nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2015‒02‒11
six papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Joint R and D subsidies, related variety, and regional innovation. By Tom Broekel; Matthias Brachert; Matthias Duschl; Thomas Brenner
  2. Innovation and SMEs Patent Propensity in Korea By Han, Junghee; Heshmati, Almas
  3. Globalization and synchronization of innovation cycles By Kiminori Matsuyama; Iryna Sushko; Laura Gardini
  4. Education and health knowledge: evidence from UK compulsory schooling reforms By David W. Johnston; Grace Lordan; Michael A. Shields; Agne Suziedelyte
  5. Performance-Based Typology Of Universities: Evidence From Russia By Irina V. Abankina; Fuad T. Aleskerov; Veronika Yu. Belousova; Leonid M. Gokhberg; Kirill V. Zinkovsky; Sofya G. Kiselgof; Vsevolod Petrushchenko; Sergey V. Shvydun
  6. Sector-level tests of the feasibility of green growth: Carbon intensity versus economic and productivity growth indicators By Ardjan Gazheli; Miklós Antal; Jeroen van den Bergh

  1. By: Tom Broekel (1 Institute of Economic and Cultural Geography, Leibniz University of Hanover, Germany,; Matthias Brachert (Department Structural Economics, Halle Institute for Economic Research, Germany;; Matthias Duschl (Department of Geography, Philipps University of Marburg, Germany,; Thomas Brenner (Department of Geography, Philipps University of Marburg, Germany, Philipps University of Marburg, Germany,
    Abstract: Subsidies for R and D are an important tool of public R and D policy, which motivates extensive scientific analyses and evaluations. The paper adds to this literature by arguing that the effects of R and D subsidies go beyond the extension of organizations’ monetary resources invested into R and D. It is argued that collaboration induced by subsidized joint R and D projects yield significant effects that are missed in traditional analyses. An empirical study on the level of German labor market regions substantiates this claim showing that collaborative R and D subsidies impact regions’ innovation growth when providing access to related variety and embedding regions into central positions in cross-regional knowledge networks.
    Keywords: collaborative R and D projects, related variety, regional innovation
    JEL: L14 O31 R12
    Date: 2015–01–26
  2. By: Han, Junghee (Chonnam National University); Heshmati, Almas (Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS), Jönköping International Business School, & Sogang University)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the patent propensity as an outcome of innovative activities of regional SMEs. To achieve the aims, we apply robust regression analysis to estimate the models to test 5 research hypotheses using 263 firm level data located at Gwangju region in Korea. Our empirical results show that a firm’s industry characteristics, such as machinery and automotive parts industry, is negatively related with propensity to patent innovation. Also, unlike expectations, the InnoBiz firms designated as innovative SMEs by the government are not performing differently than general firms. Only the CEO’s academic credentials are positively related with propensity to patent. From the findings, we can conclude that patenting propensity is not directly related with a firm’s characteristics but mainly to CEO’s managerial strategy. Also, we cannot find evidence for policy effectiveness from public support given to InnoBiz firms as part of the state policy to nurture photonic industry to boost regional economic development. Given the lack of strong policy effects, a new industry policy should be considered to actively promote SMEs innovativeness.
    Keywords: Patent propensity; Photonic Industry; SMEs growth; R&D; innovation; InnoBiz; Korea
    JEL: C51 D22 O31 O32
    Date: 2015–01–27
  3. By: Kiminori Matsuyama (Northwestern University, USA); Iryna Sushko (Institute of Mathematics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine); Laura Gardini
    Abstract: We propose and analyze a two-country model of endogenous innovation cycles. In autarky, innovation fluctuations in the two countries are decoupled. As the trade costs fall and intra-industry trade rises, they become synchronized. This is because globalization leads to the alignment of innovation incentives across firms based in different countries, as they operate in the increasingly global (hence common) market environment. Furthermore, synchronization occurs faster (i.e., with a smaller reduction in trade costs) when the country sizes are more unequal, and it is the larger country that dictates the tempo of global innovation cycles with the smaller country adjusting its rhythm to the rhythm of the larger country. These results suggest that adding endogenous sources of productivity fluctuations might help improve our understanding of why countries that trade more with each other have more synchronized business cycles.
