nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2015‒11‒01
fifteen papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Knowledge economy formation in Russian regions in 2000th By Stepan Zemtsov; Vyacheslav Baburin
  2. Looking beyond the R&D effects on innovation: The contribution of non-R&D activities to total factor productivity growth in the EU_x0003_ By jesus lopez-rodriguez; Diego Martinez
  3. The least innovative regions in Poland and in France in the process of smart specialisation By Anna Golejewska; Dorota Czy¿ewska
  4. The effects of knowledge and innovation on regional growth: Nonparametric evidence By Marcos Sanso-Navarro; Maria Vera-Cabello
  5. Knowledge spillovers from foreign direct invesments ? Czech case study By Jan Stejskal; Abdelwalid Rouag
  6. Knowledge economy infrastructure formation in the northern regions of the Russian Federation By Valentina Zhideleva; Natalia Sedusova
  7. Mapping innovation in the global photovoltaic industry: a bibliometric approach to cluster identification and analysis By Marina Van Geenhuizen; Pieter Stek
  8. The firm's evaluation of local research institutes and universities - an empirical analysis for Germany By Alexander Cordes; Ulrich Schasse
  9. The Development of Research Potential of Teachers using the Knowledge Management Process By Kridsana Mookkaew; Kanjana Pataya
  10. University spin-off firms? internationalization: Importance of skills By Marina Van Geenhuizen; Qing Ye; Manuel Au-Yong-Oliveira
  11. Asymmetric information as a barrier to knowledge spillovers in expert markets By Feser, Daniel; Proeger, Till
  12. Firm Performance in the Periphery: On the Relation between Firm-Internal Knowledge and Local Knowledge Spillovers By Grillitsch, Markus; Nilsson, Magnus
  13. The Autonomy of High Schools and its importance for lifelong education in Albania after 90 years: A comparative analysis By Mirela Tase; Manjola Xhaferri
  14. The Readiness for Implementing STEM Education Through the Basic Schools By Trairat Pipatpokkapole; Sukunya Roipila
  15. The organization of knowledge in multinational firms By Gumpert, Anna

  1. By: Stepan Zemtsov; Vyacheslav Baburin
    Abstract: ?Knowledge economy? as a concept describes a stage of socio-economic development, when knowledge become a major growth factor. In modern economy, it can be associated with processes of knowledge acquiring, creation and dissemination; its main agents are educational, scientific organizations and innovative business. In conditions of oil prices falling and sanctions, it is important to identify the Russian regions, where knowledge economy is forming, as new areas of growth. Another aim was to estimate whether economic growth of 2000s promote knowledge economy formation. We used methodology of World Bank with some modifications according to available statistics. The Russian knowledge economy index (RKEI) consisted of four blocks: the level of economic development (GRP growth rate and GRP per capita), education and human capital (number of students per capita and the average number of education years for employees), science and innovation (number of researchers and PCT-applications per capita) and information infrastructure (number of cell phones and computers with Internet access per capita). Since the performance of education and science are relatively stable for the Russian regions, characteristics of GRP and information infrastructure, which grew throughout the 2000s, hold the largest share in the variation of the RKEI. We used calculation of the average rank index (measured from to 10), according to the formula: Ri = 10*(Rlow / R), where Ri is a desired figure, Rlow is a number of regions with a lower rank, R is the total number of regions. The calculation was carried out for the whole period from 1998 to 2012 to review the dynamics. The highest level of the RKEI in 1998 (in descending order) was observed in Moscow (6.5) and St. Petersburg (5.9), Tomsk (4.5), Moscow (4.5), Samara (3.6), Khabarovsk (3.48), Primorsky (3.4) and Novosibirsk (3.3) regions; in 2012 the leaders were St. Petersburg (8.8), Moscow (8.7), Tomsk (8.3), Samara (8.1) regions, Tatarstan (8) and Novosibirsk (7.95) region. The areas with the most diversified economy are among the leaders; monospecialized regions (agriculture, mining) are among the laggards. The RKEI increased for all regions during the period, especially for low rank regions (<4: the North Caucasus and the Far East). Voronezh and Tyumen regions, Tatarstan and Bashkortostan have the highest RKEI growth rates (2012/1998) among high rank regions (>5). These regions established more innovative infrastructure and form a better investment climate. All regions have experienced the negative effects of the crisis in 2009, especially Moscow agglomeration. As a result, Moscow gave the leadership in the RKEI to St. Petersburg in 2010 and Moscow region left the top ten leading regions in 2011. The methodology allows us to track the RKEI framework for every region via the radar chart to identify problem areas and competitive advantages.
