nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2014‒11‒28
thirteen papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. The persistence of firms' knowledge base: a quantile approach to Italian data By Alessandra Colombelli; Francesco Quatraro
  2. High-growth firms and technological knowledge: do gazelles follow exploration or exploitation strategies? By Alessandra Colombelli; Jackie Krafft; Francesco Quatraro
  3. Knowledge Exchange in Innovation Networks: How Networks Support open Innovation in Food SMEs By Kühne, Bianka; Lefebvre, Virginie; Gellynck, Xavier
  4. The intellectual pillars of user innovation: a co-citation analysis By Herstatt, Cornelius; Schweisfurth, Tim
  5. Role of ICT in the innovation process based on firm-level evidence from four ASEAN economies: An SEM approach By Idota, Hiroki; Ueki, Yasushi; Bunno, Teruyuki; Shinohara, Sobee; Tsuji, Masatsugu
  6. The Effects of Research & Development Funding On Scientific Productivity: Academic Chemistry, 1990-2009 By Joshua L. Rosenbloom; Donna K. Ginther; Ted Juhl; Joseph Heppert
  7. International R&D alliances by firms: Origins and development By Narula R.; Martinez-Noya A.
  8. Intangible Capital, Innovation, and Growth in China By Fleisher, Belton; McGuire, William; Smith, Adam; Zhou, Mi
  9. Better Harnessing Talent and Knowledge to Boost Sustainable Medium-term Growth in Spain By David Haugh; Ben Westmore
  10. The curse of knowledge increases self-selection into competition: Experimental evidence By Danz, David
  11. “What Do we Know about Entering Innovation Network by SMEs ?” By Minarelli, Francesca; Raggi, Meri; Viaggi, Davide
  12. Incentives for Research Agents: Optimal Contracts and Implementation By Yaping Shan
  13. The effect of simultaneous multi-screening on the users' knowledge of social issues in a highly mediated society By Cheng, John W.; Mitomo, Hitoshi; Otsuka, Tokio

  1. By: Alessandra Colombelli (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR7321 - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (UNS)); Francesco Quatraro (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR7321 - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (UNS))
    Abstract: The paper investigates the patterns of persistence of innovation and of the properties of firms' knowledge base (KB) across a sample of Italian firms in the period 1998-2006. The analysis draws upon a theoretical representation of knowledge as a collective good, stemming from the recombination of knowledge bits that are fragmented and dispersed across economic agents. On this basis, we derived properties of the KB like the coherence, the cognitive distance and the variety, and investigated their patterns of persistence over time. The empirical analysis is implemented by exploring the autocorrelation structure of such properties within a quantile regression framework. The results suggest that the properties of knowledge are featured by somewhat peculiar patterns as compared with knowledge stock, and that such evidence is also heterogeneous across firms in different quantiles.
    Keywords: persistence, innovation, knowledge coherence, variety, cognitive distance, quantile regression, autocorrelation
    Date: 2014–04–23
  2. By: Alessandra Colombelli (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR7321 - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (UNS)); Jackie Krafft (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR7321 - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (UNS)); Francesco Quatraro (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR7321 - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (UNS))
    Abstract: This article analyzes the contribution of high-growth firms (HGFs) to the process of knowledge creation. We articulate a demand-pull innovation framework in which knowledge creation is driven by sales growth, and knowledge stems from creative recombination. Building on the literature on HGFs and economic growth, we investigate whether "gazelles" follow patterns of knowledge creation dominated by exploration or exploitation strategies. We construct indicators for the structure of knowledge and identify firms' innovation strategies. The empirical results show that increasing growth rates are associated with exploration, supporting the idea that HGFs are key actors in the creation of new technological knowledge, and showing also that firms that achieve higher than average growth focus on exploration based on familiar technology. This suggests that exploration is less random than has been suggested. Our main result is that HGFs, especially gazelles, predominantly adopt exploration strategies that have the characteristics of organized search more often observed among firms following an exploitation strategy.
