nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2014‒08‒28
seven papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. R&D partnerships and innovation performance: Can there be too much of a good thing? By Hottenrott, Hanna; Lopes-Bento, Cindy
  2. What old stagers could teach us: Examining age complementarities in regional innovation systems By Arntz, Melanie; Gregory, Terry
  3. How do knowledge brokers work? The case of WERS By Hilary Drew; Anna King; Ritchie Felix
  4. Innovation ouverte et évolution des business models dans les pôles de compétitivité : le rôle des intermédiaires dans la création variétale végétale By Isabelle Leroux; Paul Muller; Béatrice Plottu; Caroline Widehem
  5. Intellectual property rights protection in the presence of exhaustible resources By Hori, Takeo; Yamagami, Hiroaki
  6. Direct and cross-scheme effects in a research and development subsidy program By Hottenrott, Hanna; Lopes-Bento, Cindy; Veugelers, Reinhilde
  7. L'éducation : Un secteur innovant ? By OCDE

  1. By: Hottenrott, Hanna; Lopes-Bento, Cindy
    Abstract: R&D collaboration facilitates pooling of complementary skills, learning from the partner as well as sharing risks and costs. Research therefore repeatedly stressed the positive relationship between collaborative R&D and innovation performance. Collaboration, however, involves transaction costs in form of coordination and monitoring efforts and requires knowledge disclosure. This study explicitly considers a firm's collaboration intensity, that is, the share of collaborative R&D projects in a firms' total R&D projects in a sample of mostly small and medium-sized firms (SMEs). We can confirm previous findings in terms of gains for innovation performance, but also show that collaboration has decreasing and even negative returns on product innovation if its intensity increases above a certain threshold. In particular, costs start outweighing benefits if a firm pursues more than about two thirds of its R&D projects in collaboration. --
    Keywords: innovation performance,product innovation,R&D partnerships,collaboration intensity,SMEs,transaction costs,selection model,endogenous switching
    JEL: O31 O32 O33 O34
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Arntz, Melanie; Gregory, Terry
    Abstract: Concerns have been raised that demographic ageing may weaken the competitiveness of knowledge-based economies and increase regional disparities. The age-creativity link is however far from clear at the aggregate level. Contributing to this debate, we estimate the causal effect of the workforce age structure on patenting activities for local labour markets in Germany using a flexible knowledge production function and accounting for potential endogeneity of the regional workforce structure. Overall, our results suggest that younger workers boost regional innovations, but this effect partly hinges on the presence of older workers as younger and older workers turn out to be complements in the production of knowledge. With demographic aging mainly increasing the older workforce and shrinking the younger one, our results imply that innovation levels in ageing societies may drop in the future. Moreover, differences in the regional age structure currently explain around a sixth of the innovation gap across German regions. --
    Keywords: regional innovation system,demographic ageing,knowledge production function,regional disparities,age complementarities
    JEL: R12 R23 J11
    Date: 2014
  3. By: Hilary Drew (University of the West of England, Bristol); Anna King (University of the West of England, Bristol); Ritchie Felix (University of the West of England, Bristol)
    Abstract: A resource-based view of organizations suggests that internal knowledge is amongst the most important sources of competitive advantage. Regardless of whether these ideas are exaggerated, it is not necessary to buy into them all to accept the significance of knowledge as a resource. Knowledge is complex, multi-faceted, intangible, often tacit and specialised; consequently, it is difficult to manage exchange. This has implications for narrowing the gap between academic research and policy impact, and for developing policy-relevant academic research. This paper examines how one particular study, the Workplace Employment Relations Study (WERS), uses KBs to bridge the gap between research and practical knowledge. the findings indicate that KBs in both government and academia have been essential in the effective deployment of WERS research in policy-making and commercial practice.
