nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2015‒04‒02
ten papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Knowledge Communication Indicators from Knowledge Management to National Innovation System By Mei-Tai Chu; Sedigheh Rezaeian Fardoei
  2. The Strength of Long Ties and the Weakness of Strong Ties: Knowledge diffusion through supply chain networks By TODO Yasuyuki; Petr MATOUS; INOUE Hiroyasu
  3. The innovative input mix. Assessing the importance of R&D and ICT investments for firm performance in manufacturing and services By Marina Rybalka
  4. Knowledge Transfer in Global Supply Chains: Multinationals in Sub-Saharan Africa By Zhan QU; Horst Raff; Nicolas Schmitt
  5. Pietele productiei intelectuale si eficienta lor operationala By Iancu, Victor
  6. Statistical Analysis of the Development of Science and Innovation in the Russian Federation By Abroskin, Alexander
  7. Inward foreign direct investment and innovation: evidence from Italian provinces By Roberto Antonietti; Raffaello Bronzini; Giulio Cainelli
  8. Saudi Arabian Plan to Transfer to Knowledge Society By Dr. Khalid Al Saud
  9. Research portfolios in science policy: moving from financial returns to societal benefits By Matthew L. Wallace; Ismael Rafols
  10. From Learning to Knowing: A Psychological-Neurological Approach to Explain the Human Capital Formation Process By Tamilina, Larysa; Tamilina, Natalya

  1. By: Mei-Tai Chu (La Trobe University); Sedigheh Rezaeian Fardoei (Iran University of Payam Noor)
    Abstract: Both at firm and national level, particularly in the most developed economies, the increasing importance of knowledge have meant that the net stock of intangible asset has grown more rapidly than the tangible asset. This has unfortunately not yet happened in the developing economies (Mortensen et al., 1997). The world’s economy is becoming ever more dependent on creating, distributing, and using knowledge. Converting knowledge into innovation activity penetrates the entire process including knowledge creation, transmission and application. Knowledge flow facilitates relationship and communication among the subsystems and various main bodies within the innovation system, which prompts the innovation system to be a more dynamic, open, and mutual promotion system. The exchange, flow and allocation of knowledge are the prerequisite for safeguarding the innovation system’s operation efficiency. Therefore, Knowledge Management (KM) construction for Innovation System is the enterprise innovation guarantee factor as well as one essential part for superior national innovation system. Developing countries are not as advanced as developed countries in terms of their knowledge management systems, innovation management systems, and innovation potential. Promoting their innovation management systems will benefit their innovation and will promote them closer to rely on knowledge-based industries. While National Innovation System (NIS) has been studied extensively since 1987, they have not been studied from the perspective of a knowledge management system, and this paper addresses this gap. Innovation system research emphasizes knowledge creation, transmission and application on region-level. It devotes to pull regional overall knowledge creation and innovative activities through innovation system’s institutional arrangements within a region and the network architecture design to influence functional mechanism of the essential elements. According to this context, the paper aims to propose the development of a NIS approach from a knowledge standpoint and modeling the relationship between NIS performance dimensions and items of knowledge management functions to identify how general functions of knowledge management enables NIS. Hence, the work is focusing on contributing a new perspective to the study of national innovation, as it has integrated the approach of knowledge management by summarizing the results from research touching two different aspects of knowledge management (explicit and tacit). Therefore, this paper attempts to make contribution to the nascent body of research on modeling how KM functions enable NIS. Future study can undertake a validation based on the concept model proposed from this paper.
    Keywords: Knowledge Management, National Innovation System, Knowledge Communication Indicator
    Date: 2014–06
  2. By: TODO Yasuyuki; Petr MATOUS; INOUE Hiroyasu
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of the structure of supply chain networks on productivity and innovation capability through knowledge diffusion, using large firm-level panel data for Japan. We find that ties with distant suppliers improve productivity, as measured by sales per worker, possibly attributed to intermediates from distant firms embodying more diversified knowledge than from neighboring firms. Ties with neighboring clients also improve productivity, which may be a result of diffusion of disembodied knowledge from neighboring clients being more effective than from distant clients. By contrast, ties with distant suppliers and clients improve innovative capability, as measured by the number of patent applications, suggesting the importance of a diversity of knowledge from distant firms for innovation. In addition, the density of a firm's ego network, which is measured by how densely its supply chain partners transact with each other, is found to have a negative effect on productivity and innovative capability, implying knowledge redundancy in dense networks. Overall, our results emphasize the importance of diversified partners in knowledge diffusion through supply chain networks.