    Date: 2014–01–06
  3. By: Kühne, Bianka; Lefebvre, Virginie; Gellynck, Xavier
    Abstract: Knowledge exchange is a prerequisite for learning and consequently for innovation. Through open innovation, the innovating firms establish ties with other organizations, in order to innovate. At the baseline, open innovation is thus the exchange of knowledge through in- and out-flows of the knowledge at a company. Formal networks can provide access to other organizations and otherwise unavailable knowledge and resources and are seen as the locus of innovation. Four main categories of knowledge exchange can be distinguished: socialization, combination, articulation, and internalization. Within these categories, distinct but interdependent processes of knowledge exchange take place as described in the innovation production process (IPP) which consists of three main steps, knowledge accumulation, knowledge transformation, and knowledge exploitation (Roper et al., 2008). The objective of this paper is to explore how formal networks contribute to the categories of knowledge exchange and to each of the three steps of the IPP in order to conclude on how networks can facilitate open innovation among their members. Data are collected by means of three case-studies conducted in three Flemish formal networks which focus on enhancing the innovativeness and learning capabilities of micro, small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Our findings confirm the importance of networks in the process of knowledge exchange and innovation for SMEs in the food sector. The most important role of the networks is to create the appropriate environment according to the type of knowledge and the step(s) in the innovation production process focused on. Furthermore, it appears to be a very important task of the network to stimulate actively knowledge transformation into innovation outputs such as new or improved technology or product prototypes. Thereby, not only short-term effects should be aimed at, but also long-term effects e.g. for organizational innovation, should be taken into account. In conclusion, all three networks follow very different approaches in order to facilitate, stimulate and support knowledge exchange and innovation among their members. Based on the results, managerial as well as policy implications are posed towards network members, i.e. the SMEs, network coordinators and researchers.
    Keywords: knowledge exchange, learning, triple helix networks, SMEs, food industry, Agribusiness, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2013–09
  4. By: Herstatt, Cornelius; Schweisfurth, Tim
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Idota, Hiroki; Ueki, Yasushi; Bunno, Teruyuki; Shinohara, Sobee; Tsuji, Masatsugu
    Abstract: Although the East Asian economies have been developing in the 21th century, innovation is indispensable for their further economic development. In order to achieve successful innovation, firms have to elevate their capability including technology, human resources, business organization, ICT use and so on by collaborating with outside organizations such as MNCs (Multi-national companies), universities, public organizations. The outside organizations are termed as external linkages. Based on authors' survey data of four ASEAN economies such as Vietnam, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand from 2012 to 2013, this paper examines how factors such as organizational learning, ICT use, and technology enhance product and process innovation. These factors are used as latent variables in analysis and consist of the following variables: (i) technology such as capital goods, (ii) organizational learning including QC, cross-functional teams, (iii) ICT use such as B2B, B2C, EDI, SCM, ERP, CAD/CAM, groupware, SNS etc., and (iv) external linkages, such as MNCs, local and public organizations, and universities. This study employs SEM (Structural equation modeling) in order to analyze the causal relationships not only among the above four latent variables but also between these and innovation. The six hypotheses were postulated as follows: H1. External linkages enhance organizational learning; H2. External linkages improve capital goods; H3. External linkage improves ICT use; H4. Organizational learning improves capital goods; H5. Organizational learning improves ICT use; and H6. Organizational learning, ICT use, and capital goods enhance innovation. Estimation results on product innovation demonstrate that organization learning, technology (capital goods), and ICT use enhance product innovation. On the other hand, organization learning promotes technology (capital goods) and ICT use, which promotes process innovation. Accordingly, this study clarifies that ICT use, technology and innovation capability enhance product and process innovation.
    Keywords: ICT use,innovation, internal capability,external linkages,SEM (Structural equation modeling)
    Date: 2014
  6. By: Joshua L. Rosenbloom; Donna K. Ginther; Ted Juhl; Joseph Heppert
    Abstract: This article examines the relationship between Research & Development (R&D) funding and the production of knowledge by academic chemists. Using articles published, either raw counts or adjusted for quality, we find a strong, positive causal effect of funding on knowledge production. This effect is similar across subsets of universities, suggesting a relatively efficient allocation of R&D funds. Finally, we document a rapid acceleration in the rate at which chemical knowledge was produced in the late 1990s and early 2000s relative to the financial and human resources devoted to its production.
