nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2015‒09‒26
seven papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Fresh Brain Power and Quality of Innovation in Cities: Evidence from the Japanese patent database By HAMAGUCHI Nobuaki; KONDO Keisuke
  2. Why space matters for collaborative innovation networks. On designing enabling spaces for collaborative knowledge creation By Peschl, Markus F.; Fundneider, Thomas
  3. The L&E of Intellectual Property – Do we get maximum innovation with the current regime? By Ejan Mackaay
  4. Learning how to innovate as a socio-epistemological process of co-creation. Towards a constructivist teaching strategy for innovation By Peschl, Markus F.; Bottaro, Gloria; Hartner-Tiefenthaler, Martina; Rötzer, Katharina
  5. Knowledge economy determined by cultural dimensions By Markéta Adamová; R Krninská
  6. The incremental effect of education on corruption: evidence of synergy from lifelong learning By Simplice Asongu; Jacinta C. Nwachukwu
  7. Combining Knowledge and Capabilities across Borders and Nationalities: Evidence from the inventions applied through PCT By TSUKADA Naotoshi; NAGAOKA Sadao

  1. By: HAMAGUCHI Nobuaki; KONDO Keisuke
    Abstract: This paper analyzes whether freshness of knowledge increases the quality of innovation by using the Japanese patent database. Agglomeration is generally believed to foster the creation of new knowledge through knowledge spillover, such as active face-to-face communication; however, expansion of common knowledge within research communities may discourage high-quality innovation. Taking this into consideration, we attempt to examine the turnover effects of knowledge workers across cities by looking at the interregional migration of university graduates. We find that the quality of innovation as measured by the number of patent citations tends to be higher in cities with bigger migration flows of university graduates. More importantly, we find that metabolizing agglomeration plays an important role for high-quality innovative activities.
    Date: 2015–09
  2. By: Peschl, Markus F.; Fundneider, Thomas
    Abstract: As opposed to managing or controlling innovation processes, this paper proposes the notion of enabling as a more suitable approach to innovation. As a consequence, the concept of Enabling Spaces is introduced as a space that is designed in such a way that it enables and facilitates processes of collaborative knowledge creation and innovation. In that context a rather broad notion of space is applied: It goes far beyond architectural/physical space by integrating social, cognitive, emotional, organizational, and epistemological dimensions in an interdisciplinary manner. Both the theoretical background and the methodological approach and design process will be presented. Furthermore, we will discuss a case for an Enabling Space which functions as a collaborative innovation network. It will turn out that Enabling Spaces and Collaborative Innovation Networks (COINs) share a lot of characteristics, attitudes, and values.
    Keywords: cognition, collaboration, design, Enabling Space, extended cognition, innovation, knowledge creation, space
    JEL: Z0
    Date: 2014
  3. By: Ejan Mackaay
    Abstract: Innovation is crucial to economic growth – the essential path for lifting much of the world population out of dire poverty and for maintaining the living standard of those who already have. To stimulate innovation, the legal system has to support the means through which innovators seek to get rewarded for their efforts and risks taken. Amongst these means, some, such as the first mover advantage or 'lead time,' are not directly legal; but secrets and intellectual property rights are legal institutions supported for the specific purpose of stimulating innovation. Whilst the protection of secrets has not changed very much over recent years, intellectual property (or IP) has. IP borrows some features from ordinary property rights, but is also distinct, in that, unlike physical goods, information, the object of IP, is not inherently scarce; indeed as information and communication technologies expand, the creation and distribution of information is becoming ever cheaper and in many circumstances abundant, so that selection is of the essence ('on the internet, point of view is everything'). New information builds on already existing information. Where rights on information extend too far, their monopolising effect may hamper innovation. The paper investigates the underlying structure of IP rights and surveys what we know empirically about the incentive effects of IP as about industries that flourish without formal IP. L'innovation est essentielle à la croissance économique, elle-même la voie obligée pour faire sortir une grande partie de la population mondiale de la misère et pour maintenir le niveau de vie des personnes qui en sont déjà sorties. Pour stimuler l'innovation, le système juridique doit soutenir les moyens par lesquels les innovateurs cherchent rémunération de leurs efforts et des risques pris. Parmi ceux-ci, certains comme l'« avance de départ » ne sont pas directement juridiques; mais le secret commercial et la propriété intellectuelle sont des institutions juridiques soutenues dans le but précis de stimuler l'innovation. Alors que la protection des secrets n'a pas beaucoup évolué au cours des ans, la propriété intellectuelle (PI) l'a bien. La propriété intellectuelle emprunte certains traits de la propriété classique des biens matériels, mais est aussi distincte, en ce que, contrairement aux biens matériels, l'information – l'objet de la PI – n'est pas par nature rare ; en fait, à mesure que les technologies de l'information et des communications s'étendent, la création et la distribution de l'information devient toujours moins chère. Dans certains cas, l'information devient même abondante à telle enseigne que la sélection et essentielle ('on the internet, point of view is everything'). L'information nouvelle s'appuie sur de l'information déjà disponible. Là où les droits sur l'information, et notamment la PI, s'étendent trop loin, leurs effets monopolisateurs risquent d'interférer avec l'innovation. Le texte examine la structure sous-jacente des droits de propriété intellectuelle et fait un survol de ce que nous savons de manière « empirique » sur les effets incitatifs de la PI de même que des industries qui prospèrent sans droit de propriété intellectuelle formel.