    Keywords: Endogenous innovation cycles and productivity co-movements; Globalization, Home market effect; Synchronized vs. Asynchronized cycles; Synchronization of coupled oscillators; Basins of attraction; Two-dimensional, piecewise smooth, noninvertible maps
    JEL: C61 E32 F12 F44 O31
    Date: 2015–02
  4. By: David W. Johnston; Grace Lordan; Michael A. Shields; Agne Suziedelyte
    Abstract: We investigate if there is a causal link between education and health knowledge using data from the 1984/85 and 1991/92 waves of the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS). Uniquely, the survey asks respondents what they think are the main causes of ten common health conditions, and we compare these answers to those given by medical professionals to form an index of health knowledge. For causal identification we use increases in the UK minimum school leaving age in 1947 (from 14 to 15) and 1972 (from 15 to 16) to provide exogenous variation in education. These reforms predominantly induced adolescents who would have left school to stay for one additionally mandated year. Naïve ordinary least squares estimates suggest that education significantly increases health knowledge, with a one-year increase in schooling increasing the health knowledge index by 15% of a standard deviation. In contrast, estimates from instrumental-variable models show that increased schooling due to the education reforms did not significantly affect health knowledge: a one-year increase in schooling is estimated to decrease the health knowledge index by 0.1% of a standard deviation. This main result is robust to numerous specification tests and alternative formulations of the health knowledge index. Further research is required to determine whether there is also no causal link between higher levels of education – such as post-school qualifications – and health knowledge.
    Keywords: Education; health; knowledge; compulsory schooling; causality
    JEL: I10 I12 I20
    Date: 2014–09
  5. By: Irina V. Abankina (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Fuad T. Aleskerov (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Veronika Yu. Belousova (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Leonid M. Gokhberg (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Kirill V. Zinkovsky (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Sofya G. Kiselgof (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Vsevolod Petrushchenko (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Sergey V. Shvydun (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: In recent decades increased economic pressure and growing expectations of the society have led to a shift to performance-based funding modes of public research, namely universities, introduced by the government. In this respect universities started to use various strategies to adapt and develop their activities under the new framework conditions. National governments currently attempt to design and apply various taxonomies for structuring the university infrastructure in all different shapes in order to facilitate the development of efficient programmes for the advancement of higher education. The paper provides a review of different approaches to university typologies, discusses the choice of indicators and mathematical tools for grouping universities using common criteria and evaluating their performance based on classical and modified DEA approaches. The authors developed a typology which was tested in the Russian context, taking into account indicators of research and educational activities implemented by domestic universities and their efficiency score. The typology is based on clustering universities by availability of resources and research and educational performance and the combination of these results with efficiency score. It does not only group universities by type but includes a decision tree for classifying them as members of a specific group keeping into account their heterogeneity. It may serve as a basis for content analysis of the wide range of universities, and for shaping targeted policies aimed at their particular groups.
    Keywords: higher education institutions (HEIs), typology, research and educational activities of HEIs, hierarchical clustering, data envelopment analysis, efficiency, performance
    JEL: C14 C38 D83 O32
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Ardjan Gazheli; Miklós Antal; Jeroen van den Bergh
    Abstract: In this paper we present a sector-based approach to investigate whether green growth – combining economic growth with environmental sustainability – is feasible. Our approach considers the relation between on the one hand carbon dioxide emissions per dollar of output (what we will call carbon intensity) and on the other growth in economic output and labor productivity, at the level of production sectors. Carbon intensity (CI) is calculated in two ways: as direct CO2 emissions from each sector, which can be seen to immediately result from the processes in the respective sector; and as total, direct plus indirect, emissions, by using environmentally-extended input-output tables. The analysis covers Denmark, Germany and Spain for the period 1995-2007. We calculate correlations over time between sectoral CIs and a range of economic indicators: sectoral total and relative output, final demand, value added, and so-called output and valued-added productivity indicators, and their change. The findings are similar for the two types of CI indicators. The bad news for green growth is that relatively clean sectors do not seem to be more productive than dirtier ones, and neither show higher productivity growth. Sectors associated with high carbon intensity grew more in absolute terms than those with low carbon intensity. The share of these sectors increased suggesting that green growth requires a very rapid pace of decarbonization, or the economy as a whole to shrink. Longer-term sectoral growth on the other hand, as expressed by a change in value added, does not seem to be positively correlated with carbon intensity.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions, Climate change, Green growth, Labor productivity, Production sectors, World Input-output Database
    Date: 2015–01

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