    Keywords: knowledge economy; index; Russian regions; education; human capital; information
    JEL: O31 O47 R11 R58
    Date: 2015–10
  2. By: jesus lopez-rodriguez; Diego Martinez
    Abstract: Although non-R&D innovation activities account for a significant portion of innovation efforts carried out across very heterogeneous economies in Europe, how to incorporate them in to economic models is not always straightforward. For instance, the traditional macro approach to estimating the determinants of total factor productivity (TFP) does not handle them well. To counter these problems, this paper proposes applying an augmented macro-theoretical model to estimate the determinants of TFP by jointly considering the effects of R&D and the impact of non-R&D innova- tion activities on the productivity levels of ?firms. Estimations from a model of a sample of EU-26 countries covering the period 2004-2008 show that the distinction between R&D and non-R&D e¤ects is significant for a number of diffffrent issues. First, the results show a sizable impact on TFP growth, as the impact of R&D is twice that of non-R&D. Second, absorptive capacity is only linked to R&D endowments. And third, the two types of endowments cannot strictly been seen as complementary, at least for the case of countries with high R&D intensities or high non-R&D intensities.
    Keywords: TFP; R&D; non-R&D expenditures; EU countries.
    JEL: O0 O3 O4
    Date: 2015–10
  3. By: Anna Golejewska; Dorota Czy¿ewska
    Abstract: The notion of smart specialisation is an important framework in the structural funding period 2014-2020. Although the original academic concept of this policy was sectorally oriented and focused on the productivity gap between the EU and the US, it is increasingly applied to regional innovation context [OECD 2013; Foray, David, Hall 2009; McCann, Ortega-Argiles 2013; Camagni, Capello 2013]. Regions are recognized as a relevant level of innovation policies given the weight of agglomeration economies. Smart policies build the knowledge-based development potential of any region, strong or weak, high-tech or low-tech. According to smart specialisation approach, those regions which are not leaders in any of the major science and technology areas, should follow the rule: not to do everything in science, technology and innovation and to promote actions making their knowledge base unique and superior to others. The progress of identifying regional smart specialisations is diverse in selected Polish and French regions. The empirical analysis has shown that there is not great difference in the selection methods of smart specialisations implemented by catching-up regions in Poland and the best performing developed regions in France [Czy¿ewska, Golejewska 2014]. The main objective of the paper is to assess the advancement of the least innovative Polish and French regions in the process of smart specialisation. In order to achieve the main objective of the paper, the following detailed objectives are expected to be met: - presentation of the economic fundamentals of smart specialisation; - presentation of literature review of challenges for the least developed regions in Europe; - selection of the least innovative Polish and French regions on the basis of four indicators: GDP per capita, population aged 25-64 with tertiary education attainment, R&D expenditure and patent applications to the EPO. - assessment of the advancement of the smart specialisation process in selected regions with reference to their economic, social and innovation potential. As research methods, the authors used descriptive analysis, analysis of strategic documents, case studies analysis and statistical analysis. The statistical analysis is based on Eurostat Regional Statistics. The lack of actual and comparable regional data for the whole group of regions caused the choice of the year 2011, as the reference year. In case of patent applications the last analyzed year was the year 2010. It is expected that the research results concerning the advancement of the smart specialisation process in selected regions under analysis will give recommendations for regional authorities of Polish and French regions in terms of the smart specialisation elaboration and monitoring.
