nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2015‒09‒18
nine papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Knowledge Spillovers in Cities: The Creation and Transmission of Knowledge By J. Stiller; D. Assmann
  2. Designing and enabling interfaces for collaborative knowledge creation and innovation. From managing to enabling innovation as socio-epistemological technology By Peschl, Markus F.; Fundneider, Thomas
  3. The role of geographical proximity in the international knowledge flows of European firms: an overview of different knowledge transfer mechanisms By Chaminade , Cristina; Plechero , Monica
  4. Relatedness through experience: On the importance of collected worker experiences for plant performance By Lisa Östbring, Rikard Eriksson, Urban Lindgren; Rikard Eriksson; Urban Lindgren
  5. European Universities during the Crisis: A Public Policy Perspective, with a Brief Excursion to the US By Ritzen, Jo
  6. Le rôle de la syndication des capital-investisseurs dans le financement de l’innovation, The Role of Venture Capitalists Syndication in the Financing of Innovation By Philippe DESBRIERES
  7. The Productive Workplace for Knowledge Workers: A focus on workplace design and environment across various age groups. By A. Chadburn; J. Smith
  8. How Workplace Design Can Enhance Knowledge Sharing At The Office By R. Appel-Meulenbroek
  9. Innovation and Access to Technologies for Sustainable Development: A Global Systems Perspective By Chan, Gabriel Angelo Sherak; Matus, Kira Jen Mendelsohn; Moon, Suerie; Timmer, Vanessa Joanna; Clark, William C.; Murthy, Sharmila L.; Diaz Anadon, Laura; Harley, Alicia Grace

  1. By: J. Stiller; D. Assmann
    Abstract: We analyze knowledge spillovers in a search-theoretic spatial equilibrium framework with workers who are heterogeneous in knowledge type. Knowledge spillovers result from random face-to-face interactions between workers in the city. The outcome of those interactions crucially depends on the combination of the interacting individuals' knowledge types. In contrast to previous work, we explicitly model knowledge spillovers as the interplay of two channels: knowledge transmission (imitation) and knowledge creation (innovation). Our results show that if the role of innovation is sufficiently important, individuals choose an excessively narrow range of partners to interact with, leading to lower than socially optimal creation of new ideas, which results in socially inefficient city sizes.
    Keywords: Agglomeration; Innovation; Knowledge; Learning; Matching
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2015–07–01
  2. By: Peschl, Markus F.; Fundneider, Thomas
    Abstract: knowledge creation and innovation. We refer to these artifacts as Enabling Spaces, and they comprise architectural, technological (ICT), social, cognitive, organizational, cultural, as well as emotional dimensions. The paper claims that innovation is a highly challenging social and epistemological process which needs to be facilitated and enabled through supporting (infra-)structures. Our starting point is that innovation can no longer be understood as a mechanistic knowledge creation process. The process of enabling is introduced as an alternative to such traditional approaches of innovation. Enabling is the main design principle that underpins Enabling Spaces and ICT plays an important role in it. These concepts will be illustrated by a case study and concrete examples. The paper culminates in the derivation of a set of design principles, ICT based and otherwise, for Enabling Spaces.
    Keywords: artifact, design, enabling space, extended cognition, innovation, meaning, situated cognition, space
    JEL: Z0
    Date: 2014
  3. By: Chaminade , Cristina (CIRCLE, Lund University); Plechero , Monica (DEAMS – University of Trieste, Italy & CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: The paper provides an overview of the international knowledge flows in Europe particularly looking at the drivers and consequences of such flows as well as the general trend. It distinguishes between different types of mechanisms for the acquisition and transfer of knowledge from trade to research and technological collaboration, mobility of human capital and FDI. The paper is empirical in nature and targeted to a wider audience. The analysis reveals that proximity matters significantly for the mobility of human capital as well as for the establishment of collaborative networks. In both cases, intra-Europe knowledge flows are more important that extra-Europe knowledge flows, thus pointing to the role of the European market facilitating these forms of exchange. The patterns of offshoring of R&D as well as trade networks are rather different- more global than intra-European. In other words, trade and investment networks are more dispersed globally than mobility of human capital and research and technological networks.
    Keywords: Exports of high tech products; international research collaboration; international mobility of researchers; offshoring of R&D; Europe
    JEL: F20 O30
    Date: 2015–09–08
  4. By: Lisa Östbring, Rikard Eriksson, Urban Lindgren; Rikard Eriksson; Urban Lindgren
    Abstract: The present article aims to show that multiple cognitive dimensions exist between employees in plants and that these multiple forms of potential cognitive relatedness interact in their influence on learning and plant performance. Because the success of a firm has come to be strongly associated with its ability to use the available resources (Penrose 1959), it has become increasingly important for firms to have just the right mix of competences. In the article, the knowledge and cognitive distance between employees in knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) is measured in multiple ways – as formal knowledge, industry experience and past knowledge exposure. The different forms of cognitive distance are entered into pooled OLS regressions with year-, industry-, region-fixed effects and interaction terms to estimate the effects of various forms of cognition on plant performance. The results suggest that past knowledge experiences and formal education offer multiple channels for knowledge integration at the workplace and that the specific labor force knowledge characteristics present at a plant condition learning. It has been further shown that the organizational structure and flexibility associated with single-plant and multi-plant firms, respectively, generate different plant performance outcomes of knowledge variety. Moreover, we conclude that the commonly found negative effects of similarity in formal education on plant performance may be reduced by high levels of similarity in historical knowledge exposure or industry experience. These effects are stronger in multi-plant firms than in single-plant firms. We also find that high levels of human capital exert a reducing influence on the negative effects of high levels of cognitive similarity.
