nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2014‒06‒14
fourteen papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. Transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia By Nour S.
  2. Beyond product innovation; improving innovation policy support for SMEs in traditional industries By Wintjes R.J.M.; Douglas D.; Fairburn J.; Hollanders H.J.G.M.; Pugh G.
  3. Knowledge, innovation and space By Karlsson, Charlie; Johansson, Börje; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Stough, Roger R.
  4. Challenges and opportunities for transition to knowledge-based economy in Arab Gulf countries By Nour S.
  5. The impact of innovation support programmes on SME innovation in traditional manufacturing industries: an evaluation for seven EU regions By Radicic D.; Pugh G.; Hollanders H.J.G.M.; Wintjes R.J.M.
  6. Efficiency of Research and Innovation Systems for Economic Growth and Employment By Edquist, Charles
  7. Using design theory to characterize various forms of breakthrough R&D projects and their management: revisiting Manhattan & Polaris. By Sylvain Lenfle; Pascal Le Masson; Benoît Weil
  8. Modéliser l'organisation, les pratiques et les procédures pour la réalisation des livres de connaissances By Alexandre Besse; Jean-Louis Ermine; Camille Rosenthal-Sabroux
  9. How the policy mix and its consistency im-pact innovation: Findings from company case studies on offshore wind in Germany By Reichardt, Kristin; Rogge, Karoline
  10. Morphogénèse d'un dispositif institutionnel d'accompagnement de l'innovation dans les PME impliquant un tandem étudiant/chercheur By Olivier Coussi; Anne Krupicka
  11. The Return to R&D and Seller-buyer Interactions: A Quantile Regression Approach By Westerberg, Hans Seerar
  12. The structure and comparative advantages of China's scientific research: Quantitative and qualitative perspectives By Wang L.
  13. The Role of Government Institutions for Smart Specialisation and Regional Development By Andres RODRIGUEZ-POSE; Marco DI CATALDO; Alessandro RAINOLDI
  14. Development of the information society and its impact on the education sector in the EU: Efficiency at the regional (NUTS 2) level By Aristovnik, Aleksander

  1. By: Nour S. (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: This paper discusses the progress in transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia. As for the methodology, this paper uses updated secondary data obtained from different sources. It uses both descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the OECD definition of knowledge-based economy and the World Bank Knowledge Index KI and Knowledge Economy Index KEI and other indicators often used in the international literature to examine progress in transition to a knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia. This paper is valuable because it adds to the existing studies in the regional and international literature and it fills the gap in Saudi Arabia literature by presenting a more comprehensive analysis and investigating recent progress in transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, the results confirm the importance of supporting the efforts aimed at enhancing knowledge- based economy in Saudi Arabia. Our findings imply that over the period 2000-2012 Saudi Arabia has achieved significant improvement, rapid and fastest progress not only by regional standard but also by international standard, in the international rank Saudi Arabia has climbed 26 places compared to 2000, obtaining 50th place in 2012 ranking, compared to 76th place in 2000 ranking. Our findings support the hypothesis concerning some progress in transition towards knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia. The progress appears from improvement in terms of KI, KEI, ICT pillar, education pillar, economic incentive and institutional regime pillar, innovation efficiency index, knowledge creation index, knowledge impact index, knowledge diffusion index and technological infrastructure, despite deterioration in both innovation pillar and knowledge absorption index. Based on the findings the paper recommends that to improve transition to knowledge economy and achieve sustainable economic development, it is essential for Saudi Arabia to strengthen and improve knowledge by investing heavily in education, training, boosting knowledge absorption index and innovation through intensive spending on RD. Keywords Knowledge, Knowledge-based economy, Knowledge Index, Saudi Arabia.
    Keywords: Economic Development: General; Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development; Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights: General;
    JEL: O10 O11 O30
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Wintjes R.J.M.; Douglas D.; Fairburn J.; Hollanders H.J.G.M.; Pugh G. (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: Innovation support measures in the EU are mostly designed to support product innovation in RD intensive sectors. To increase the still considerable contribution to regional employment and competitiveness from SMEs in traditional manufacturing industries a broader innovation policy mix is more appropriate. This paper draws data from a survey of more than 300 SMEs from seven regions within the European Union, as well as case studies, to address the question How can innovation policy interventions be improved to support SMEs in traditional manufacturing industries more effectively We claim that innovation support should be sensitive to the way SMEs in traditional manufacturing sectors innovate and grow. We find that product innovation and support used for product innovation is less likely to generate growth, than support used for process innovation. Also support used for marketing innovations and organizational innovations are of particular importance - together with internationalization, design and cooperation. The increasingly selective application procedures applied are not the most efficient to generate impact, since those who are supported and those who are supported more frequently, are the ones who are most likely to take the same innovative steps anyhow, irrespective of policy support.Keywords Innovation, SMEs, traditional sectors, low-tech, policy evaluation, manufacturing, process innovation
    Keywords: Search; Learning; Information and Knowledge; Communication; Belief; Industry Studies: Manufacturing: General; Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology; Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D; Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes; Technological Change: Government Policy;
    JEL: O38 O33 D83 L60 O14 O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2014
  3. By: Karlsson, Charlie (CESIS, Jönköping International Business School); Johansson, Börje (CESIS, Jönköping International Business School); Kobayashi, Kiyoshi (Kyoto University); Stough, Roger R. (George Mason University)
    Abstract: This paper provides an overview of relevant topics in contemporary research concerned with global, national, regional and local knowledge and innovation dynamics. In particular, we highlight how the global scene is changing in the contemporary world economy that we char-acterize as a knowledge economy. We show how knowledge and knowledge dynamics is driving innovation in the large urban agglomerations in the old and in new industrialized countries with their concentrations of abilities and resources and their superior intra-regional and international geographical proximities. In relation to the large urban agglomerations we stress the role of (i) density and proximity externalities, (ii) the physical and cultural resource base of large cities, and (iii) the interactive dynamics related to learning and creativity.
