nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2015‒10‒25
nine papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Human Resources and Innovation: Total Factor Productivity and Foreign Human Capital By Fassio, Claudio; Kalantaryan, Sona; Venturini, Alessandra
  2. Innovation Allocation, Knowledge Composition and Long-Run Growth By Nan Li; Jie Cai
  3. Relational dynamics in the multi-helices knowledge production system: A new institutionalism perspective By Thai Thi Minh; Carsten Nico Hjotrsø
  4. Hofstede Index and Knowledge Economy Imperfections in Arab Countries By Driouchi, Ahmed
  5. The impact of skill endowments and collective bargaining on knowledge-intensive greenfield FDI By Sara Amoroso; Mafini Dosso; Pietro Moncada-Paterno-Castello
  6. Data Integration for Research and Innovation Policy: An Ontology-based Data Management Approach By Cinzia Daraio; Maurizio Lenzerini; Claudio Leporelli; Henk F. Moed; Paolo Naggar; Andrea Bonaccorsi; Alessandro Bartolucci
  7. Creation of Enterprises & Knowledge Economy in the Arab Countries By Driouchi, Ahmed
  8. The impact of controversy on the production of scientific knowledge By Amelia Sharman
  9. The Merger Paradox and R&D By MIYAGIWA, Kaz; WAN, Yunyun

  1. By: Fassio, Claudio (Lund University); Kalantaryan, Sona (Migration Policy Centre); Venturini, Alessandra (University of Turin)
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to analyse the role of migrants in innovation in Europe. We use Total Factor Productivity as a measure of innovation and focus on the three largest European countries – France, Germany and the United Kingdom – in the years 1994-2007. Unlike previous research, which mainly employs a regional approach, we analyse the link between migration and innovation at the sectoral level. This allows us to measure the direct contribution of migrants in the sector in which they are actually employed. Moreover, it allows a distinction between the real contribution of migrants to innovation from possible inter-sectoral complementarities, which might as well foster innovation. We control for the different components of human-capital, such as age, education and diversity of origin. To address the possible endogeneity of migration we draw on an instrumental variable strategy originally devised by Card (2001) and adapt it at the sector level. The results show that overall migrants are relevant in all sectors, but some important differences emerge across sectors: highly-educated migrants show a larger positive effect in the high-tech sectors, while middle- and low-educated ones are more relevant in manufacturing. The diversity of countries of origin contributes to innovation only in the services sectors, confirming that in empirical analyses at the regional or national level the diversity measure might capture the complementarity between sectors rather than the contribution of different national skills.
    Keywords: migration, innovation, highly skilled migrants, low skilled migrants
    JEL: F22 O31 O32
    Date: 2015–10
  2. By: Nan Li (International Monetary Fund); Jie Cai (University of New South Wales)
    Abstract: Technologies differ in their scopes of applications. The types of knowledge a country possesses have important implications on its growth. This paper develop a multi-sector model of innovation, trade and growth, in which knowledge in one sector is applicable to innovation in another sector in various degrees and a country's composition of knowledge is endogenously determined. We find that lower trade costs and better institutions (that increase production productivity) improve aggregate innovation efficiency through the within-country allocation of R&D towards sectors with higher knowledge applicability. We construct measures quantifying the sectoral knowledge applicability using cross-sector patent citations. Based on this index, we present cross-country evidence that broadly supports the model's implications.
    Date: 2015
  3. By: Thai Thi Minh; Carsten Nico Hjotrsø
    Abstract: Drawing on the triple helix model and organizational institutionalism, this article applies a qualitative research approach to analyze structures, institutional logics, power relations that shape inter-organizational relations and the structuration of a knowledge production system in an emerging economy. Findings highlight the emergence of a fifth-helices knowledge production system includes the state, science and education, industry, international actors, and society. The system comprises two major segments, one associated with the traditional command economy and characterized by institutional control that reproduces an ill-adopted and less transparent system based on systemic power. At the border of this system, a market- and quality-oriented segment emerges through marked-oriented evolution and collaborative co-evolution processes driven by institutional agency. The system-level dynamics are characterized by political ambidexterity that enables the state to maintain control by privileging traditional science and education constituencies, and at the same time support the transition of the knowledge production system towards international methodology and quality standards through relational mechanisms such as cooperation, harmonization, and partnership. Our research shows that the proposed framework offers a valuable basis for deriving realistic policy and program recommendations to guide national and international actors in designing interventions and collaboration within knowledge production systems in developing countries.
    Keywords: Triple helix, knowledge production system, organizational field, institutional logics, rational mechanisms, Vietnam
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Driouchi, Ahmed
    Abstract: This paper looks at the imperfections in the knowledge economy in Arab countries. It uses series of data including the Hofstede index to show how these imperfections are translated into the measures of knowledge and development. The outputs from Arab countries are also compared to those from the Eastern European Economies. The outcomes do clearly indicate the existence of a gap between Arab and Eastern European Economies and underline that more efforts need to be devoted to the reduction of imperfections in Arab economies.
    Keywords: Imperfections, Knowledge, Hofstede index, Political economy.
