nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2014‒11‒07
eight papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. The Role of Institutional Characteristics in Knowledge Transfer: A Comparative Analysis of Two Italian Universities. By Rossi, Federica; Fassio,Claudio; Geuna, Aldo
  2. Do Firms Benefit from Complementarity Effect in R&D and What Drives their R&D Strategy Choices? By Uwe Cantner; Ivan Savin
  3. The Role of R&D Collaboration Networks on Regional Innovation Performance By Cilem Selin Hazir; James Lesage; Corinne Autant-Bernard
  4. The hidden costs of R&D collaboration By Sara Amoroso Author-1-Name-First: Sara Author-1-Name-Last: Amoroso
  5. Co-evolutionary Patterns in Regional Knowledge Bases and Economic Structure: Evidence from European Regions By Francesco Quatraro
  7. Knowledge-based Hierarchies: Using Organizations to Understand the Economy By Luis Garicano; Esteban Rossi-Hansberg
  8. Measuring agricultural knowledge and adoption By Kondylis, Florence; Mueller, Valerie; Zhu, Siyao Jessica

  1. By: Rossi, Federica; Fassio,Claudio; Geuna, Aldo (University of Turin)
    Date: 2014–09
  2. By: Uwe Cantner (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena); Ivan Savin (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes whether firms conducting internal R&D and acquiring external high-tech equipment experience a complementarity effect. For German CIS data we conduct a complete set of indirect and direct complementarity tests refining the analysis by looking at various types of innovations and industries. Complementary effects are found in the indirect but not so in the direct approach. In contrast to previous literature, we find the distinct R&D strategy choices to be significant drivers of innovative activity and we identify contextual variables explaining the joint occurrence of the two strategies.
    Keywords: complementarity, equipment with embodied technology, innovation, internal R&D, Pavitt's sectoral taxonomy
    JEL: O14 O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2014–10–06
  3. By: Cilem Selin Hazir (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS : UMR5824 - Université Lumière - Lyon II - École Normale Supérieure (ENS) - Lyon - PRES Université de Lyon - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I (UCBL)); James Lesage (Texas State University - Texas State University); Corinne Autant-Bernard (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS : UMR5824 - Université Lumière - Lyon II - École Normale Supérieure (ENS) - Lyon - PRES Université de Lyon - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I (UCBL))
    Abstract: In this study, we consider R&D collaboration networks as a mechanism that modifies knowledge flows in space, and hence as another source of interaction among regional innovation processes. Our objective is to understand the relative role of spatial neighbors and network neighbors on patenting performance of regions. We make use of data on R&D collaborations supported by the European Union's Framework Programs (FP) and empirically investigate the patent activity of 213 European regions in the field of ICT during 2003-2009. Concerning the short length of the time frame we adopt a static modeling strategy and specify a spatial Durbin Model. As spatial neighbors intersect with network neighbors we decompose neighbor regions into three sets: spatially proximate regions that are not collaboration partners, spatially proximate regions that are collaboration partners, and distant collaboration partners. We express the weight matrix as a convex combination of these three sets and by means of gridding we compare how model fit changes as we move from a purely space based view to a purely network based view to express the dependence structure. The weight matrix that performs the best accords 60% weight to distant collaboration partners, 30% weight to proximate collaboration partners and 10% weight to proximate regions with whom there is no FP collaboration. This result reveals that the interaction (proximate and distant) among European regions within FP networks in the field of ICT is key for understanding dependence among their patenting performances.
    Keywords: R&D collaboration networks; innovation performance; spatial econometrics; ICT
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Sara Amoroso Author-1-Name-First: Sara Author-1-Name-Last: Amoroso (European Commission JRC-IPTS)
    Abstract: The paper investigates the barriers to collaboration in terms of hidden transaction costs, by deriving the distribution of the operating costs and sunk costs associated with firms’ investment choices in R&D and innovation activities with or without a research partner. To retrieve both fixed and sunk costs of R&D and innovation activities with or without a research partner, we develop and estimate a structural dynamic monopoly model to quantify the linkages between R&D spending, innovation and cooperation investment choices, and endogenous productivity. We find that the sunk costs of innovations are smaller when collaborating with a research partner; the probability to spend in R&D or to innovate increases with the level of productivity, when collaborating in R&D and innovation; finally, we find that the sunk costs of innovation are 1.5 to 3 times smaller than the sunk costs of R&D. Additionally, the suggested structural framework of firm heterogeneity in cost functions offers a straightforward extension to policy impact evaluation.
