nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2016‒03‒29
ten papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. E-Government in Italy: current issues and future perspectives By Carlo Maria Arpaia; Pasquale Ferro; Walter Giuzio; Giorgio Ivaldi; Daniela Monacelli
  2. Agglomeration of knowledge in the German regional economy By Krenz, Astrid
  3. The Impact of Literacy, Numeracy and Computer Skills on Earnings and Employment Outcomes By Marguerita Lane; Gavan Conlon
  4. Social Frictions to Knowledge Diffusion: Evidence from an Information Intervention By Arthur Alik-Lagrange; Martin Ravallion
  5. Innovation in Green Energy Technologies and the Economic Performance of Firms By Kruse, Juergen
  6. Theory of Gen Inertia By Chatterjee, Sidharta
  7. Choosing the Right Partner: R&D Cooperations and Innovation Success By Sandra M. Leitner
  8. Agglomeration and innovation By Carlino, Gerald; Kerr, William R.
  9. The Innovation-Employment nexus: a critical survey of theory and empirics By Flavio Calvino; Maria Enrica Virgillito
  10. Verwertung der Innovationen von an Hochschulen tätigen Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftlern By Bijedić, Teita; Brink, Siegrun; Chlosta, Simone; Werner, Arndt

  1. By: Carlo Maria Arpaia (Bank of Italy); Pasquale Ferro (Bank of Italy); Walter Giuzio (Bank of Italy); Giorgio Ivaldi (Bank of Italy); Daniela Monacelli (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: The paper examines the development of e-Government in Italy and its critical aspects. The main obstacles lie both in citizens lagging behind in their digital skills and the fact that the public sector seems unable to fully exploit the benefits of computerization. ICT use by the public sector is mainly directed at internal processes and less at the provision of services. Moreover, the digitalization process has often overlooked the ‘networking’ capability of public information systems, having effectively been left to the initiative of individual institutions in a framework of weak governance at central level. Digitalization is currently moving towards a top-down approach aiming at solutions extendable over all the public sector. It relies on “system-wide projects”, which are on a national scale, have a large impact on the individual entities’ applications, and fix standards for interoperability among systems. This process must be accompanied, however, by ‘ownership’ of the implementation by individual entities, which is essential to trigger the management and organizational changes needed to take full advantage of ICT.
    Keywords: e-government, digitalization of public sector
    JEL: H83 O33 O38
    Date: 2016–02
  2. By: Krenz, Astrid
    Abstract: This article investigates the geographical location of workers in jobs with high-knowledge requirements in the German economy. Our analysis takes individual-level data from the German socioeconomic panel (GSOEP) and combines them with the knowledge information for different jobs that comes from the US Department of Labor. We make use of the regional information inherent to the GSOEP that can be accessed only through a special user contract. High-knowledge employment is differently distributed across the German regions. Whereas highknowledge employment in communication and media as well as public safety is rather concentrated across regions, high-knowledge employment in computers and electronics, engineering and technology, education and training and mechanical tasks is more dispersed. Eastern German regions display a lower share of highknowledge workers in computers, engineering, mechanical tasks and public safety. The results are important to understand the regional development potential across the German regions. Our analysis detects a division in high-knowledge employment between the East and West of Germany.