    Keywords: national and regional smart specialisation; innovation policy; France; Poland
    JEL: R58 L52
    Date: 2015–10
  4. By: Marcos Sanso-Navarro; Maria Vera-Cabello
    Abstract: This paper deals with the relationship between knowledge, innovation and regional growth. The study is carried out through the application of nonparametric estimation methods to European data at NUTS2 level. We provide evidence that the share of innovative ...firms plays a more relevant role in explaining regional growth than R&D expenditures. Further, inward FDI turns out to be a robust growth determinant. Our results also suggest that the effects induced by these variables are of a heterogeneous nature. As a byproduct of the analysis, we show that the estimation results from a local-linear kernel regression can be used for the identi...cation of spatial patterns. In this respect, we ...find a cluster of innovation-driven labour productivity growth in Germany.
    Keywords: Regional growth; knowledge; innovation; nonparametric methods; nonlinearities
    JEL: C14 C20 O18 R11
    Date: 2015–10
  5. By: Jan Stejskal; Abdelwalid Rouag
    Abstract: The foreign direct investments (FDI) spillovers are probably the most extensively analyzed channel of knowledge spillovers (the most important channel for the transfer of knowledge and technology to firms of the host country). Scholars as well as policy makers increasingly treat FDI spillovers as very or the most important development effect for host country. However, whether this knowledge and technology are hypothesized to spill over depends on the absorptive capacity of the host country which stems from well-equipped human resources such as scientists and cumulative expenditure in research and development (R&D). In this paper, we examine for the single time the extent of knowledge spillovers and the absorptive capacity of the Czech Republic regions. Our empirical analysis is based on two main sources. First, the confidential micro-data derived from an annual census of R&D collected by the Czech statistical office with the collaboration of the Czech industrial property office. The data measures inputs in R&D such as the financial means and human resources in the entire entities that carry out R&D and their primary and secondary activities. The mico-data includes also indicators about the R&D outputs in the form of new knowledge used in several practical applications such as patents and utility models. The second source of Data consists on the inflow of FDI at the regional level. The data is collected and published by the Czech National bank according to the international standards adopted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and development (OECD), European commission and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) data compilation of balance of payments. The paper finds that there is a significant knowledge inflow from the FDI to local firms. Our results state that coefficient of FDI inflows is always positive for both models so that the empirical evidence supports that FDI generates spillover effects on the domestic regional innovation capability of the Czech Republic. As advised by the literature, the spillover effects occur through the absorptive capacity such as the skilled labor turnovers and the R&D expenditure in both entrepreneurial and public sector. In this context, our two models suggest a positive impact of labor in private sector and even significant in both models for the public sector which highlights the important role played by universities, scientific institutes and NGO´s. On the other hand, the correlation matrix of both patents application and utility models show a negative relation between two independent variables; FDI inflows and R&D government expenditure that fosters the assumption that the government expenditure in R&D crowds out the FDI inflow and hinder the beneficial effects of the latter.
    Keywords: foreign Direct Investment; knowledge spillovers; absorptive capacity; patent app
    JEL: D83 D92 O11
    Date: 2015–10
  6. By: Valentina Zhideleva; Natalia Sedusova
    Abstract: When we consider knowledge economy as the top level of innovative economical development and the basis for the scientific knowledge, there is a need to make a favorable environment that might provide its efficient function. Knowledge economy that follows postindustrial society includes the increased quality of the human capital, increased life level, knowledge and high technologies production as well as production of innovations and qualitative services. The human capital has become the key productive factor in creation of up-to-date new high technologies, production development, and their efficiency increase that leaves behind development of science, culture, healthcare, safety and social spheres. According to the United Nation Organization?s report about the human capital development, the human capital ratio in such well developed countries like the USA, Finland, Germany, Japan and Switzerland makes about 80 % of the national wealth. Research and development, increased investments into the human capital and hi-tech inventions precisely guarantee those countries the world?s leadership. Summarizing the results of the recent 20-years period of the Russian economy development, unfortunately we have to take a note that, production efficiency and economy of the whole Russia and its northern regions in particular hasn?t increased, but decreased in most cases compared to the soviet period results. The quality of the human capital requires increase of its techno-technological characteristics. Creation of hi-tech productions with the high adding value requires first and foremost contemporary knowledge economy infrastructure that includes: ? Top quality of education; ? Efficient fundamental science; ? Venture business; ? High quality of the human capital; ? Knowledge and new technologies production; ? Knowledge society; ? Infrastructure for the ideas, inventions and researches transfer into production. All the above mentioned is acute and crucial for the Russian northern regions development. The Komi Republic is studying the world?s best practices and establishes professional clusters in order to create efficient productive environment for its economical development.