    Keywords: intellectual property – copyright – innovation, propriété intellectuelle, droit d'auteur, innovation
    JEL: K00 K29 L17 O31 O34
    Date: 2015–09–15
  4. By: Peschl, Markus F.; Bottaro, Gloria; Hartner-Tiefenthaler, Martina; Rötzer, Katharina
    Abstract: Context: Radical constructivism (RC) is seen as a fruitful way to teach innovation, as Ernst von Glasersfeld’s concepts of knowing, learning, and teaching provide an epistemological framework fostering processes of generating an autonomous conceptual understanding. Problem: Classical educational approaches do not meet the requirements for teaching and learning innovation because they mostly aim at students’ competent performance, not at students’ understanding and developing their creative capabilities. Method: Analysis of theoretical principles from the constructivist framework and how they can be used as a foundation for designing a course in the field of innovation. The empirical results are based on qualitative journal entries that were coded and categorized according to Charmaz’s grounded theory approach. Results: It is shown that there is a close relationship between learning and innovation processes. The proposed investigated course design based on RC incorporates the following concepts: the course setting is understood as a framework to guide understanding; students work in teams and are subjective constructors of their own knowledge; instructors take on the role of coaches, guiding students through an innovation process as co-creators. Such a framework facilitates dynamic processes of assimilation and accommodation, as well as perturbation through the “other,” which potentially lead to novel, and viable, conceptual structures crucial for sustainable innovation. Constructivist Content: The paper argues in favor of RC principles in the context of teaching and learning. The proposed course setting is oriented at von Glasersfeld’s understanding of knowing, learning, and teaching (vs. training. It outlines theoretical and practical aspects of these principles in the context of a course design for innovation. Furthermore, it shows the importance of von Glasersfeld’s concept of intersubjectivity for processes of accommodation and the generation of (novel) autonomous conceptual structures. The interplay between creating coherence, perturbation, and irritation through interacting with the “other” (in the form of co-students and instructors) is assumed to be vital for such processes, as it leads to the creation of not only novel but also viable conceptual structures, therefore re-establishing a relative equilibrium critical for sustainable innovation.
    Keywords: Innovation, teaching, learning, course design, co-creation, Enabling Space, radical constructivism.
    JEL: A23
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Markéta Adamová (University of South Bohemia in); R Krninská (University of South Bohemia in)
    Abstract: The forthcoming transformation of the materialistically based paradigm, which is growing into post-materialistic paradigm, is associated with new approaches to economy and management. Enterprises must deal with new problems and challenges in the global environment. The globalization may be characterized by global flows of capital, goods, discontinuous changes and particularly information in the economic environment. In these conditions it begins to talk about a "new" economy - a knowledge economy.The paper is based on the research project of the Grant Agency of the University of South Bohemia „Human Resource management of small and medium-sized enterprises“[039/2013/S] and also on data, which was gained from cooperation with students.The knowledge economy has recently been increasingly discussed topic and it can be defined in many precise and exhaustive definitions. One of the new approaches may be its defining via cultural dimensions of G. Hofstede. These cultural dimensions also determine the status of the corporate culture. The corporate culture (together with an atmosphere, which it creates) can have a positive or a negative impact on all the activities in the enterprise. It may therefore contribute to maintenance the competitiveness and better efficiency. Among the desirable cultural dimensions of knowledge economy are the small power distance supporting the transfer of knowledge. Collectivism, which is related to synergies of leading teams as well as to use of tacit knowledge. Femininity with its atmosphere of trust, allowing the development of human potential and care for the quality of life and the environment which leads to the corporate social responsibility. And the acceptance of changes arising from discontinuous flows of the globalization. And the long-term orientation, which is associated with the investment in human capital.The aim of the paper is finding out the state of transformation of surveyed enterprises into the knowledge economy.
    Keywords: corporate culture, cultural dimensions, knowledge economy, new economy
    JEL: M14 M12 M10
  6. By: Simplice Asongu (Yaoundé/Cameroun); Jacinta C. Nwachukwu (Coventry University)
    Abstract: Education as a tool in the fight against corruption has been subject to much debate in academic and policy making circles. This note extends what we know on this nexus in a threefold manner: namely, in terms of: incremental, lifelong learning and synergy effects. Four main findings are established. First, education is a powerful tool in the fight against corruption. Second, there is evidence of an incremental effect in the transition from secondary to tertiary education. Third, lifelong learning defined as knowledge acquired during primary, secondary and tertiary education negatively affects corruption. Fourth, there is evidence of a ‘synergy effect’ because the impact of lifelong learning is higher than the combined effects of various educational levels. The empirical evidence is based on 53 African countries for the period 1996-2010. Two main policy implications are derived. First, encouraging education through the tertiary level enhances the fight against corruption. Second, the drive towards a knowledge economy by means of lifelong learning has ‘corruption mitigating’ benefits.
    Keywords: Lifelong learning; Corruption; Development; Africa
    JEL: I20 I28 K42 O10 O55
    Date: 2015–09
  7. By: TSUKADA Naotoshi; NAGAOKA Sadao
    Abstract: This paper analyzes how co-inventions with foreign residents and/or foreign-born inventors contribute to the inventive performance, using the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) applications. We find that combining inventors across borders and nationalities have become important in major industrialized countries, especially in the sectors where science is important for inventions. Both inventions with foreign-born inventors and those with foreign resident inventors have high science linkages, controlling for the sectors. We also find that the inventions based on such collaborations have high performance in terms of forward citations (but not in terms of the geographic scope of patent protection), relative to the inventions by the purely domestic team. These effects diminish but remain significant even if we control for firm fixed effects. However, these effects disappear once we control for the first inventor fixed effects, indicating the possibility that the matching between the high performing domestic inventors and the foreign resident and/or foreign-born inventors plays an important role.
    Date: 2015–09

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