nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2015‒06‒05
eight papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Networking, context and firm-level innovation: Cooperation through the regional filter in Norway By Fitjar, Rune Dahl; Rodriguez-Pose, Andres
  3. A New Approach to Estimation of the R&D-Innovation-Productivity Relationship By Baum, Christopher F; Lööf, Hans; Nabavi, Pardis; Stephan, Andreas
  4. Research clusters: How public subsidies matter? By Marie-Laure Cabon-Dhersin; Emmanuelle Taugourdeau
  5. University Technology Transfer offices : the search for identity to build legimacy By Conor O'Kane; Vincent Mangematin; Will Geoghegan; Ciara Fitzgerald
  6. Unraveling the link between managerial risk-taking and innovation: The mediating role of a risk-taking climate By Ana García-Granero; Óscar Llopis; Anabel Fernández-Mesa; Joaquín Alegre
  7. Economies to Scale and the Importance of Human Capital in the Moulds Industry in Portugal: A Micro Panel Data Approach By Fátima Diniz; Elias Soukiazis
  8. Adoption of low-cost energy efficiency measures in the tertiary sector—An empirical analysis based on energy survey data By Barbara Schlomann; Joachim Schleich

  1. By: Fitjar, Rune Dahl; Rodriguez-Pose, Andres
    Abstract: The paper assesses the role for innovation of one aspect which has been generally overlooked by evolutionary economic geography: context. It analyses how context shapes the impact of collaboration on firm-level innovation for 1604 firms located in the five largest city regions of Norway. Specifically, the analysis shows how the benefits to firms of collaborating within regional, national, and international innovation networks are affected by the knowledge endowments of the region within which the firm is located. Using a logit regression analysis, we find, first, that only national and international networking have a significant positive impact on the likelihood of innovation (the former only for process innovation), whereas the regional knowledge endowments have no direct effect. Second, regional cooperation is particularly effective in regions with high investments in R&D, whereas international cooperation is important in regions with an educated workforce – and regional and national collaboration may be ineffective in such cases. We conclude that, in the case of Norway, context is essential in determining the capacity of firms to set up networks and innovate. Regions with an educated workforce can use the resulting absorptive capacity to successfully assimilate knowledge being diffused through global pipelines from faraway places. However, this absorptive capacity is likely to be heavily filtered if regional firms mainly rely on internal connections within Norway.
    Keywords: context; firms; human capital; innovation; interaction; networking; Norway; R&D
    JEL: O31 O32
    Date: 2015–05
  2. By: Vladimir Nedic, Vojislav Ilic, Dusko Belovic (University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Philology and Arts, University of Belgrade, Teachers’ Training Faculty, Investment Project Group Belgrade)
    Abstract: The country’s readiness for the development of knowledge economy was measured using the Knowledge Economy Index (KEI) and the Knowledge Index (KI) of The World Bank Institute’s Knowledge for Development Program, 2012. The assessment of the position of the observed countries for the development of knowledge economy is based on the use of a number of analytical procedures. Cluster analysis was used first in order to check for the level of differences according to the KEI parameters and to group the selected countries into clusters, aimed at detecting the deviation of the observed European countries from the remainder of the group. Then we used the radar cart analysis of the four KEI pillars and their key variables in order to identify the current situation with respect to the values of partial indicators of the KEI pillars and establish the relative positions of the selected countries. Finally, over time comparison of the current values of the KEI pillars with the 2000 data was used to illustrate the dynamics of the development of the KEI pillars in crisis conditions. Research results have indicated that there is a prominent lag in the readiness of the Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Serbia) behind their EU environment (Austria, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia and Slovenia).
    Keywords: knowledge economy, Knowledge Economy Index, Knowledge Index
    JEL: I25
    Date: 2015–01
  3. By: Baum, Christopher F (Department of Economics, Boston College and Department of Macroeconomics, DIW Berlin); Lööf, Hans (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Nabavi, Pardis (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Stephan, Andreas (Jönkoping International Business School and Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.)
    Abstract: We evaluate a Generalized Structural Equation Model (GSEM) approach to the estimation of the relationship between R&D, innovation and productivity that focuses on the potentially crucial heterogeneity across technology and knowledge levels. The model accounts for selectivity and handles the endogeneity of this relationship in a recursive framework. Employing a panel of Swedish firms observed in three consecutive Community Innovation Surveys, our maximum likelihood estimates show that many key channels of influence among the model's components differ meaningfully in their statistical significance and magnitude across sectors defined by different technology levels.
    Keywords: R&D; Innovation; Productivity; Generalized Structural Equation Model; Community Innovation Survey
    JEL: C23 L60 O32 O52
    Date: 2015–06–01
  4. By: Marie-Laure Cabon-Dhersin (CREAM - CREAM - Centre de Recherche en Economie Appliquée à la Mondialisation - Université de Rouen); Emmanuelle Taugourdeau (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the factors underlying the emergence of Research Cluster (RC), i.e. cooperation (or coordination of research efforts) through spatial proximity between public and private research teams. A ‘public lab’ and a ‘private lab’ interact in a two-stage game to decide on ‘location’ and ‘research effort’. A high level of public subsidies associated to a low asymmetry in the ‘valorisation capability’ between both labs is necessary for the formation of a cluster. We find that RC performs better than non-cooperation in terms of research efforts in a ‘public lab’ (but not in a ‘private lab’) and output gains that can be appropriated by each lab.