    Keywords: Knowledge economy; innovations; human capital development; quality of education
    Date: 2015–10
  7. By: Marina Van Geenhuizen; Pieter Stek
    Abstract: The photovoltaic industry acts as a key force in the transition toward a sustainable energy production model. Only a niche market a few years ago, photovoltaic panels and installations are now becoming a mainstream electricity provider. As a highly dynamic, multi-technology and globally distributed industry it is a challenge to identify and quantify its appearance in regional clusters. This challenge is even greater for its critically important innovation activities, including reaching higher efficiency of the cells, and increasing (other) functional and design qualities, like flexibility and color, as well as developing cheaper production methods. Yet because of the industry?s important role in securing a sustainable energy supply and in contributing to the regional economies in which it is established, a deeper understanding of the its global presence and activities is of significant scientific importance and policy relevance. This research follows the approach of 'paper trail' of the industry's innovation process as revealed in patents and scientific publications. By using these documents as sources from which to extract indicators for innovative activity, inputs, outputs and collaboration networks, a detailed picture of the photovoltaic industry innovation and its constituent regional clusters is constructed. This allows not only for the identification and analysis of major regional changes and global shifts of the industry and variation in cluster types, but also enables the estimation of models to identify at least some of the critical factors in photovoltaic clusters' innovation growth pattern, in so far as they can be revealed by bibliometric indicators. In order to select the relevant documents, we first determine which technologies are involved in the photovoltaic industry, like concerning the materials of the cells and shape of the panels, and derive this from expert opinion. We use the USPTO patent database and the Scopus database to retrieve relevant data published between 2005 and 2014. This data is used to carry out a multiple regression model estimation. Providing an understanding of the global location changes and growth and underlying factors in photovoltaic cluster's innovation development is new. The analysis exemplifies the currently increasing scientific attention to the role of cities and regions in transitions of socio-technical systems towards higher levels of sustainability, while referring to local seedbed conditions, including knowledge spillovers, and to networking power of technology actors like multinational companies and universities. The results offer insights to policy makers who aim to avoid barriers to innovation arising from global shifts.
    Keywords: photovoltaic industry; global shift; clusters; innovation; bibliometric approach
    JEL: F23 O14 O33 Q42
    Date: 2015–10
  8. By: Alexander Cordes; Ulrich Schasse
    Abstract: Spatial proximity facilitates transfer of knowledge and technology between research institutes or universities (RIU) and firms. Against this background the location of research institutions and universities is often seen as an instrument of regional policy to promote knowledge flows and R&D activity of firms. One major practical challenge is, however, to bring together both actors. The matching process is often hindered by prejudices and lacking information about the capabilities and requirements on both sides. This study contributes to the spare empirical literature on this topic by analyzing the firms? attitudes towards proximate RIU. We make use of differentiated data on firm characteristics and their evaluation of certain location factors in the years 2006 and 2009 provided by the IAB establishment panel. Several research questions are investigated by applying ordered probit regression models. How are non-innovating firms or firms with low R&D activities rating their local RIU? Are there important differences between urban and rural regions or between large firms and SMEs? Do objective information such as size and specialization of the local universities affect the firm?s evaluation? How far is ?local? (distinguishing data at the NUTS3 and NUTS2 level)? Does a successful participation of local universities in the German ?Excellence Initiative? change the firms? attitude? The results indicate that firms which are expected to be open to collaboration with RIU (in terms of R&D, human capital, knowledge-intensive industries) are rating their local RIU higher than other firms. We suppose that firms are already self-selected to places where they find their suitable collaboration partners. Objective information about the universities such as specialization on STEM fields positively affects the evaluation of proximate RIU. Especially the universities? focus on mathematics and natural sciences (slightly surprisingly rather than engineering) makes them better off from the perspective of the individual firm. Furthermore, information about universities in the remaining NUTS 2 region exhibit larger effects than information on the NUTS 3 region. This indicates that firms have a larger distance in mind when thinking of their ?location? and ?proximity to RIU?. Another finding is that the announcement of the winning universities in the ?Excellence Initiative? which additionally funds scientifically excellent concepts does not affect the firms? view on the local RIU.
