nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2015‒08‒30
six papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Conditions of Diffusion of Competitiveness Clusters' Technologies: a Brief Theoretical Note By Iritié, B. G. Jean-Jacques
  2. What is a Complex Innovation System? By J. Sylvan Katz
  3. Location and Productivity of Knowledge- and Information-intensive Services (Japanese) By MORIKAWA Masayuki
  4. Investing in Higher Education, and Its Potential Impact on Research and Development for Technological Upgrading, Innovation, and Competitiveness By Robin SAKAMOTO
  5. From innovation to diversification: a simple competitive model By Fabio Saracco; Riccardo Di Clemente; Andrea Gabrielli; Luciano Pietronero
  6. Intangible investment and technical efficiency: The case of software-intensive manufacturing firms in Turkey By Fındık, Derya; Tansel, Aysit

  1. By: Iritié, B. G. Jean-Jacques
    Abstract: Competitiveness clusters (or innovation clusters) are the focal point of french new industrial policy. They are based on classical cluster model and its well-known agglomeration positive externalities and on benefits of cooperation. After a brief literature review of cluster theory, we focus on the theoretical conditions under which french innovation clusters can foster production and diffusion of technological innovations. Our critical analysis points out three non-exhaustive conditions: (i) the capacity to coordinate and to incitate cooperation in R\D; (ii) the capacity to favor production and technological knowledge transfer; (iii) the capacity to promote and to keep R\D appropriation by cooperating innovators.
    Keywords: innovation cluster, coordination, cooperation, installed base, organisational absorptive capacity, collective appropriation.
    JEL: O20 O30 R10 R30
    Date: 2015–07–22
  2. By: J. Sylvan Katz (SPRU - Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, UK)
    Abstract: Innovation systems are frequently referred to as complex systems, something that is intuitively understood but poorly defined. A complex system dynamically evolves in non-linear ways giving it unique properties that distinguish it from other systems. In particular, a common signature of complex systems is scale-invariant emergent properties. A scale- invariant property can be identified because it is solely described by a power law function, f(x) = kxa where the exponent, a, is a measure of the scale-invariance. The purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate that innovation systems have properties of a complex adaptive system and in particular scale-invariant emergent properties indicative of their complex nature. These properties can be quantified and used to inform public policy. The global research system is an example of an innovation system. Peer-reviewed publications containing knowledge are a characteristic output. And citations or references to these articles are an indirect measure of the impact the knowledge has on the research community. These measures are used to illustrate how scale-invariant properties can be identified and quantified. Peer-reviewed papers indexed in Scopus and in the Web of Science were used as the data sources to produce measures of sizes and impact. Papers indexed in Scopus were classified into fields using the Scopus, NSF and MAPS schemes. The evolution of the overall and field level impact distributions were examined to see if they had a reasonable likelihood of being scale-invariant as they aged. Also, correlations between impact and size were explored to see if they were scale-invariant too. The findings show that the distribution of impact has a reasonable likelihood of being scale-invariant with scaling exponents that tended toward a value of less than 3.0 with the passage of time. Scale-invariant correlations are shown to exist between the evolution of impact and size with time and between field impact and sizes at points in time. However, it was found that care must be exercised making these measures as the method of classification may hide emerging properties. The confirmation that an innovation has common characteristics of an adaptive complex system and scale-invariant emergent properties allows us to confidently say that the global research system has a reasonable likelihood of being a complex innovation system. And using the recursive nature of scale-invariance it is reasonable to assume that regional, national, local and sectoral level systems contained within it are complex with scale- invariant properties too. Measures and models based on the scale-invariant properties of complex innovation systems can provide new and novel insights about an innovation system useful for informing public policy.
    Keywords: innovation system; scale-invariant; scale-free; complex system; complex adaptive system; power law; innovation policy; bibliometric; scientometric
    Date: 2015–07
  3. By: MORIKAWA Masayuki
    Abstract: Knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS), which produce skill-intensive services used as intermediate inputs, are becoming important for the economic growth and international competitiveness of advanced countries. This paper, using establishment- and firm-level micro data, analyzes the productivity of knowledge- and information-intensive services such as information services, publishers, and design services. We focus on the effect of urban density on the productivity of these services. According to the estimations, doubling the employment density of municipalities is associated with an average of around 5% higher labor productivity of the services providers, which is larger than that found in the manufacturing industry. However, the size of the economies of density is heterogeneous by individual services, suggesting that the services to be promoted by small and medium cities are different from the services for which large metropolitan cities such as Tokyo and Osaka have strong comparative advantages.
    Date: 2015–08
  4. By: Robin SAKAMOTO (Kyorin University)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to review the state of higher education development in ASEAN and formulate how research and development should proceed post 2015 to ensure technological upgrading, innovation and competitiveness.
    Keywords: Higher Education, Research and Development, Innovation
    Date: 2015–08
  5. By: Fabio Saracco; Riccardo Di Clemente; Andrea Gabrielli; Luciano Pietronero
    Abstract: Few attempts have been proposed in order to describe the statistical features and historical evolution of the export bipartite matrix countries/products. An important standpoint is the introduction of a products network, namely a hierarchical forest of products that models the formation and the evolution of commodities. In the present article, we propose a simple dynamical model where countries compete with each other to acquire the ability to produce and export new products. Countries will have two possibilities to expand their export: innovating, i.e. introducing new goods, namely new nodes in the product networks, or copying the productive process of others, i.e. occupying a node already present in the same network. In this way, the topology of the products network and the country-product matrix evolve simultaneously, driven by the countries push toward innovation.
    Date: 2015–08
  6. By: Fındık, Derya; Tansel, Aysit
    Abstract: This chapter analyzes the effect of intangible investment on firm efficiency with an emphasis on its software component. Stochastic production frontier approach is used to simultaneously estimate the production function and the determinants of technical efficiency in the software intensive manufacturing firms in Turkey for the period 2003-2007. Firms are classified based on the technology group. High technology and low technology firms are estimated separately in order to reveal differentials in their firm efficiency. The results show that the effect of software investment on firm efficiency is larger in high technology firms which operate in areas such as chemicals, electricity, and machinery as compared to that of the low technology firms which operate in areas such as textiles, food, paper, and unclassified manufacturing. Further, among the high technology firms, the effect of the software investment is smaller than the effect of research and development personnel expenditure. This result shows that the presence of R&D personnel is more important than the software investment for software intensive manufacturing firms in Turkey.
    Keywords: Intangible assets, Software investment, Efficiency, Software intensive firms, Stochastic frontier analysis, Production Function, Firms, Turkey.
    JEL: L21 L22 L23 L25
    Date: 2013–08–05

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