nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2014‒07‒21
nine papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Dilemma in Individual Collaboration for Invention: Should We be Similar or Diverse in Knowledge? By Huo, Dong; Motohashi, Kazuyuki
  2. Multinational’s global open innovation activities in emerging markets: A case of Japanese firms’collaborations with national research institutes in Thailand By Motohashi, Kazuyuki
  3. Networks and Manufacturing Firms in Africa: Results from a Randomized Field Experiment By Marcel Fafchamps; Simon Quinn
  4. On the Mechanism of International Technology Diffusion for Energy Productivity Growth By Jin Wei; ZhongXiang Zhang
  5. Essays on India’s Economy: Growth and Innovation By Singh, Nirvikar
  6. The Role of Business Knowledge in the Internationalisation Process of Hungarian Corporations By Bartha, Zoltán; S. Gubik, Andrea
  7. India as a destination of multinational’s R&D: Growingimportance and management strategy of local R&D centers By Motohashi, Kazuyuki
  8. Patent statistics: a good indicator for innovation in China? Assessment of impacts of patent subsidy programs on patent quality By Dang, Jangwei; Motohashi, Kazuyuki
  9. Horizon 2020 e COSME: ricerca, innovazione, competitività e accesso al credito per il rilancio dell’industria e delle PMI By Andrea Sartori

  1. By: Huo, Dong; Motohashi, Kazuyuki
    Abstract: This study integrates theories relevant to collaborative knowledge creation and provides evidence to discover effects of knowledge diversity on collaborative knowledge creation. The analysis uses a sample comprising 38,500 granted U.S. utility patents involving two collaborating inventors, from application year 1991 to 2005. Interindividual knowledge diversity is thought to affect collaborative knowledge creation in three dimensions: increasing probability of excellent ideas, increasing probability of disagreements, and lowering knowledge assimilation. Furthermore, these impacts are conditional on two proposed moderators: technology scope and affiliation scope. Empirical evidence supports the positive effect of knowledge diversity weakening as the scope of technology broadens. The effect also differs depending upon whether the collaboration occurs between organizations, within one organization, or outside any organization.
    Keywords: invention, collaboration, knowledge diversity, knowledge quality, technology scope, affiliation scope
    JEL: O31 O32
    Date: 2014–02
  2. By: Motohashi, Kazuyuki
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the management of multinational’s R&D in emerging economies, taking the case of Japanese firms’ R&D collaboration with NTSDA, Thai national research institute. A detail interview survey for two cases, Polyplastics, an engineering plastics manufacturer and Shiseido, a cosmetic company, both working together with NSTDA for R&D, reveals that there exist significant variations of motivations, scopes and outcomes of such activities. Home base exploiting type activities (Polyplastics) are easier to manage as a natural extension to home country activities, but it is important to motivate its partner to collaborate, since only exploiting local resources may not be sustainable for long time. While, home base augmenting type activities (Shiseido), a local activity has to be well coordinated in global operation at headquarter. In addition, it is difficult to see a short term benefit from such explorative activities, so that top management support becomes important to sustain such activities for certain amount of time.
    Keywords: : Multinational R&D, Thailand, open innovation, national innovation system
    JEL: F23 O32
    Date: 2014–01
  3. By: Marcel Fafchamps; Simon Quinn
    Abstract: We run a novel field experiment to link managers of African manufacturing firms. The experiment features exogenous link formation, exogenous seeding of information and exogenous assignment to treatment and placebo. We study the impact of the experiment on firm business practices outside of the lab. We find that the experiment successfully created new variation in social networks. We find some limited evidence of diffusion of management practices, particularly in terms of firm formalisation and innovation. Such diffusion appears to be a combination of diffusion of innovation and simple imitation
    JEL: D22 L26 O33
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Jin Wei (Zhejiang University); ZhongXiang Zhang (School of Economics, Fudan University)
    Abstract: International diffusion of energy-saving technologies has received considerable attention in recent energy and environmental economics studies. As a helpful complement to the existing large-scale "black box" modelling works for energy/climate policy analysis, this paper contributes to a transparent analytical model for an economically intuitive exposition of the fundamental mechanism of international technology diffusion for energy productivity growth. We first develop a Solow-type exogenous model where technical change is specified as improvements in energy use efficiency (efficiency-improving vertical innovation). This model is then extended to a Romer-type endogenous model where technical change is described as an expansion of energy technology variety induced by R&D (variety-expanding horizontal innovation). We show that there is a cross-country convergence in the growth rate of energy productivity in a balanced growth path equilibrium, but the absolute levels of energy productivity diverge due to cross-country differences in indigenous innovation efficiency and knowledge absorptive capacities. An economy with a strong capacity of absorbing foreign knowledge diffusion and undertaking indigenous innovation tends to have a higher level of energy productivity.