    Keywords: proximity; university-industry linkages; universities of excellence; location fa
    JEL: I23 I28 O31
    Date: 2015–10
  9. By: Kridsana Mookkaew (Srinakharinwirot University,Prasanpimt Demonstration School (Elementary)); Kanjana Pataya (Srinakharinwirot University,Prasanpimt Demonstration School (Elementary))
    Abstract: The objective of this research was to develop the research potential by using knowledge management process for teachers in elementary school. The samples are 15 teachers in Srinakharinwirot University, Prasanpimt Demonstration School (Elementary). The instrument were journal record form, assessment problem of research potential of teachers in the school form, instructional observation form, questionnaire satisfaction of teachers. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. The result showed as follows: Teachers have collaboration on activities by following knowledge management process including specification of knowledge, seeking for knowledge , knowledge creation, exchange of knowledge, collection of knowledge and how to use the knowledge. The knowledge is gained inside and outside school then maintained in the form of database. The teachers had the problems with the research. They were to choose the problems to make the research and to write the report and suggestion to that the director should hold workshop concern with the research in school. The teachers had more concentration to develop their research abilities after the process of knowledge management. They improved the objectives and problems of research. They can define research topics that fit the context of the class . And to create the appropriate research tools . Teachers were satisfied toward the knowledge management that brought them into the development of research.
    Keywords: knowledge management, research potential, teachers development
  10. By: Marina Van Geenhuizen; Qing Ye; Manuel Au-Yong-Oliveira
    Abstract: Technical and industrial competences are increasingly dispersed across the globe, urging young high-technology firms in Europe to increase distances in their knowledge relations. However, establishment and maintenance of such relationships tend to be hampered by many barriers following from short in capabilities, particularly various missing skills in the management team. In this paper, we examine the role of capability factors and particular skills among a specific category of firms, university spin-offs, in building knowledge networks abroad, specially, the spatial reach involved. Such a study is not new for (innovative) SMEs, but it is new for university spin-off firms. We use two samples of university spin-off firms (each about 100 cases) in various European countries in order to identify the importance of capabilities and certain skills in internationalization of knowledge collaboration, and to this purpose we apply various regression models. The sampled firms are of different age and find themselves in different stages of born-global development. We observe that 60 to 70 per cent of the firms employ knowledge relationships abroad, almost 35 per cent of them outside of Europe. The main underlying capability factors are a high education level (PhD), participation in market/business-related training, and a larger firm size. Another factor is a relatively low level of innovation, indicating a support structure from practical application and customer relations in an established market position of the firm abroad. Examples of such support structure are found in civil engineering works and consultancy concerning transportation infrastructure, land use/protection and the oil and gas industry. Furthermore, one set of missing skills in the management team stands out in limiting larger distances in knowledge collaboration, and these are internationalization skills, for example, skills in presentation of the firm and negotiation of important agreements with a partner abroad, dealing with uncertainty in certification issues and patent protection, and skills in branding the product abroad. Most missing skills are of the conceptual and relational type. Due to different stages in born-global development, the differentiation in missing skills is remarkably large, indicating that training to improve skills requires a multi-faceted and customized approach, without a one-size-fits-all solution. The paper concludes with a summary and some ideas for improving training.
    Keywords: global knowledge collaboration; capabilities; skills; university spin-off firms
    JEL: D03 M13 O32
    Date: 2015–10
  11. By: Feser, Daniel; Proeger, Till
    Abstract: This paper investigates barriers to effective knowledge spillovers for markets in which the product can be characterized as a credence good, i.e. its complexity impedes the evaluation of quality by customers both ex-ante and ex-post. We focus on the German market for energy efficiency consultants, as an emerging and subsidized sector in which the service offered has strong credence good properties. Based upon in-depth interviews with stakeholders, we analyze the determinants and barriers to knowledge spillovers. We find that the incentive to foster spillovers to increase suppliers´ knowledge is limited by the difficult commercialization of additional capabilities. The implementation of a public certification scheme has failed to increase the sectoral knowledge spillovers. By contrast, the participation in formal knowledge networks has been more effective in prompting companies to foster knowledge spillovers, which has also led to a higher degree of specialization. We conclude that access to certification schemes should be further restricted to increase market transparency and private networks should be supported to achieve the aim of increasing knowledge spillovers.
