nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2014‒06‒28
eight papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. Universities as sources of information: comparing the role of 'open innovation' and companies' motivations. By Massimiliano Volpi
  2. Defacto and Deeded Intellectual Property: Knowledge-Driven Co-Evolution of Firm Collaboration Boundaries and IPR Strategy By Lynne G. Zucker; Michael R. Darby
  3. Determinants of Eco-innovation from a European-wide Perspective - an Analysis based on the Community Innovation Survey (CIS). By Jens Horbach
  4. SMEs and Barriers to Eco-Innovation in EU: A Diverse Palette of Greens. By Giovanni Marin; Alberto Marzucchi; Roberto Zoboli
  5. Linking innovation investment and environmental performance: an impure dynamic public good model. By Massimiliano Corradini; Valeria Costantini; Massimiliano Mazzanti; Susanna Mancinelli
  6. An empirical examination of the R&D boundaries of the firm - a problem-solving perspective By Shaopeng Huang; Darryl Holden
  7. Is green knowledge improving environmental productivity? Sectoral Evidence from Italian Regions. By Claudia Ghisetti; Francesco Quatraro
  8. Femmes et innovation sociétale dans l’espace méditerranéen By PETIT Isabelle

  1. By: Massimiliano Volpi (Natural Environment Research Council, Polaris House, North Star Avenue, SN2 1EU, Swindon, United Kingdom.)
    Abstract: The paper investigated the role Universities play as sources of information for companies' innovation. This study compared the explanations proposed by the 'open innovation' literature with those suggested by the 'resource view' of the firm, concluding that the way 'open innovation' variables have been constructed should be questioned and the 'resource view' theory should be augmented with innovation motivations, as companies rely on universities to source knowledge not generally available within companies' technological paradigm.
    Keywords: green economy; environmental innovation; open innovation; universities.
    JEL: O32 Q55
    Date: 2014–04
  2. By: Lynne G. Zucker; Michael R. Darby
    Abstract: Research on intellectual property has focused on formal legally recorded rights that we call deeded, most often measured by granted patents. Meanwhile, other “defacto” IP (mainly purposive secrecy and natural excludability) has become more important because of the increasing closeness of commercial technologies to cutting edge science. A “corporate-academic” model has developed and become institutionalized over the last three decades which emphasizes attracting the best and brightest scientists, providing them with a commensurate increase in autonomy including initiation of bench-level collaborations with top university scientists in which valuable tacit knowledge is transferred in both directions. We provide suggestive evidence that both firm and university scientists learn from these collaborations, e.g., both types of scientists experience sharply higher patenting rates once they have engage in university-firm collaborations. We propose and test two indicators of adoption of the corporate-academic model, whether or not the firm has ever: (a) co-authored an article with a university scientist and (b) applied for (an eventually granted) patent with non-patent references, where these references are used importantly to cite scientific articles and other scientific materials. Both were robustly positive and statistically significant across four measures of U.S. high-tech firm success (publishing, patenting, obtaining venture capital, and going public) for six broad S&T areas (bio/chem/med, information technology, nanotechnology, semiconductors, other science, and other engineering). Star scientists publication as or with firm employees, SBIR grants received, and citation-weighted patents and articles all played comparatively supporting roles in the empirical estimates. We concluded that the most successful high-tech firms have adopted a strategy of operating near the edge of the scientific envelope where high levels of tacit knowledge provide substantial natural excludability reducing or preventing entry of imitators.
    JEL: J44 L25 L63 L64 L65 M13 O31 O32 O33 O34
    Date: 2014–06
  3. By: Jens Horbach (University of Applied Sciences, Augsburg.)
    Abstract: Eco-innovations lead to less environmental impacts or to a reduction of energy use and are therefore crucial for climate protection. Recently, the determinants of eco-innovation activities have been widely explored for single countries but there is still a lack of country comparisons mainly because of data restrictions. In 2009, a special module on eco-innovation has been included in the Community Innovation Survey (CIS) allowing a comparison of the determinants of eco-innovation in 19 different European countries. Our analysis especially focuses on Eastern European transformation countries because the determinants of eco- innovation in these countries have not yet been systematically analyzed. Concerning the introduction of eco-innovation, the econometric analysis shows that regulation activities seem to be more important for Eastern European countries. This is especially the case for 'traditional fields'such as air, noise, soil, water, recycling or dangerous substances. Except energy saving measures, environmentally related subsidies seem to be quantitatively more important for the Eastern European countries pointing to the lower financial performance of the respective firms. Furthermore, Eastern European countries are more relying on competitors and external R&D as information sources indicating a technology transfer from West to East.
    Keywords: eco-innovation, probit models, country analysis.
    JEL: Q55 O33 C25
    Date: 2014–04
  4. By: Giovanni Marin (CERIS-CNR, National Research Council of Italy, Milan.); Alberto Marzucchi (CERIS-CNR, National Research Council of Italy, Milan.); Roberto Zoboli (CERIS-CNR, National Research Council of Italy, Milan.)