    JEL: H50 I23 O31 O32 O38
    Date: 2014–10
  7. By: Narula R.; Martinez-Noya A. (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: There has been a dramatic increase in all forms of international cooperation in science, technology and innovation over the last three decades. This chapter focuses on a specific subset of such cooperative agreements those that primarily but not exclusively involve firms that seek some commercial benefit from the outputs of inter-firm collaboration, known as strategic technology partnering STP. Special attention is given to clearly define the unique nature of these collaborative agreements, as well as the reasons and theories behind their growth. We focus on their international dimension, identifying international STP trends, and how the cross-border aspect of these alliances impinges on their formation and success. Finally, managerial challenges and policy implications related to STP are also discussed.
    Keywords: Contracting Out; Joint Ventures; Technology Licensing; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D;
    JEL: O32 L24
    Date: 2014
  8. By: Fleisher, Belton; McGuire, William; Smith, Adam; Zhou, Mi
    Abstract: We study the relationship between industry-level investments in intangible capital (IC) and three key economic indicators in China. We find that investments in IC are productivity-enhancing among Chinese enterprises—more so in domestically owned than in foreign invested enterprises. Consistent with other research, we find that China’s IC generates new patents, but fewer than in major industrialized economies. Among domestically owned enterprises, we find that IC growth has been associated with increasing export-competitiveness, while among foreign invested enterprises, it has been oriented more toward improving domestic sales.
    Keywords: Intangible capital, technology, economic growth, intellectual property, Asia, China, International Development, International Relations/Trade, Production Economics, O31, O33, O34, O43, P33,
    Date: 2014
  9. By: David Haugh; Ben Westmore
    Abstract: Structural transformation towards a more knowledge-based economy will strengthen Spain’s medium-term growth prospects. To deal with long standing impediments to higher growth the government has a substantial structural reform programme touching on education, the labour market and the business environment. Areas of particular weakness to be tackled include the high number of poorly qualified long-term unemployed, skills mismatches and a high school drop-out rate, and insufficient innovation. Spain has done well in reducing the carbon emissions intensity of GDP growth but will need to do more to meet future targets and manage its scarce water resources. The resolution of acute banking and fiscal problems, and the cyclical upswing, provide a more solid platform for sustained growth. Raising trend growth will boost job creation, which is the most effective antidote to the strong rise in poverty and inequality that accompanied the sharp deterioration in the labour market during the crisis.<P>Mieux maîtriser les talents et les connaissances pour stimuler une croissance à moyen terme durable en Espagne<BR>La transformation structurelle en faveur d’une économie davantage fondée sur le savoir renforcera les perspectives de croissance à moyen terme de l’Espagne. Pour remédier aux obstacles qui entravent de longue date une croissance plus soutenue, les autorités ont mis en place un important programme de réformes structurelles, concernant l’éducation, le marché du travail et l’environnement des entreprises. Parmi les déficiences particulières que ce programme vise à surmonter figurent le grand nombre de chômeurs de longue durée peu qualifiés, les inadéquations de compétences et le taux élevé d’abandon scolaire ainsi que l’insuffisance de l’innovation. L’Espagne a obtenu de bons résultats pour ce qui est de la réduction de l’intensité en émissions de carbone de la croissance du PIB, mais elle devra faire davantage pour atteindre les objectifs futurs et gérer ses rares ressources en eau. La résolution des graves problèmes bancaires et budgétaires et le redressement conjoncturel de l’activité créent des conditions plus propices à une croissance soutenue. L’accélération de la croissance tendancielle dopera la création d’emplois, qui est le meilleur antidote à la forte progression de la pauvreté et de l’inégalité qui a accompagné la profonde dégradation du marché du travail durant la crise.