    Keywords: agglomeration,knowledge,Germany
    JEL: R11 R12 J24
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Marguerita Lane; Gavan Conlon
    Abstract: Using the 2012 PIAAC data, our analysis confirms that there are significantly higher earnings and employment returns to both increasing levels of formally recognised education, and to increasing levels of numeracy, literacy and Information and communication technologies (ICT) skills proficiencies controlling for the level of education. Unsurprisingly, the labour market returns to changes in formally recognised levels of education in general exceed the labour market returns associated with increasing levels of skills proficiency. In the case of literacy and numeracy proficiencies, improved literacy and numeracy skills narrow the labour market outcomes gap between individuals with different levels of formally recognised education, but do not close it completely. The analysis demonstrates more substantial returns to ICT skills. Furthermore, possession of higher levels of ICT skills and lower levels of formally recognised qualification are often associated with higher returns compared to individuals with higher levels of formally recognised education but lower ICT proficiency levels. In other words, ICT skills proficiencies often entirely compensate for lower formally recognised qualifications in the labour market. Sur la base des données de 2012 du PIAAC, notre analyse confirme que tant l’élévation du niveau d’éducation formellement reconnue que celle du niveau de compétences en numératie, en littératie et en TIC après contrôle du niveau d’éducation entraînent des bénéfices significativement supérieurs. Sans surprise, les bénéfices sur le marché du travail associés à une élévation du niveau d’éducation formellement reconnue sont en général supérieurs à ceux découlant de l’amélioration du niveau de compétences. Dans le cas des niveaux de compétences en littératie et en numératie, leur élévation réduit l’écart de résultats sur le marché du travail entre les individus ayant des niveaux différents d’éducation formellement reconnue, sans pour autant le combler totalement. L’analyse met au jour des bénéfices plus importants pour les compétences en TIC. En outre, un niveau plus élevé de compétences en TIC associé à un niveau inférieur d’éducation formellement reconnue entraînent souvent des bénéfices plus importants par comparaison avec un niveau plus élevé d’éducation formellement reconnue associé toutefois à un niveau inférieur de compétences en TIC. En d’autres termes, sur le marché du travail, les compétences en TIC compensent souvent totalement un niveau inférieur d’éducation formellement reconnue.
    Date: 2016–03–21
  4. By: Arthur Alik-Lagrange; Martin Ravallion
    Abstract: Does knowledge about antipoverty programs spread quickly within poor communities or are there significant frictions, such as due to social exclusion? We combine longitudinal and intra-household observations in estimating the direct knowledge gain from watching an information movie in rural India, while randomized village assignment identifies knowledge sharing with those in treatment villages who did not watch the movie. Knowledge is found to be shared within villages, but less so among illiterate and lower caste individuals, especially when also poor; these groups relied more on actually seeing the movie. Sizable biases are evident in impact estimators that ignore knowledge spillovers.
    JEL: D83 I38 O12
    Date: 2016–01
  5. By: Kruse, Juergen (Energiewirtschaftliches Institut an der Universitaet zu Koeln (EWI))
    Abstract: In this article, I empirically analyze and compare the impact of innovation in green and non-green energy technologies on the economic performance of firms. My analysis is conducted on a panel of 8,619 patenting firms including 968 green energy patenters from 22 European countries over the period 2003 to 2010. I measure economic firm performance in terms of productivity and use a panel data model based on an extended Cobb-Douglas production function. My results show that green energy innovation has a statistically significant negative impact on economic firm performance. In contrast, non-green energy innovation is shown to have a statistically significant positive impact on economic firm performance. These findings suggest that private economic returns in terms of productivity are lower for green energy than for non-green energy innovation.
    Keywords: green energy technologies; innovation; performance; patents; technological change
    JEL: C33 L25 O31 Q40 Q55
    Date: 2016–02–24
  6. By: Chatterjee, Sidharta
    Abstract: This paper introduces the theory of Gen inertia. The research defines and differentiates the concept of Gen inertia from organizational knowledge inertia and identifies factors that act as impediments to effective workforce learning. Using functional model, this paper helps to model several scenarios that enables to study and analyse the causes that are responsible for inducing learning inertia in organizational settings. The research furthermore highlights the problems faced by those employees who aims for vertical mobility but faces several constraints at their workplace. Constraints or impediments create organizational barriers to learning that precludes underrepresented employees from achieving the full benefits of learning and therefore, interferes with their learning processes on which they endure. The present paper addresses these issues and advocates several solutions to identify constraints and barriers to effective learning under organizational cluster settings.
    Keywords: Gen inertia, organizational learning, knowledge inertia
    JEL: O3 O32
    Date: 2016–03–10
  7. By: Sandra M. Leitner (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: Abstract Generally, establishments can choose among different cooperation partners for innovation. However, the choice of a particular partner is pivotal to the success of any cooperative arrangement for innovation and therefore not an easy one. The ensuing analysis uses a comprehensive firm-level dataset of Central, East and Southeast European (CESEE) and Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries to shed light on the role of different cooperative arrangements – cooperations with domestic suppliers, domestic client firms, foreign suppliers, foreign client firms and with external academic or research institutes – for a product innovators’ success, captured in terms of either annual average sales per new or significantly improved product or, alternatively, the probability of applying for a patent. It demonstrates that the choice of cooperation partner is essential Innovators profit greatly from innovation partnerships with foreign suppliers only in terms of higher sales from novel or improved products but, in turn, are less likely to apply for patents if engaged in cooperative arrangements with foreign suppliers or client firms, indicating that patenting is probably predominantly undertaken by foreign cooperation partners. Furthermore, it highlights that establishment size, ownership structure, trading status or absorptive capacity greatly matter and that the institutional environment is essential for an innovator’s commercial success, which assigns a decisive role to policy-makers in building an environment that helps innovators extract returns to innovations to the fullest extent possible.