    Abstract: Eco-innovation is an explicit aim of major EU policy strategies. Many environmental policies de facto require firms to eco-innovate to comply with policy requirements, while the overlap between policy-driven and market-driven eco-innovation strategies is increasingly important for many firms. Barriers to eco-innovation can then emerge as a critical factor in either preventing or stimulating EU strategies, policy implementation, and 'green strategies' by firms. In this paper, we propose a taxonomy of EU SMEs in terms of barriers to eco-innovation. The aim is to discriminate among SMEs on how they differ in terms of perception of barriers and engagement in environmental innovation, thus highlighting the need to look at eco-innovation barriers in relation to firms' attitudes, technological and organizational capabilities, and strategies. We identify six clusters of SMEs. These clusters include firms facing 'Revealed barriers', 'Deterring barriers', 'Cost deterred' firms, 'Market deterred' firms, 'Non eco-innovators' and 'Green champions'. The clusters show substantial differences in terms of eco-innovation adoption. We show that our proposed taxonomy has little overlap with sector classifications. This diversity should be taken into account for successful environmental innovation policies.
    Keywords: eco-innovation, barriers to innovation, firm behaviour.
    JEL: O33 Q55
    Date: 2014–04
  5. By: Massimiliano Corradini (Dipartimento di Economia, Università  di Roma Tre); Valeria Costantini (Dipartimento di Economia, Università  di Roma Tre and SEEDS - Sustainability Environmental Economics and Dynamic Studies.); Massimiliano Mazzanti (Dipartimento di Economia e Management, Università  di Ferrara and SEEDS - Sustainability Environmental Economics and Dynamic Studies.); Susanna Mancinelli (Dipartimento di Economia e Management, Università  di Ferrara and SEEDS - Sustainability Environmental Economics and Dynamic Studies.)
    Abstract: This paper develops a theoretical model in order to study how investment decisions in innovation taken by a single agent are influenced by environmental externalities produced by investment decisions taken by other agents. The model acts in a dynamic framework, where knowledge stock represents the capital good on which investment decisions are taken over time. Knowledge stock is considered as an impure public good which results in both public and private benefits. We first show that the reaction function between one representative agents' investments in innovation and the other agents' investments in the public characteristic of the impure public good has a positive slope under general conditions. We also find that its sensitiveness is affected by the elasticity of substitution in the benefit function as well as by the degree of complementarity between public and private characteristics.
    Keywords: impure public good, environmental externality, innovation.
    JEL: D21 H41 O33 Q53
    Date: 2014–04
  6. By: Shaopeng Huang (Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde); Darryl Holden (Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde)
    Abstract: We consider, both theoretically and empirically, how different organization modes are aligned to govern the efficient solving of technological problems. The data set is a sample from the Chinese consumer electronics industry. Following mainly the problem solving perspective (PSP) within the knowledge based view (KBV), we develop and test several PSP and KNV hypotheses, in conjunction with competing transaction cost economics (TCE) alternatives, in an examination of the determinants of the R&D organization mode. The results show that a firm's existing knowledge base is the single most important explanatory variable. Problem complexity and decomposability are also found to be important, consistent with the theoretical predictions of the PSP, but it is suggested that these two dimensions need to be treated as separate variables. TCE hypotheses also receive some support, but the estimation results seem more supportive of the PSP and the KBV than the TCE.
    Keywords: Problem-solving perspective, knowledge-based view, firm boundaries
    Date: 2014–06
  7. By: Claudia Ghisetti (Dipartimento di Economia e Management, Università  di Ferrara and SEEDS - Sustainability Environmental Economics and Dynamic Studies.); Francesco Quatraro (GREDEG-CNRS University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis (France) and BRICK, Collegio Carlo Alberto (Torino).)
    Abstract: This paper provides empirical investigation of the effects of environmental innovations (EIs) on environmental performances, as proxied by the environmental productivity (EP) measure. We focused on sectoral environmental productivity of Italian Regions by exploiting the Regional Accounting Matrix including Environmental Accounts(Regional NAMEA). Patent applications have been extracted by the Patstat Database and assigned to the environmental domain by adopting three international classifications of green technologies: the WIPO IPC green inventory, the European Patent Office climate change mitigation technologies classification (Y02) and the OECD ENV-Tech indicators. Econometric results outline that regions-sectors characterized by higher levels of green technologies (GTs) are actually those facing better environmental performance. These positive effects directly stem from the introduction of GT in the same sector, as well as from the introduction of GT in vertically related sectors.
    Keywords: environmental performance, regional NAMEA, environmental innovation, green technologies, vertical relatedness.
    JEL: O33 Q53 Q55 Q56 R11
    Date: 2014–05
  8. By: PETIT Isabelle
    Abstract: Women often appear as less entrepreneurial than men especially in countries where
    Keywords: Female entrepreneurship, social innovation, social enterprise, social entrepreneurship, women,
    Date: 2014–06–16

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