    Keywords: R&D cooperation, transaction costs, dynamic structural model.
    JEL: D22 D23 L14 L60 O32
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Francesco Quatraro (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR7321 - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (UNS))
    Abstract: This paper analyses the co-evolutionary patterns of structural change in knowledge and economics. The former is made operational through an analysis of co-occurrences of technological classes in patent documents in order to derive indicators of coherence, variety and cognitive distance. The latter is made operational in a synthetic way by implementing shift-share analysis which decomposes labour productivity growth into effects caused by changes in the allocation of employment, those ascribed to intra-sector productivity growth, and those caused by interaction of these two components. The results of the analysis conducted on a sample of 227 European regions show that increasing variety is associated with the reallocation of the workforce across sectors whereas within-sector productivity is associated with high levels of both coherence and cognitive distance of the regional knowledge base.
    Keywords: Recombinant knowledge, Coherence, Variety, Regional structural change, Shift-share analysis,
    Date: 2014–07–15
  6. By: Juana Sanchez
    Abstract: This paper presents a novel empirical study of innovation practices of U.S. companies and their relation to productivity levels using new business micro data from the Business Research and Development and Innovation Survey (BRDIS) for the years 2008-2011. The paper follows the work of Frenz and Lambert, who use factor analysis to reduce a set of inputs and outputs of innovation activities into four latent unobserved innovation modes or practices for OECD countries using Community Innovation Surveys (CIS). Patterns obtained with BRDIS data are very similar to those found by those authors in some OECD countries. Companies are grouped according to their scores across the four factors to see that in large, small and medium companies more than one mode of innovation practices prevails. The next step in the analysis links different types of innovation practices to levels of productivity using regression analysis. The four innovation modes have a statistically signi cant positive relation with the level of productivity, other things constant. The paper demonstrates the possibility of taking into account the multidimensionality of innovation without the use of composite indicators.
    Date: 2014–09
  7. By: Luis Garicano; Esteban Rossi-Hansberg
    Abstract: We argue that incorporating the decision of how to organize the acquisition, use, and communication of knowledge into economic models is essential to understand a wide variety of economic phenomena. We survey the literature that has used knowledge-based hierarchies to study issues like the evolution of wage inequality, the growth and productivity of firms, economic development, the gains from international trade, as well as offshoring and the formation of international production teams, among many others. We also review the nascent empirical literature that has, so far, confirmed the importance of organizational decisions and many of its more salient implications.
    Keywords: Knowledge, hierarchies, wage inequality, international trade
    Date: 2014–10
  8. By: Kondylis, Florence; Mueller, Valerie; Zhu, Siyao Jessica
    Abstract: Understanding the trade-offs in improving the precision of agricultural measures through survey design is crucial. Yet, standard indicators used to determine program effectiveness may be flawed and at a differential rate for men and women. The authors use a household survey from Mozambique to estimate the measurement error from male and female self-reports of their adoption and knowledge of three practices: intercropping, mulching, and strip tillage. Despite clear differences in human and physical capital, there are no obvious differences in the knowledge, adoption, and error in self-reporting between men and women. Having received training unanimously lowers knowledge misreports and increases adoption misreports. Other determinants of reporting error differ by gender. Misreporting is positively associated with a greater number of plots for men. Recall decay on measures of knowledge appears prominent among men but not women. Findings from regression and cost-effectiveness analyses always favor the collection of objective measures of knowledge. Given the lowest rate of accuracy for adoption was around 80 percent, costlier objective adoption measures are recommended for a subsample in regions with heterogeneous farm sizes.
    Keywords: Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems,Population Policies,Rural Development Knowledge&Information Systems,Crops and Crop Management Systems,Primary Education
    Date: 2014–10–01

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