    Abstract: Cet article étudie les facteurs sous-jacents de l'émergence de Clusters de recherche. Un Cluster de recherche est ici caractérisé par une proximité géographique et une coopération entre des laboratoires de recherche publique et privée. Nous modélisons un jeu à deux dans lequel un laboratoire public et un laboratoire privé interagissent pour déterminer leur localisation et leur effort de recherche. Une subvention publique élevée versée au laboratoire public associée à une valorisation de la recherche dans le public proche de celle du privé est nécessaire pour la réalisation d'un Cluster. Nous montrons que le Cluster de recherche est préférable à la non-coopération en termes d'efforts de recherche dans le laboratoire public et de gains retirés par chaque laboratoire. En revanche le Cluster est préjudiciable en termes d'efforts de recherche dans le laboratoire privé.
    Date: 2015–02
  5. By: Conor O'Kane (Department of Management - University of Otago); Vincent Mangematin (MTS - Management Technologique et Strategique - Grenoble École de Management (GEM)); Will Geoghegan (Whitman School of Management - Syracuse University); Ciara Fitzgerald (University College Cork - University College Cork)
    Abstract: Technology transfer offices (TTOs) are of strategic importance to universities committed to the commercialization of academic knowledge. Within the university, TTOs' relationship with academics and management is single agent-multiple principal. When two principals exist in an agency relationship, conflicting expectations can naturally arise. We explore how TTOs build legitimacy by shaping identity with university academics and management. In undertaking this research we draw on 63 interviews with TTO executives across 22 universities in the Ireland, New Zealand and the United States. We find that TTOs use identity-conformance and identity-manipulation to shape a dual identity, one scientific and the other business, with academics and management respectively. We show how this combination of identity strategies is ineffective for legitimizing the TTO. We propose that TTOs' identity shaping strategies are incomplete and need to incorporate a wholly distinctive identity to complement and reinforce preliminary legitimacy claims made through conformance and manipulation. We discuss the potential implications of these findings for scholars, TTO executives and university management.
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Ana García-Granero (INGENIO (CSIC-UPV), MTS - Management Technologique et Strategique - Grenoble École de Management (GEM)); Óscar Llopis (GREThA - Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée - CNRS - Université Montesquieu - Bordeaux 4, INGENIO (CSIC-UPV)); Anabel Fernández-Mesa (INGENIO (CSIC-UPV), Departament de Direcció d'Empreses - Universitat de València); Joaquín Alegre (GREThA - Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée - CNRS - Université Montesquieu - Bordeaux 4)
    Abstract: Scholars have proposed that taking risks in organizations is important for explaining innovation performance. Scholars traditionally have analyzed this link from two unconnected perspectives. From a managerial perspective, entrepreneurial orientation and leadership theories have been used to explain the positive relation between risk taking and innovation. From an employee perspective, creativity theory suggests that a risk-taking climate helps to explain innovative behaviors. However, there is little empirical research analyzing this link. This study examines the possibility of a connection between managers’ risk-taking propensities, employees’ risk-taking climate, and innovation performance. To do so, we test a quantitative model where the impact of the manager’ risk-taking propensity on innovation is mediated by its effect on employees’ risk-taking climate. Structural equation modeling is used to test the research hypotheses on a data set of 182 firms from the Spanish and Italian ceramic tile industry.
    Date: 2015–05
  7. By: Fátima Diniz (Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra, Portugal); Elias Soukiazis (Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra and GEMF, Portugal)
    Abstract: The mould for plastics industry in Portugal is highly technological, innovative and modern, with a clear focus on exports. It is one of the most successful sectors in this country with high reputation in the world markets. The main aim of this study is to explain this success by detecting the main factors which determine the dynamic production structure of this industry and its transformation over time. Focus is given on the multiple aspects of human capital, such as work experience, learning by doing tendencies, innovation, dissemination of knowledge and business cooperation between companies that generate positive externalities in the production process. All these factors contribute significantly to explain the success this industry has achieved over the recent decades. A production function framework is employed in line with the neoclassical approach where human capital is the engine of growth as has been postulated by the endogenous growth theory. The production function is estimated by using unbalanced panel data and applied to a sample of firms operating in this industry, over the period 1987-2012. Our empirical evidence suggests that factors such as physical capital(cutting edge technology, including specific software) and quantitative as well as qualitative factors associated with human capital are the key factors explaining the production dynamics of the moulds industry in Portugal. Increasing returns to scale and human capital externalities are also identified as special characteristics in this sector.
    Keywords: Production function, economies to scale, human capital externalities, panel data, moulds industry.
    JEL: D24 D62 F43 I25
    Date: 2015–05
  8. By: Barbara Schlomann (Fraunhofer ISI - Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research - Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research); Joachim Schleich (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University [Blacksburg] - Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, MTS - Management Technologique et Strategique - Grenoble École de Management (GEM))
    Abstract: This paper empirically explores factors driving the adoption of low cost energy efficiency measures in the tertiary sector which mainly consists of public and private services, trade, commerce and some small industries. The measures considered include switching off installations or lighting, managing energy use, and routinely considering energy efficiency for new purchases. Our statistical analysis employs single and multivariate probit models relying on more than 1500 observations from a recent representative survey of the tertiary sector in Germany. The findings suggest that the landlord-tenant dilemma holds for the adoption of all low-cost energy efficiency measures considered. They further imply that financial incentives such as higher energy prices accelerate the diffusion of low-cost energy measures. Our findings also provide some evidence that knowledge transfer from the mother company to a subsidiary enhances the diffusion of low-cost energy efficiency measures. Likewise, public-sector organizations are more likely to adopt energy management. By and large though, sectoral heterogeneity appears to have little impact on the adoption of low-cost energy efficiency measures.
    Date: 2015

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