    Keywords: Knowledge; innovation; space; agglomeration; proximity; learning; creativity; social networks
    JEL: O30 R11
    Date: 2014–06–11
  4. By: Nour S. (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: This paper uses the descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the OECD 1996 definition of knowledge-based economy, the World Bank Knowledge Index and Knowledge Economy Index and other indicators to examine progress and challenges in transition to knowledge-based economies in Arab Gulf countries. We fill the gap in the Gulf literature and present more comprehensive analysis of progress and challenges impedes transition to knowledge-based economies in Arab Gulf countries. Our findings support the first hypothesis concerning relative progress in transition to knowledge-based economies in Arab Gulf countries. Our results corroborate the second hypothesis that transition to knowledge-based economies faces several challenges in Arab Gulf countries. Our findings support the third hypothesis concerning variation in transition to knowledge based economies across Arab Gulf countries. Therefore, it is essential for Arab Gulf countries to implement sound and coherent policies to enhance transition to knowledge based economy in Arab Gulf countries. Keywords Knowledge, knowledge index, knowledge-based economy, Arab Gulf countries
    Keywords: Economic Development: General; Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development; Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights: General;
    JEL: O10 O11 O30
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Radicic D.; Pugh G.; Hollanders H.J.G.M.; Wintjes R.J.M. (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: This study investigates the impact of innovation support programmes on SME innovation in traditional manufacturing industries in seven EU regions. Recent literature identifying sources of potential government failure in innovation policy suggests that the effects of public support measures to increase private innovation may be disappointing. Our results are consistent with this hypothesis, yet also suggest a direction for policy reform to overcome government failure and, thereby, to increase the potential additionality of innovation support programmes. Innovation support programmes in the EU typically adopt a cream skimming selection strategy namely, programme managers systematically select firms on the basis of observable characteristics conducive to innovation. The econometric analysis of a new survey database reported in this paper suggests that cream skimming leads to firms being selected for programme participation that benefit less than would randomly selected firms. The policy corollary is that, subject to due diligence checking, allocation of innovation support by lottery should give rise to greater programme additionality than does the prevalent cream skimming approach. We conclude with some practical guidelines for allocation by lottery, which were developed for a recently launched innovation support programme for SMEs. Key words innovation; SMEs; traditional manufacturing industry; public innovation support; government failure; evaluation
    Keywords: Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General; Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models: Truncated and Censored Models; Switching Regression Models; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D; Technological Change: Government Policy;
    JEL: O32 O38 C14 C34
    Date: 2014
  6. By: Edquist, Charles (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: The concept of a holistic innovation policy is defined in this paper, and it is discussed what it is, why it is relevant and how it can be implemented. One of the main conclusions is that the innovation policies in European countries are still linear (and not holistic), in spite of the fact that the linear view has been completely abandoned by innovation researchers – and replaced by a systemic view on innovation processes. Why innovation policy is still linear is also discussed. Further it is noted that a considerable number of EU Member States have created public organizations (Councils) for innovation and/or research policy placed above ministries and usually chaired by the Prime Minister. The role and character of these bodies is discussed. The empirical results are based on a questionnaire sent to 23 EU Member States, out of which 19 (83%) responded. The work with this report was carried out for the European Research and Innovation Area Committee (ERAC) of the European Commission (DG RTD).
