nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2015‒08‒07
nine papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. University Research Productivity and its Impact on the Regional Agricultural Economy: The Case of Colorado State University and the Colorado Economy By Lee, Yoo Hwan; Graff, Gregory D.
  2. Success factors of innovation networks: Lessons from agriculture in Flanders By Lambrecht, Evelien; Kühne, Bianka; Gellynck, Xavier
  3. On the linkages in U.S. public R&D spending, knowledge capital and agricultural productivity growth: A Bayesian approach By Baldos, Uris Lantz C.; Viens, Frederi G.; Hertel, Thomas W.; Fuglie, Keith O.
  4. External dimensions of smart specialisation: Opportunities and challenges for trans-regional and transnational collaboration in the EU-13 By Slavo Radosevic; Katerina Ciampi Stancova
  5. Innovation and imitation in a product-cycle model with FDI and cash-in-advance constraints By Chen, Hung-Ju
  6. The Impact of Innovation in the Multinational Firm By Eduardo Morales; Kamran Bilir
  7. Producer-Funded Innovation: R&D Spillovers across Levy Programs By Xiao, Zhihua
  8. Pricing Genius: The Market Evaluation of Innovation By David Galenson; Simone Lenzu
  9. Knowledge and Adoption of Best Management Practices to Address Water Quality Issues By Black, Michael; Popp, Jennie; Sharpley, Andrew; Daniels, Mike

  1. By: Lee, Yoo Hwan; Graff, Gregory D.
    Abstract: Selected Poster (#7640): 2015 AAEA & WAEA Joint Meeting at San Francisco July 26-28th.
    Keywords: Knowledge production function, University tech transfer, Invention & innovation, Local economies., Community/Rural/Urban Development, Industrial Organization, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, O13, O31, O33, O34,
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Lambrecht, Evelien; Kühne, Bianka; Gellynck, Xavier
    Abstract: Innovation has been identified as a critical asset for SMEs to survive (Hitt et al., 2001; Lee et al., 2001). However, SMEs that need to improve their innovation process often lack the essential resources to innovate when relying solely on their in-house activities (Batterink et al., 2010). A large body of literature therefore highlights the role of external partnerships, or networks (Lazzarini et al., 2001; Pittaway et al., 2004; Sawhney et al., 2006). Despite the increasing number of studies focusing on the relationship between networking and innovation, there is still considerable ambiguity and debate within literature regarding appropriate network characteristics for successful innovations (Nieto and Santamaria, 2007; Pittaway et al., 2004). Furthermore, the existing studies focus mostly on high tech companies (Edquist 2006, van Galen 2008). The objective of our study is to gain insight into the network characteristics critical for successful innovations within the agricultural sector in Flanders. The study is based on interviews and focus group discussions with farmers and network coordinators active in Flanders. In total, 109 respondents were consulted. This research is based on four innovation characteristics which seem crucial for each innovation (Kanter, 1988). For each of these innovation characteristics, we investigated how networks could contribute, via their network characteristics. The results showed that networks serves as a net for knowledge about e.g. new technologies, or changing legislation in order that farmers are faster aware of developments. When farmers have multiple contacts, they have a higher chance to discover new things. Thereby, it is important that knowledge providers are part of the network and connected with the different actors, and not only provide their information to the farmers as an external actor. Also the face-to-face communication within a network is an essential issue. Furthermore, coalition can play a crucial role for some innovations, as a lot of farmers are not able to implement their idea because for example the retailer or research institute is not supportive or interested. If the farmers set up a self-initiated coalition, it can be easier to initiate the innovative idea. Fourth, it is important that individual actors from the agricultural system revisit their actual role. Successful innovation processes often originate in situations where creativity is not limited within one unit. Based on the findings, recommendations for farmers as well as network coordinators are formulated to increase the innovation capacity.
    Keywords: Innovation, Networks, Success factors, Agriculture, Flanders, Agribusiness,
    Date: 2015–05
  3. By: Baldos, Uris Lantz C.; Viens, Frederi G.; Hertel, Thomas W.; Fuglie, Keith O.
    Keywords: Total Factor Productivity, Agricultural R&D Expenditures, Agricultural R&D Stocks, Bayesian Hierarchical Model, Productivity Analysis, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Risk and Uncertainty,
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Slavo Radosevic (University College London); Katerina Ciampi Stancova (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: The paper explores the issues of trans-regional and transnational collaboration in the context of smart specialisation in regions with the less developed research and development and innovation (R&D&I) systems, identified as the 13 countries (EU-13) that joined the European Union (EU) after 2004. The paper proposes a systematic methodological approach to trans-regional and transnational cooperation and discusses how this can be utilized to build innovation capacities and enhance innovation potential in selected regions. Specifically, paper addresses following questions: what is conceptual approach to trans-regional cooperation within the context of Smart Specialisation? What is the role of regional governments/national authorities? How regional authorities can deal with analysis of trans-regional opportunities, potential competitors and collaborators? Based on the analysis, what steps can policy-makers take to improve trans-regional cooperation? Our discussion is grounded in the key ’stylized facts’ related to EU-13 R&D&I activities, and the complex link between innovation and internationalization. Innovation systems in the EU-13 are fragmented and based on largely public R&D systems and innovation systems based on predominantly production oriented foreign direct investment (FDI). This structural weakness calls for stronger support for innovation oriented activities and for the integration of global value chains (GVCs) and FDI into local innovation systems. We distinguish and discuss the main obstacles to the internationalization of smart specialisation and discuss ways to overcome them. We highlight the policy action areas related to providing support for technology upgrading in relation to the internationalization of smart specialisation. The Paper concludes by offering a discussion of policies to improve trans-regional cooperation in less developed R&I systems in short and long term.