    Keywords: WERS, Workplace Employment Relations Survey, knowledge, knowledge exchange
    JEL: O33 O38 M15 M50
    Date: 2014–01–03
  4. By: Isabelle Leroux (GRANEM, Université d'Angers); Paul Muller (Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux, INRA); Béatrice Plottu (GRANEM, Institut Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, Agroalimentaires, Horticoles et du Paysage (Agrocampus Ouest)); Caroline Widehem (GRANEM, Institut Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, Agroalimentaires, Horticoles et du Paysage (Agrocampus Ouest))
    Abstract: Par le financement de projets collaboratifs, la politique française des pôles de compétitivité implique une approche particulière de l’innovation ouverte portant principalement sur la co-construction et le partage d’une ressource commune aux partenaires du projet. Ceci peut impliquer une remise en question des pratiques d’innovation ouverte et de nouvelles contraintes et opportunités amenant les entreprises à envisager une évolution de leur business model. Cependant, de telles évolutions peuvent être entravées par des freins internes et externes. Le rôle d’intermédiation joué par les instances d’animation, de coordination et de transfert des pôles de compétitivité est essentiel pour les lever.
    Abstract: The French « Pôles de compétitivité » policy notably entails the financing of collaborative projects. This gives rise to a particular approach to open innovation that mainly relies on the co-constructing and the sharing of a resource common to stakeholders. This may entail a questioning of current innovation practices, thus giving rise to new constraints and opportunities lead firms to reconsider their business model. However, internal and external constraints may impede their evolution. Governing bodies of « Pôles de compétitivité » play a central role in releasing stakeholders from those impediments as they act as innovation intermediaries.
    Keywords: business model innovation, open innovation, competitiveness cluster, innovation intermediary, innovation, innovation ouverte, intermédiaire d'innovation, modèlepôle de competitiviteintermédiation
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Hori, Takeo; Yamagami, Hiroaki
    Abstract: We construct a research and development (R&D) based endogenous growth model with exhaustible resources and investigate whether protection of intellectual property rights (IPR) can sustain perpetual growth. We show that relatively weak IPR protection is sufficient to sustain perpetual growth when goods production is more resource-intensive, whereas relatively strong IPR protection is needed for perpetual growth if production is less resource-intensive. If the resource intensity in goods production is medium, even the strictest IPR protection cannot sustain perpetual growth when the quality improvements brought about by innovations are small enough. In this case, we find that R&D subsidies can complement IPR protection in sustaining perpetual growth. We derive the socially optimal level of IPR protection, which is increasing in the resource intensity of goods production. Furthermore, we also consider a case where resource is essential for R&D activities and show a knife-edge condition for perpetual growth.
    Keywords: Endogenous growth; Exhaustible resource; Innovation; Intellectual property rights protection; Patent breadth
    JEL: L50 O30 P28
    Date: 2014–08
  6. By: Hottenrott, Hanna; Lopes-Bento, Cindy; Veugelers, Reinhilde
    Abstract: This study investigates the effects of an R&D subsidy scheme on participating firms' net R&D investment. Making use of a specific policy design in Belgium that explicitly distinguishes between research and development grants, we estimate direct and cross-scheme effects on research versus development intensities in recipients firms. We find positive direct effects from research (development) subsidies on net research (development) spending. This direct effect is larger for research grants than for development grants. We also find cross-scheme effects that may arise due to complementarity between research and development activities. Finally, we find that the magnitude of the treatment effects depends on firm size and age and that there is a minimum effective grant size, especially for research projects. The results support the view that public subsidies induce higher additional investment particularly in research where market failures are larger, even when the subsidies are targeting development. --
    Keywords: R&D,Complementarity,Research Subsidies,Development Subsidies,Innovation Policy
    JEL: H23 O31 O38
    Date: 2014
  7. By: OCDE
    Abstract: Le secteur de l’éducation est l’un de ceux qui génère le plus d’emplois innovants pour les diplômés de l’enseignement supérieur en Europe, davantage que d’autres secteurs publics, tels que la santé et l’administration publique. La forme la plus courante d’innovation est celle des savoirs ou méthodes ; dans ce domaine, le secteur de l’éducation devance tous les autres secteurs d’activité. Au sein du secteur de l’éducation, l’enseignement supérieur est bien plus innovant que l’enseignement primaire et secondaire, et compte globalement parmi les secteurs d’activité les plus innovants en matière de savoirs ou méthodes.
    Date: 2014–07

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