    Date: 2015–03
  3. By: Marina Rybalka (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: Business innovation is an important driver of productivity growth. In this paper, I assess the importance of R&D and ICT investment for firm performance in the manufacturing and service industries. Explicitly, I use an extended version of the CDM model that treats ICT together with R&D as the main inputs into innovation and productivity, and test it on a large unbalanced panel data set based on the innovation survey for Norway. Four different types of innovation and the number of patent applications are used as innovation output measures. I find that ICT investment is strongly associated with all types of innovation in both sectors, with the result being strongest for product innovation in manufacturing and for process innovation in service industries. The impact of ICT on patenting is only positive in manufacturing. Overall, ICT seems to be less important than R&D for innovation, but more important for productivity. These results support the proposition that ICT is an important driver of productivity growth. Given the high rate of ICT diffusion in Norway, my results also contribute to explaining what is referred to as the ‘Norwegian productivity puzzle’, i.e. the fact that Norway is one of the most productive economies in the OECD despite having relatively low R&D intensity.
    Keywords: Innovation; ICT; R&D; Productivity; CDM model; Manufacturing and Services
    JEL: D24 L60 L80 O3
    Date: 2015–02
  4. By: Zhan QU; Horst Raff; Nicolas Schmitt
    Abstract: We analyze in this paper determinants of voluntary knowledge transfer from foreign investors to their local suppliers in 19 Sub- Saharan African countries using data from the 2010 Africa Investor Survey by UNIDO. We argue that not all backward linkages entail the same potential for spillovers since not all local sourcing activities by multinationals involve a transfer of knowledge to suppliers. Our findings support the idea that foreign investor´s heterogeneity and country environment are key factors shaping the spillover potential of backward linkages. Local management autonomy and the long-term nature of local procurement contracts are positively associated with the transfer of knowledge. Also sourcing strategies that seek to meet local market requirements, to optimize value chain efficiency and that respond to social responsibility commitments are more likely to involved a transfer of knowledge to suppliers. Additionally, host country institutional quality and institutional distance relative to the origin country of the MNE are relevant determinants of the degree of knowledge transfer. Investment policies that merely focus on promoting larger shares of locally sourced inputs might fail to get the most of FDI positive externalities. Instead, quality linkages that involve a transfer of knowledge should be promoted over quantity linkages
    Keywords: knowledge transfer, global value chains, institutional distance, supplier upgrading, Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: F23 O33
    Date: 2015–03
  5. By: Iancu, Victor (Institutul de Economie Nationala, Academia Româna)
    Abstract: Knowledge, generally regarded as the creative output of human mind, can be traded under specific market conditions as any other tangible asset. The process is affected by several specificities linked mainly to the intangible nature of the object of the commercial endeavour. This may pose, at least in theory, certain operational challenges. This paper aims at investigating various theoretical frameworks analyzed and/or proposed by the economic literature with regard to harnessing of knowledge in a market context. We attempt to achieve a clearer image on the relevant economic research results on the subject to date, and, subsequently, to formulate additional aspects/areas for future research.
    Keywords: market of ideas, commercialization, knowledge, innovation
    JEL: O31 O32 D8 E22
    Date: 2015–03
  6. By: Abroskin, Alexander (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The research is focused on solving urgent problems connected with the increasing use of modern statistical methodology and analytical tools for the development of an adequate information and analytical management base in the area of science and innovation. Methodological approaches of modern version of the System of National Accounts (SNA 2008), adapted to solving the problems of complex analysis of science and innovation area, are used as the basis for the development of analytical assessments in the research. The practical results of the paper are the evaluation of the current state and trends of science and innovation development in the Russian Federation, evaluation of the impact of science and innovation area on the basic parameters of the Russian economy development, as well as the results of international comparative analysis of the most important parameters of science and innovation development.
    Keywords: statistical analysis, science, innovations, ñòàòèñòè÷åñêèé àíàëèç, íàóêà, èííîâàöèè
    Date: 2014–07
  7. By: Roberto Antonietti (University of Padova); Raffaello Bronzini (Bank of Italy); Giulio Cainelli (Unicversity of Padova)
    Abstract: This paper investigates empirically whether inward greenfield foreign direct investment (FDI) is related to greater sectorial innovation in the host Italian provinces. We combine several sources of data to estimate panel count models, regressing the annual number of patents in each province and industry against a series of lagged FDI variables. Our results show that a positive relationship between FDI and local patenting emerges only for services. In particular, we find that greater inward FDI in services positively influences local patenting activity in knowledge-intensive business services. These results are robust to endogeneity and the inclusion of province controls and fixed effects.