    Keywords: Inter-regional collaboration, smart specialisation, innovation policy, transnational collaboration, (global) value chains, regional development
    Date: 2015–07
  5. By: Chen, Hung-Ju
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effects of monetary policy on innovation and imitation in a North-South product-cycle model with foreign direct investment (FDI) and separate cash-in-advance (CIA) constraints on innovative R&D, adaptive R&D and imitative R&D. We find that if the CIA constraint is applied to innovative R&D, then an increase in the Northern nominal interest will raise the rate of Northern innovation and the extent of FDI while reducing the rate of Southern imitation and the North-South wage gap. Regarding the effects of the Southern monetary policy, the object that is liquidity-constrained plays a significant role. If adaptive (imitative) R&D is subject to the CIA constraint, then an increase in the Southern nominal interest rate will raise (reduce) the rate of Northern innovation and the extent of FDI while reducing (raising) the rate of Southern imitation. We also examine the responses of social welfare for Northern and Southern consumers to monetary policy.
    Keywords: CIA constraint; FDI; Imitation; Monetary policy; R&D.
    JEL: F12 F23 O31
    Date: 2015–04
  6. By: Eduardo Morales (Princeton University); Kamran Bilir (University of Wisconsin - Madison)
    Abstract: What is the private return to innovation? When firms operate production sites in multiple countries, improvements developed at one site may be shared across others for efficiency gain. We develop a dynamic model that explicitly accounts for such transfer within the firm, and apply it to measure innovation returns for a comprehensive panel of U.S. multinationals during 1989--2009. We find that the data, which include detailed measures of affiliate production and innovation, are consistent with innovation generating returns at firm locations beyond the innovating site. Accounting for cross-plant effects of innovation, our estimates indicate the average firm realizes between 10 and 30 percent of the return to its U.S. parent R&D abroad, suggesting single-plant estimates may understate firms' gain from innovation.
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Xiao, Zhihua
    Abstract: Agricultural R&D investment is becoming an increasingly important policy issue as food prices push upwards and food security problems emerge. An important source of agricultural R&D funding is from producer check-offs, which are increasingly being used to fund applied agricultural research. Existing studies of producer-funded agricultural R&D indicate that there are high private and social rates of return to agricultural R&D investment by farmers, and thus that farmers are under investing in R&D. An important reason for underinvestment of producer-funded R&D is the spillovers across levy programs – the research benefits of one particular crop can flow to other crops via spillovers. The spillovers across levy programs are particularly important in jurisdictions, such as Canada, where agricultural R&D activity has been organized on a commodity-by-commodity basis. This study developed a theoretical model to capture farmers R&D investment decisions by explicitly specifying spillovers across levy programs.
    Keywords: Innovation, producer organizations, agricultural R&D, spillovers, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2015
  8. By: David Galenson (University of Chicago); Simone Lenzu (University of Chicago)
    Abstract: Economists have neglected a key issue for understanding and increasing technological change, in failing to study how talented individuals produce innovations. This paper takes a quantitative approach to this problem. Regression analysis of auction data from 1965-2015 reveals that the age-price profiles of Jackson Pollock and Andy Warhol – the two greatest painters born in the 20th century – closely resemble the age profiles of the two artists derived both from textbooks of art history and from retrospective exhibitions. The agreement of these sources confirms that the auction market assigns the highest prices to the most important art, and examination of the artists’ careers reveals that this art is the most important because it is the most innovative. These results lend strong support to our understanding of creativity at the individual level, with a sharp contrast between the extended experimental innovation of Pollock and the sudden conceptual innovation of Warhol.
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Black, Michael; Popp, Jennie; Sharpley, Andrew; Daniels, Mike
    Abstract: Efforts to control nonpoint source pollution (NPS) that impacts water quality have focused on conservation practices, also known as best management practices (BMPs). BMPs are voluntary, and therefore adoption rates vary due to availability of financial/technical assistance, environmental perceptions, and perception and knowledge of BMPs, among other things. This study looks at agricultural producers in the nutrient-rich Illinois River Watershed in Arkansas, and analyzes perception and adoption of BMPs. While differences between producer types existed, focusing educational/outreach efforts on demonstrating the existence of water quality issues may prove to be the most effective tool in increasing the adoption rates of BMPs in the watershed and improving water quality for downstream stakeholders.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession,
    Date: 2015

This nep-knm issue is ©2015 by Laura Ştefănescu. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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