    JEL: O11 O17
    Date: 2015–10–20
  5. By: Sara Amoroso (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Mafini Dosso (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Pietro Moncada-Paterno-Castello (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: This paper assesses the contribution of skilled employment and labour market conditions to the ability of attracting knowledge intensive and manufacturing greenfield FDI. We carry out our analysis by controlling for a wide range of labour market features, such as the collective bargaining coverage rate, the non-wage labour costs, and the occupational skills of employment. It departs from the existing literature in two respects. First, it deepens the analysis on the effect of labour market regulations and skills endowments on greenfield FDI inflows. Second, it investigates the extent to which labour market characteristics matter for discriminating among ‘resource-seeking’ and ‘efficiency/strategic asset-seeking’ greenfield FDI activities (e.g. manufacturing versus knowledge-intensive foreign investments, respectively). Our empirical analysis suggests that the quality of employment and the technological knowledge base have different impact on the location of knowledge-intensive and on low-cost labour-intensive manufacturing foreign investments. Further, associating the collective bargaining coverage of unions with the level of regulation in the labour market, our results can provide insights into the effectiveness of labour market policies that aim at attracting knowledge-intensive investments. Length: 25 pages
    Keywords: foreign direct investment, unions R&D
    JEL: O32 F16 J51
    Date: 2015–08
  6. By: Cinzia Daraio (Department of Computer, Control and Management Engineering Antonio Ruberti (DIAG), University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy); Maurizio Lenzerini (Department of Computer, Control and Management Engineering Antonio Ruberti (DIAG), University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy); Claudio Leporelli (Department of Computer, Control and Management Engineering Antonio Ruberti (DIAG), University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy); Henk F. Moed (Department of Computer, Control and Management Engineering Antonio Ruberti (DIAG), University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy); Paolo Naggar (Studiare Ltd., Rome, Italy); Andrea Bonaccorsi (DISTEC, University of Pisa, Italy); Alessandro Bartolucci (Studiare Ltd., Rome, Italy)
    Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to propose an Ontology-based Data Management (OBDM) approach to coordinate, integrate and maintain the data needed for Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) policy development. The OBDM approach we propose is a form of integration of information in which the global schema of data is substituted by the conceptual model of the domain, formally specified through an ontology. Our approach, implemented in the Sapientia ontology (Sapientia: the Ontology of Multi- Dimensional Research Assessment) offers a transparent platform on which to base the evaluation process; permits to define and specify in an unambiguous way the indicators on which the evaluation is based on; allows us to track their evolution over time; makes it possible the analysis of the feedbacks of the indicators on the behavior of scholars and allows us to find out opportunistic behaviors; provides a monitoring system to track over time the changes in the established evaluation criteria and their consequences on the research system. We claim that an higher availability and a more transparent view on the scholarly outcomes may improve the understanding of basic science from the broad society and can improve the communication of the research outcome to the public opinion, which, in the present economic phase, has an increasingly money-for-value approach about the funding of science.A lot of work on these issues has still to be carried out. Nevertheless we believe that a new line of research based on an OBDM approach could successfully contribute to solve some of the key issues in the integration of heterogeneous data for STI policies.
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Driouchi, Ahmed
    Abstract: Abstract The limited business and enterprise creation in relation to the high unemployment of skilled labor are among the issues analyzed and discussed in this paper. The present paper shows clearly that shifts to the creation of more enterprises are the most important ways to enhance economic performance and market development through further access to the knowledge economy.
    Keywords: Keywords: Enterprise creation, doing business
    JEL: M2 O1
    Date: 2015–10–20
  8. By: Amelia Sharman
    Abstract: Much of the existing literature employing the framework of controversy focuses on the science-policy interface. However a clear gap exists regarding the way(s) in which controversy may fundamentally shape the production of scientific knowledge itself. This research uses the debate about climate change as a case study to understand the impact of controversy on the production of scientific knowledge, focusing in particular on the interrelated elements of scientific practice and the agency of individual scientists. Based on 63 research interviews with climate scientists, “sceptical voices†about climate change and others, it finds that whereas the majority of climate scientists do not consider sceptical voices to have an impact on scientific practice, the vast majority do identify impacts on scientific agency. The predominant type of agency-related impact is increased caution, followed by disruption, a greater focus on communication, defensiveness and reluctance to publicly engage. It is argued that scientists’ ability to distinguish between impacts on agency and practice is both a performative expression of Gieryn’s (1999) notion of boundary work and a function of controversy, with the greater the impact of controversy, the less fluid and contingent the boundary between the two. Boundary work is thus a more active and explicit process under conditions of public scientific controversy, as scientists work to ensure the independence and unassailability of their cognitive authority in contested domains. Potential implications for epistemological norms and the social value of science are also identified.
    Date: 2015–09
  9. By: MIYAGIWA, Kaz; WAN, Yunyun
    Abstract: The merger paradox is revisited in the presence of cost-reducing R&D in Cournot oligopoly. Two cases are found, in which merger is profitable without satisfying the 80-percent threshold requirement of Salant et al (1983).
    Keywords: merger paradox, R&D, Cournot oligopoly
    Date: 2015–09–28

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