    Keywords: technological innovation, energy technology diffusion, Solow growth model, endogenous growth model
    JEL: Q55 Q58 Q43 Q48 O13 O31 O33 O44 F18
    Date: 2014–06
  5. By: Singh, Nirvikar
    Abstract: This is a collection of essays written for the Financial Express, an Indian financial daily. The common themes of these essays, which cover a period of almost four years, from August 2010 to June 2014, are issues of growth and innovation in India, considered in two sequential parts, each part ordered chronologically. Topics considered in the first part include the quality and limits of economic growth, rights and other aspects of well-being, spatial dimensions, and drivers of growth. The second part examines innovation in the context of manufacturing, education, information technology, management and tax incentives.
    Keywords: Business, Social and Behavioral Sciences, inclusive growth, virtuous growth, innovation, venture capital, management, manufacturing, information technology, education, skilling
    Date: 2014–07–01
  6. By: Bartha, Zoltán; S. Gubik, Andrea
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to identify the knowledge elements that are crucial in the internationalisation process of Hungarian firms. It uses a two-dimensional model of business knowledge, which separates business knowledge along two dimensions: the tacit or explicit nature; and the codified or uncodified one. This model tells us that tacit and codified knowledge is the most difficult to transfer, while the explicit-uncodified part is the easiest. The five types of business knowledge were measured with a questionnaire. It is non-representative, filled in by 104 Hungarian firms among which the larger and more internationalised ones are overrepresented. Based on this non-representative sample we have found that the organisational beliefs and habits, and the competence of the employees are the two business knowledge elements that are most closely associated with the internationalisation of the firms. This makes it especially difficult to promote internationalisation through the transfer of knowledge, because these key knowledge elements are the stickiest, the hardest to transfer.
    Keywords: internationalisation, business knowledge, Hungary
    JEL: L21 M16
    Date: 2014–05–08
  7. By: Motohashi, Kazuyuki
    Abstract: While R&D activities of multinational firms in India focus on offshore development, some companies are developing cutting-edge technologies. In addition, product development for the local market has increased with the expansion of the Indian market. India’s importance as an R&D center is predicted to increase, and multinationals in advanced countries must improve the competency creation mission of R&D entities in India. To do so, attracting exceptional talent and running highly autonomous organizations with reduced control from headquarters are critical. However, within a corporate-wide innovation strategy, fostering unity through social controls such as international personnel rotations and training, close communication, and permeation of the corporate culture are essential to having an effective local entity.
    Keywords: multinational R&D; India; division of innovative labor
    JEL: F23 O32
    Date: 2014–02
  8. By: Dang, Jangwei; Motohashi, Kazuyuki
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether patent subsidy programs aimed at promoting regional innovations have aroused a large number of low-quality applications in China and created biased patent statistics as an indicator for innovations. We found that patent filing fee subsidies encouraged filing of low-quality patent, resulting in a decreased grant rate. Though reward conditioned on grants increased patent grant rate, it also brought patents with narrow claim breadth. Our empirical results confirmed a general concern that patent subsidies have side effects in encouraging patent applications of low quality or low value. However, the patent subsidy programs does not affect the trend of granted patents, particularly for those applied by firms. Therefore, while the surge of patent applications has upward biases as an innovation indicator, increases in granted patents can be explained by uprising of technological capability at enterprise sector in China.
    Keywords: patent, subsidy, quality, China
    JEL: O34 O38
    Date: 2013–11
  9. By: Andrea Sartori
    Abstract: The aim of the research is to analyse and summarise two EU programmes within the EU Multiannual Financial Framework (2014-2020): Horizon 2020 and COSME (Competitiveness of Enterprises and Small and Mediumsized Enterprises). They are conceived to stimulate, respectively, research, innovation, and competitive techno-science and competitiveness of productive systems. The research is divided into three parts. The first part outlines the basic features of the Multiannual Financial Framework (2014-2020) in quantitative and qualitative terms with particular reference to Horizon 2020 and COSME. The second part examines Horizon 2020 programme for research and innovation, identifying and describing its legal basis, architecture, budget breakdown and the three pillars: “Excellence science”, “Industrial leadership”, “Societal Challenges”. The analysis focuses on the second pillar detailing the measures to encourage the enabling and industrial technologies, access to risk finance (equity and debt), innovation in SMEs. A specific focus is devoted to the “SME Instrument”. In the third part, similarly, is performed a description of COSME, the programme for the competitiveness of enterprises, deepening the specific actions to internationalisation, to improve access to markets, businesses framework conditions, culture of entrepreneurship and, in particular, access to finance.
    Keywords: Horizon 2020; Orizzonte 2020; COSME; Europa 2020; Quadro finanziario pluriennale; programmi comunitari; ricerca; sviluppo; innovazione; competitività; accesso al credito; internazionalizzazione; industria; piccole e medie imprese; PMI; Community programs; research; development; innovation; competitiveness; access to credit; internationalization; industry; small and medium-sized enterprises; SMEs;
    JEL: O30 O31 O38 L5 I20 I28 H50 H54
    Date: 2014

This nep-knm issue is ©2014 by Laura Ştefănescu. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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