    Keywords: Cognitive proximity, plant performance, KIBS, human capital, proximity dimensions
    Date: 2015–09
  5. By: Ritzen, Jo (IZA and Maastricht University)
    Abstract: The crisis slowed down the implementation of the Lisbon Strategy (for the EU to become the most competitive region in the world). The crisis has aggravated the divergence between the North West of Europe and Southern Europe in labor productivity imparted by the knowledge economy. At the same time, equality of opportunity for participation in higher education seems to have been well-preserved in the EU Member States. This is in contrast to the US with its substantial higher private costs for university education. The relative stagnations in university education and research during the crisis is similar in Europe as in the US. Asian countries may – as a result – have improved their position in innovation. The room for maneuver of Governments of EU Member States to deal with universities (as with other public expenditures) was severely limited by the agreed upon maximum levels of the budget deficit and Government debt. Political institutions appear to determine the "code" for higher education expenditures. The quality of the minister responsible for higher education and the level of "trust" in the country may also the room for maneuver in setting university policy.
    Keywords: economic crisis, university policy, university funding, equity, innovation, labor productivity, trust
    JEL: H2 H6 I22 I23 I24 I28 O31 O38 O43 O51 O52
    Date: 2015–09
  6. By: Philippe DESBRIERES (IAE DIJON - Université de Bourgogne (CREGO))
    Abstract: (VF) La pratique de la syndication est notablement développée dans le métier du capital-investissement, quel que soit le stade de développement, le secteur d’activité et la nationalité de l’entreprise financée. La syndication s’explique autant par des arguments financiers (partage des risques entre capital-investisseurs ; gouvernance du management de l’entreprise financée...) que par la nécessité d’une part, d’accéder à des ressources (informations, compétences) en matière de sélection et de surveillance des investissements et, d’autre part, de partager, voire créer, des connaissances. L’objectif de cette synthèse de la littérature est d’étudier dans quelle mesure cette pratique favorise ou contraint l’innovation et son financement dans les firmes entrepreneuriales. (VA) Syndication is a highly developed practice in the venture capital industry, whatever are the stage of development, the industry sector and the nationality of the financed company. It can be explained by financial arguments (sharing of risks between venture capitalists; governance of managemers of the financed firm) as well as by the necessity, on the one hand, to reach resources (information, skills) regarding selection and control of the investments and, on the other hand, to share or create knowledge. The objective of this survey is to study to what extent this practice favor or limit innovation and its financing within entrepreneurial firms.
    Keywords: capital-investissement, syndication, innovation, financement;Venture Capital, Syndication, Innovation, Financing
    JEL: G24 L26 O31
    Date: 2015–05
  7. By: A. Chadburn; J. Smith
    Abstract: The nature of work has changed and office designers are striving to find the ideal workplace design that meets the needs of knowledge workers. According to Thompson and Kay (2008) the issue of productivity is becoming of key interest in all sectors. In recent years, firms have begun to realise that a workplace environment that has been well designed is more likely to attract the highest calibre of worker and reduce staff attrition. (Gensler, 2005). A poorly-designed workplace can increase stress levels and negatively affect performance. As many as one- fifth of workplaces in the UK do not provide sufficient work place environments, and that at least one quarter of staff in the UK logged ‘serious’ complaints about factors such as poor layout, furniture, temperature and noise, among others (Myerson et al, 2011). Overall, British businesses are still considerably behind in creating workplaces that optimise employee satisfaction. (Arup, 2011). Improved workplace design can lead to a productivity increase Gensler (2005) and Bootle and Kalyan (2002) agree that billions of pounds are wasted each year due to the unproductive layout and design of some offices. There is a clear connection between the work environments and office users' productivity within the workplace. Most studies include the components of furniture, noise, lighting, temperature and spatial arrangements when considering that which affects productivity (Hameed and Amjad, 2009). However, there is no clear consensus as to which factors predominate. Employees of different generations respond differently to how their workplace environment is designed (Myerson et al, 2010). Almost 50% of today’s economy is knowledge-based and more workers are expected to be flexible, creative and communicative, (Greene and Myerson, 2011). The creation of work environments that result in satisfied and productive knowledge workers and end users requires information about user preferences concerning their work environments, and as the nature of work is changing, there is a need for updated research within this subject. Method: This paper will be based on research carried out on knowledge workers in 7 substantial companies within London. Results: Some results are already known and these include: employees are most productive when under pressure and in a buzzy environment; colleagues, design of office and quality of IT are the greatest factors that make employees unproductive.
    Keywords: Age Groups; Employee Productivity Drivers; Knowledge Workers; Productive Workplace; Workplace Design And Environment
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2015–07–01
  8. By: R. Appel-Meulenbroek
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2014–03–01
  9. By: Chan, Gabriel Angelo Sherak; Matus, Kira Jen Mendelsohn; Moon, Suerie; Timmer, Vanessa Joanna; Clark, William C.; Murthy, Sharmila L.; Diaz Anadon, Laura; Harley, Alicia Grace
    Abstract: This workshop report is a summary of themes discussed by five panels during a daylong workshop on “Innovation and Access to Technologies for Sustainable Development: A Global Perspective†at Harvard University on April 24,2014. The workshop brought together a diverse group of scholars to explore how the technological innovation needed for sustainable development can be promoted in ways that assure equitable access in current and future generations. Three key themes that emerged from the workshop include:(1) The central role of power, politics and agency in analyzing technological innovation and sustainable development -an important aspect of this includes the articulation of the roles of actors and organizations within frameworks and models of innovation systems.(2) The importance of focusing both on supply-push and demand-pull mechanisms in innovation scholarship and innovation policy.(3) The need to focus on more innovation scholarship around the goals of sustainable development.
    Date: 2014

This nep-knm issue is ©2015 by Laura Ştefănescu. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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