    Keywords: credence goods,knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship,network
    JEL: D21 D82 H41 K23 L14
    Date: 2015
  12. By: Grillitsch, Markus (CIRCLE, Lund University); Nilsson, Magnus (Dept. of Business Administration and CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper challenges one of the fundamental propositions within economic geography; that location in knowledge regions contributes to firm performance in general and especially for knowledge intensive firms that compete on the basis of knowledge. Our analysis of Swedish micro-data on 32,535 firms from 2004-2011 provides evidence that knowledge intensive firms benefit less from local knowledge spillovers than firms with comparably low in-house knowledge. This suggests that firms with high internal competencies can compensate for a lack of local knowledge spillovers and that negative knowledge externalities may make location outside knowledge centers more beneficial for such firms.
    Keywords: periphery; firm performance; spillovers; agglomeration
    JEL: O30 R10 R11
    Date: 2015–10–23
  13. By: Mirela Tase (University of\); Manjola Xhaferri (University of\)
    Abstract: Changes in the higher education system in Albania based on the requirements of the Bologna Process and European qualification for determining criteria of the workers. The Bologna process which began in 2003 with the signing of the Bologna declaration has led to the development of the European Higher Education Area combining respect for the diversity of programs, institutions and educational traditions in specific countries. As results of these process Albanian universities have introduced the following, training at three levels (licentiates, Master's and PhD). Through this paper we shall try to show what the tools are needed to achieve autonomy and put in the efficiency for our university system to serve a quality education and increase the academic quality of higher education institutions themselves
    Keywords: autonomy, training, competitive, efficiency, propaganda
    JEL: A00
  14. By: Trairat Pipatpokkapole (Srinakharinwirot University,Prasanpimt Demonstration School (Elementary)); Sukunya Roipila (Srinakharinwirot University,Prasanpimt Demonstration School (Elementary))
    Abstract: This research aims to study the opinions of administrators, teachers and parents.About the availability of education in the STEM and proposed to guidelines for management STEM education. Research methodology by studying the documents and interviews with experts and questionnaires. In the following issues: The environment in teaching ,the preparedness planning, school administration, teacher, and educational resources. The samples in this study were teachers, administrators, parents in primary schools. And secondary education in a multi-stage random 370. And interviewed responsible for the Promotion of Teaching Science in Thailand. The results showed that the availability of STEM education and basic education in the country at a high level. But there is a limit on the policy of national education in the STEM activities used in teaching. In STEM teaching should start from kindergarten levels . And the development of teachers to understand the procedure. And development is Teachers should encourage innovative thinking by teaching school context . And units involved are The institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology is responsible for the creation and development of innovative teaching .
    Keywords: STEM education, Basic school in Thailand, STEM teaching
  15. By: Gumpert, Anna
    Abstract: This paper provides the first in-depth study of the organization of knowledge in multinational firms. The paper develops a theoretical model that studies how firms optimally split knowledge between their headquarters and their production plants if communication costs impede the access of production plants to headquarter knowledge. The paper assumes that the foreign plants of multinational firms face higher communication costs with headquarters than their domestic plants, and shows that multinational firms therefore systematically assign more knowledge to both their foreign and domestic plants than non-multinationals. This helps explain why multinational firms pay higher wages to their production workers than non-multinational firms, and why their sales and their investment probability decrease across space. Empirical evidence from data on corporate transferees confirms the model predictions for multinationals' organization of knowledge. Data on German multinational firms corroborate the implications of the model in relation to the geography of multinationals' sales and investments.
    Keywords: multinational firm,knowledge hierarchy,organization,geography of FDI,multinational wage premium,corporate transferees
    JEL: D21 D24 F21 F23
    Date: 2015

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