activities; 6) conclusions and implications. The factors that hinder the use of open innovation by clusters members are related to internal problems (e.g., management skills) and external factors (e.g., funding access). This paper also allows the understanding of the importance of belonging to a cluster for the usage of open innovation activities, contributing to the discussion of the necessity of having a more open innovation policy approach in Portugal.
    Keywords: open innovation, clusters, cluster policy, innovation policy
    JEL: O25 O31 O32 O38
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Inoue, Hiroyasu; Nakajima, Kentaro; Saito, Yukiko Umeno
    Abstract: This study empirically investigates the determinants of the productivity of knowledge creation by collaboration. By using the Japanese patent database, we extracted establishment-level patent co-invention information, and found the following results. First, we find an inverse U-shaped pattern in the relationship between the similarity of knowledge stocks and the quality of patents. That is, moderate diversity in knowledge stocks between establishments rather than extreme similarity or extreme diversity is important for knowledge creation. Second, focusing on the differences in technology class, we find inverse U-shaped pattern only in the high-technology class. This implies that the common knowledge between establishments is important in the invention of high technology patents. Third, we find that the physical distance between collaborating establishments has a negative effect on the quality of patents.
    Keywords: Diversity, Knowledge creation
    JEL: O31 R11 D23
    Date: 2016–03
  5. By: F. Knobloch; J. -F. Mercure
    Abstract: Studies report that firms do not invest in cost-effective green technologies. While economic barriers can explain parts of the gap, behavioural aspects cause further under-valuation. This could be partly due to systematic deviations of decision-making agents' perceptions from normative benchmarks, and partly due to their diversity. This paper combines available behavioural knowledge into a simple model of technology adoption. Firms are modelled as heterogeneous agents with different behavioural responses. To quantify the gap, the model simulates their investment decisions from different theoretical perspectives. While relevant parameters are uncertain at the micro-level, using distributed agent perspectives provides a realistic representation of the macro adoption rate. The model is calibrated using audit data for proposed investments in energy efficient electric motors. The inclusion of behavioural factors reduces significantly expected adoption rates: from 81% using a normative optimisation perspective, down to 20% using a behavioural perspective. The effectiveness of various policies is tested.
    Date: 2016–03
  6. By: Bahar, Dany (Inter-American Development Bank); Rapoport, Hillel (Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: Do migrants shape the dynamic comparative advantage of their sending and receiving countries? To answer this question we study the drivers of knowledge diffusion by looking at the dynamics of the export basket of countries, with particular focus on migration. The fact that knowledge diffusion requires direct human interaction implies that the international diffusion of knowledge should follow the pattern of international migration. This is what this paper documents. Our main finding is that migration, and particularly skilled immigration, is a strong and robust driver of productive knowledge diffusion as measured by the appearance and growth of tradable goods in the migrants' receiving and sending countries. We find that a 10% increase in the stock of immigrants from countries exporters of a given product is associated with a 2% increase in the likelihood that the host country will start exporting that good "from scratch" in the following 10-year period. In terms of ability to expand the export basket of countries, a migrant with college education or above is about ten times more "effective" than an unskilled migrant. The results are robust to accounting for shifts in product-specific global demand, to excluding bilateral trade possibly generated by network effects, as well as to instrumenting for migration using a gravity model.
    Keywords: migration, knowledge diffusion, comparative advantage, exports
    JEL: F14 F22 O33 D83
    Date: 2016–03
  7. By: Rusu, Marioara; Dirimanova, Violeta; Simionescu, Violeta Maria
    Abstract: The new challenges facing Eastern European rural and agricultural sector impose, among other things, a review of the links between knowledge production and its use to promote innovation. Given that, agriculture is the main source of livelihood for a large part of the rural population in Romania and Bulgaria and its development requires multiple interventions that include, inter alia, ensuring effective transfer of agricultural modern knowledge, technologies, methods and practices to the direct beneficiaries - farmers. Both in Romania and Bulgaria, agricultural knowledge generation (research), transfer (extension) and use (farmers as end users) passed during the post-socialist period through important changes. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS), in the two countries, in terms of pursued objectives, structure and performed functions. Based on this analysis the authors synthesize the main lessons learned during the post-socialist period in the two countries, and outline the future direction of development of agricultural knowledge, production, transfer and use them in agreement with European requirements.
    Keywords: AKIS, agricultural extension, agricultural research and education, Romania, Bulgaria
    JEL: D83 O12 O57 Q1
    Date: 2015–11–20

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