    Keywords: product innovators, types of R&D cooperations, innovation success, Central, East and Southeast Europe
    JEL: O30 O32 O34
    Date: 2016–02
  8. By: Carlino, Gerald; Kerr, William R.
    Abstract: This paper reviews academic research on the connections between agglomeration and innovation. We first describe the conceptual distinctions between invention and innovation. We then discuss how these factors are frequently measured in the data and note some resulting empirical regularities. Innovative activity tends to be more concentrated than industrial activity, and we discuss important findings from the literature about why this is so. We highlight the traits of cities (e.g., size, industrial diversity) that theoretical and empirical work link to innovation, and we discuss factors that help sustain these features (e.g., the localization of entrepreneurial finance).
    Keywords: agglomeration, clusters, innovation, invention, entrepreneurship
    JEL: J2 J6 L1 L2 L6 O3 R1 R3
    Date: 2015–12–10
  9. By: Flavio Calvino; Maria Enrica Virgillito
    Abstract: Understanding whether technical change is beneficial or detrimental for employment is at the center of the policy debate, especially in phases of economic recession. So far, the effects of innovation ó in its manifold declinations and intrinsic complexity ó on labour demand have proven to be not unequivocal. This essay critically reviews the role of technical change in shaping employment dynamics at different levels of aggregation. Firstly, it disentangles theoretically the role of different compensation mechanisms through which employment adjusts after an innovation is introduced. Secondly, it critically presents the most recent empirical evidence on the topic, with a focus on methods and limitations. Finally, it provides an attempt to conceptualize a number of stylized facts and empirical regularities on the innovation-employment nexus.
    Keywords: Innovation, Technological Unemployment, Compensation Mechanisms
    Date: 2016–03–13
  10. By: Bijedić, Teita; Brink, Siegrun; Chlosta, Simone; Werner, Arndt
    Abstract: Eine bedeutende Säule der Innovationspolitik ist die Unterstützung des Wissenstransfers und die Verwertung marktfähiger Erfindungen aus der Hochschulforschung. Trotz der Unterstützung der Wissensverwertung bleibt ein großer Teil von Innovationen aus der Forschungstätigkeit an deutschen Hochschulen ungenutzt. Hier setzt die vorliegende Studie mit dem Ziel an, verschiedene Determinanten (individuelle, berufsbezogene und Umfeldfaktoren) zu untersuchen, die die Innovationstätigkeit von Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftlern beeinflussen. An deutschen Hochschulen generieren vor allem vollzeitbeschäftigte Wissenschaftler, die multidisziplinäre oder angewandte Forschung betreiben und daneben noch einer Selbstständigkeit nachgehen, besonders häufig Erfindungen. Frauen bleiben dabei nicht nur insgesamt, sondern auch innerhalb der einzelnen Fächerverbünde hinter ihren männlichen Kollegen zurück. Für die Kommerzialisierung der Erfindungen lassen sich jedoch keine Geschlechterunterschiede mehr finden. Auf dieser Stufe der Innovationstätigkeit sind Praxiserfahrungen der Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler durch frühere Berufserfahrungen oder aktuelle Nebentätigkeiten ausschlaggebend.
    Abstract: Universitylevel institutions are an important source of innovations. However, there are a lot of inventions of academics at German universities, which are not transferred into a commercial use. We analysed how academics' characteristics, working conditions, and the institu-tional context affect the likelihood to innovate and commercialize their inventions. Our results show that scientists, who are male, work full-time, do applied or multi-disciplinary research with a secondary employment innovate more often. To commercially exploit their inventions, we no longer find a gender effect but higher levels of professional experience and distinct human capital resources facilitating this step of innovation activity.
    Keywords: Wissenschaftler,Geschlecht,Innovationstätigkeit,Innovationsverwertung,Wissenschaftskontext,academics,gender,innovation,inventions,commercial exploitation,institutional context
    JEL: A1 C3 O3
    Date: 2016

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