    Keywords: inward greenfield FDI, innovation, patents, research and development, panel count models
    JEL: F14 F23 O31 C23
    Date: 2015–03
  8. By: Dr. Khalid Al Saud (Saudi Shura Council)
    Abstract: Saudi Arabia nowadays is executing plans to transform  it's  economy from being dependent on the wealth of oil reserves to be based on the products of knowledge and technology . Nothing is more difficult than developing knowledge , skills ,and capabilities of people In order to enhance  and stimulate their minds for more discoveries and inventions . Saudi Arabia beside oil has little  economical resources ,therefore Saudis has no choice except to depend on human  minds and capabilities . Development of education in terms of minimizing illiteracy and improving the quality of outcomes to be more competitive with international  standards and measures  are of the most important issues being focused on in this research paper King Abdullah project for the development of general education and the establishment of the authority of education evaluation are among the important initiatives to improve the outcomes of the general education .   Expansion of the vocational and technical training, and establishment of joint training programs with  major  manufacturing companies resampling  private sector are among the successful steps to built capabilities of Saudi technicians Opening new universities, especially research and technology universities such as king Abdullah university for science and technology KAUST , and initiating king Abdullah program  to financially  support saudi students to complete their graduate and undergraduate studies abroad in distinguished universities in medical, engineering , and computer and communications sciences are among the efforts to empower Saudis to be highly skilled and qualified to execute sophisticated technological  tasks . However, more  than 150,000 students are currently enrolled in king Abdullah  program .  Science and technology incubators such as bader is among other incubators established by king abdulaziz city for sciences and technology to help intellectuals and inventors . It aims to create  enhancing environment  for inventors to transfer their  ideas and inventions to become commercial products.  Many other initiatives such as the custodian of the to holy mosques prize for gifted and inventors and the establishment of the king abdulaziz and his companions establishment for giftness and invention are supporting and magnifying the role of Saudi efforts in the process of  transferring   of the society of saudi arabia to the so called  knowledge based economy. Finally, this paper will focus on the strategy set by the government to achieve it's goal of transfer to knowledge society by the end of 2030.
    Keywords: Saudi Arabian, Transfer to Knowledge Society
    Date: 2014–05
  9. By: Matthew L. Wallace (Ingenio (CSIC-UPV),Universitat Politècnica de València, València); Ismael Rafols (Ingenio (CSIC-UPV),Universitat Politècnica de València, València; SPRU, University of Sussex, UK; Observatoire des Sciences et Téchniques (HCERES-OST), Paris)
    Abstract: Funding agencies and large public scientific institutions are increasingly using the term “research portfolio” as a means of characterising their research. While portfolios have long been used as a heuristic for managing corporate R&D (i.e., R&D aimed at gaining tangible economic benefits), they remain ill-defined in a science policy context where research is aimed at achieving societal outcomes. In this article we analyze the discursive uses of the term “research portfolio” and propose some general considerations for their application in science policy. We explore the use of the term in private R&D and related scholarly literature in existing science policy practices, and seek insight in relevant literature in science policy scholarship. While the financial analogy can in some instances be instructive, a simple transposition from the world of finance or of corporate R&D to public research is problematic. However, we do identify potentially fruitful uses of portfolio analysis in science policy. In particular, our review suggests that the concept of research portfolio can indeed be a useful analytical instrument for tackling complex societal challenges. Specifically, the strands of scholarship identified suggest that the use of research portfolio should: i) recognize the diversity of research lines relevant for a given societal challenge, given the uncertainty and ambiguity of research outcomes; ii) examine the relationships between research options of a portfolio and the expected societal outcomes; and iii) adopt a systemic perspective to research portfolios – i.e., examine a portfolio as a functional whole, rather than as the sum of the its parts. We argue that with these considerations, portfolio-driven approaches may foster social inclusion in science policy decisions, help deliberation between “alternative” portfolios to tackle complex societal challenges, as well as promote cost-effectiveness and transparency.
    Keywords: research portfolio, prioritisation, research landscape, societal challenges
    Date: 2015–03
  10. By: Tamilina, Larysa; Tamilina, Natalya
    Abstract: By drawing on neurological and psychological theories of learning, our study introduces a new conceptual framework to analyse the role learning plays in knowledge and skill acquisition. Learning is modelled through four mechanisms defined as individuals' participation in formal, non-formal, and informal learning, as well as learning-by-doing. Our analysis suggests heterogeneity in how various learning mechanisms affect individuals' overall stock of knowledge and skills. Additionally, the proposed analytical framework points to the existence of an optimal sequence in which different learning forms should be pursued in order to maximise overall stocks of human capital. These propositions are tested with the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey data (2003) utilising a variety of statistical techniques.
    Keywords: Lifelong learning, skill acquisition, neurology of learning, psychology of learning, economics of learning
    JEL: I21 J01 J24 J28 J88
    Date: 2013–05–01

This nep-knm issue is ©2015 by Laura Ştefănescu. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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