    Keywords: education, productivity, environment, innovation, Spain, R&D, employment protection, climate change, active labour market policies, training, family policy, fertility, wage bargaining, skills, long-term unemployment, youth unemployment, female labour force participation, labour participation, trend growth, green innovation, skills mismatch, water scarcity, universities, growth simulations, carbon pricing, compétences, simulations de croissance, fertilité, participation de la main-d'oeuvre féminine., tarification du carbone, rareté de l'eau, inadéquation des compétences, chômage des jeunes, politiques actives du marché du travail, croissance tendancielle, universités, innovation verte, politiques familiales, chômage de longue durée, R-D, négociation salariale, formation, protection de l'emploi, changement climatique, Espagne, innovation, éducation, environnement, productivité
    JEL: E17 E24 I23 I28 J13 J21 J52 J61 J65 O31 O38 O40 Q52 Q58
    Date: 2014–11–13
  10. By: Danz, David
    Abstract: The psychology literature provides ample evidence that people have difficulties taking the perspective of less-informed others. This paper presents a controlled experiment showing that this "curse of knowledge" can cause comparative overconfidence and overentry into competition. In a broader context, the results provide an explanation for the overconfidence of nascent entrepreneurs and the substantial rate of failure among new businesses.
    Keywords: curse of knowledge,hindsight bias,information projection,overconfidence,sorting,incentive schemes,competition,beliefs,experiments
    JEL: C91 D80 D82 D83 D84
    Date: 2014
  11. By: Minarelli, Francesca; Raggi, Meri; Viaggi, Davide
    Abstract: The importance of networking as a way to enhance innovation has been pointed out in many scientific papers, in particular for SMEs. A great number of scientific studies clearly establish the significant role of SMEs in economic growth, promoting flexibility and innovation in an economy. The process of successfully engage in a network represents a key for enhancing competitiveness. In order to improve effectiveness of network is pivotal the achievement of a better understanding of SME behavior. The presented work aims to identify factors that characterize food SMEs entering in innovation networks by integrating findings from the literature review with a survey of food SMEs.
    Keywords: Network, food SMEs, innovation, Agribusiness, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2013–09
  12. By: Yaping Shan (School of Economics, University of Adelaide)
    Abstract: We study the agency problem between a firm and its research employees. In a multi-agent contracting setting, we show explicitly the way in which the optimal incentive regime is a function of how agents' efforts interact with one another: relative-performance evaluation is used when their efforts are substitutes whereas joint-performance evaluation is used when their efforts are complements. We also provide an implementation of the optimal contract, in which a primary component of the agents' compensation is a risky security. This implementation gives a theoretical justification for the wide-spread use of stock-based compensation by firms that rely on R&D.
    Keywords: Dynamic Contract, Repeated Moral Hazard, Multi-agent Incentive, R&D, Em- ployee Compensation
    JEL: D23 D82 D86 J33 L22 O32
    Date: 2013–11
  13. By: Cheng, John W.; Mitomo, Hitoshi; Otsuka, Tokio
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the simultaneous use of mass and social media on the users' level of general knowledge of social issues in the highly mediated society in Japan. In particular, it focuses on one of the recent major trends in media convergence known as 'simultaneous multi-screening' i.e., when the users engage with more than one media simultaneously using multiple devices. The data used was collected from an Internet based survey conducted in March 2014 with 2,060 samples from Japan. Using structural equation modelling, the results have shown that multi-screening such as watching television and using social media simultaneously is indeed a common phenomenon in Japan. However, it has only a mild effect on the users' level of general knowledge of social issues as most of the effect came from the viewing of television news and current affair programmes directly. That being said, it has indirectly mediated the effect from the use of social media on the users' level of knowledge of social issues which otherwise has no direct effect at all. The results imply that although simultaneous multi-screening can link up the mass and social media. However, in the context of social issues, currently television news and current affair programmes in Japan appear to be are not a very strong catalyst to trigger the audiences to take immediate action online. These findings provide the foundation for future studies to further investigate what kind of television programmes can motivate the audiences to take further action, and which groups of audience are more likely to be motivated.
    Date: 2014

This nep-knm issue is ©2014 by Laura Ştefănescu. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.