    Keywords: Innovation; Innovation Policy; Holistic innovation policy; Research policy; The linear view; Systems of innovation
    JEL: L38 M38 O25 O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2014–06–02
  7. By: Sylvain Lenfle (CRG - Centre de recherche en gestion - Polytechnique - X - CNRS : UMR7176); Pascal Le Masson (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Benoît Weil (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris)
    Abstract: In this paper we propose to revisit two emblematic projects, Manhattan and Polaris, with the models developed by design theory. In particular we demonstrate, relying on recent advances in design theory, how these major projects, traditionally presented as radical innovations, are in fact quite different. We show that this explains the different managerial strategies of this two cases : whereas Polaris focuses on the control of the design process, Manhattan exhibit a very original strategy, characterized by the simultaneous exploration of different solutions, to manage unforeseeable uncertainties. We therefore hope to demonstrate the fruitfulness of the dialogue between design theory and project management.
    Keywords: Design theory, project management, innovation
    Date: 2014–06–04
  8. By: Alexandre Besse (LAMSADE - Laboratoire d'analyse et modélisation de systèmes pour l'aide à la décision - CNRS : UMR7024 - Université Paris IX - Paris Dauphine); Jean-Louis Ermine (LITEM - Laboratoire en Innovation, Technologie, Economie et Management - Institut National des Télécommunications d'Evry - Grenoble École de Management (GEM) - Université d'Evry-Val d'Essonne); Camille Rosenthal-Sabroux (LAMSADE - Laboratoire d'analyse et modélisation de systèmes pour l'aide à la décision - CNRS : UMR7024 - Université Paris IX - Paris Dauphine)
    Abstract: L'objectif de ce travail est de comprendre et d'identifier les organisations, les pratiques et les procédures mises en œuvre lors de la réalisation de base de connaissances partagées et consensuelles. Pour cela, nous étudions la réalisation d'un livre de connaissances qui est une base de connaissances consensuelle de type particulier. Un livre de connaissances peut être intégré au Système d'Information de l'organisation, il peut servir d'encyclopédie pour l'apprentissage et la formation, il peut être vu également comme une aide à la résolution de problème, à l'innovation et par conséquent à la créativité (partage de connaissances pour la créativité, Knowledge Sharing for Innovation). Le livre de connaissance est une représentation structurée du ou d'une partie du patrimoine de connaissances de l'entreprise.
    Keywords: Livre de connaissances; gestion des connaissances
    Date: 2014–06–02
  9. By: Reichardt, Kristin; Rogge, Karoline
    Abstract: Transforming the energy system to one with a greater importance of renewable power generation technologies requires redirecting and accelerating technological change. In this transition, so-called policy mixes play a crucial role. Yet precisely how policy mixes affect technological innovation remains poorly understood. To remedy this, in this study we choose a qualitative company case study approach to analyze the innovation impact of the elements of a policy mix - its policy strategy and instrument mix - and their consistency. Taking offshore wind in Germany as research case, we find that the German offshore wind policy mix, its consistency and perceived high credibility have been vital innovation drivers. Specifically, its consistent policy strategy and the consistency of the policy strategy with the instrument mix appear crucial to research, development and demonstration. Still, for this emerging technology to be adopted the policy mix seems to require a consistent and comprehensive instrument mix. --
    Keywords: policy mix,policy strategy,instrument mix,consistency,innovation,off-shore wind
    Date: 2014
  10. By: Olivier Coussi (CEREGE - CEntre de REcherche en GEstion - Université de Poitiers : EA1722 - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises (IAE) - Poitiers); Anne Krupicka (CEREGE - CEntre de REcherche en GEstion - Université de Poitiers : EA1722 - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises (IAE) - Poitiers)
    Abstract: Nous étudions les facteurs qui ont favorisé la création d'un dispositif sociotechnique d'accompagnement de l'innovation au sein des PME d'une région française. Nous examinons les conditions qui ont permis l'émergence d'une telle démarche entrepreneuriale au sein d'une CCI Territoriale, et plus particulièrement les proximités de ressources qui ont façonné le réseau d'acteurs de ce dispositif institutionnel. Celui-ci a été initié par un porteur externe qui, soutenu et contraint par un ensemble de facteurs, a construit un réseau sociotechnique pour l'accompagnement des projets d'innovation associant un étudiant, un chercheur et la PME.
    Keywords: accompagnement de l'innovation des PME ; entreprenariat en secteur public ; théorie de la traduction ; proximités de ressources
    Date: 2014–05–15
  11. By: Westerberg, Hans Seerar (Ratio institute)
    Abstract: In this paper we analyze whether a firm’s return to its R&D stock is affected by seller-buyer interactions. We suggest that firms that are in close contact with their customers will be relatively more sensitive to their customers’ needs, and therefore adjust their R&D activities accordingly. This, in turn, will boost sales and increase the return to R&D. To the extent that seller-buyer interactions are costly, large and productive firms will have an advantage in overcoming such costs. We test these hypotheses using a fixed effects quantile regression framework. Results suggest that large firms active in industries characterized by frequent seller-buyer interactions have a higher return to R&D than other firms.
    Keywords: firm behavior; firm performance; production and organizations; firm size; diversification and scope
    JEL: D22 D29 L25 O32
    Date: 2014–06–09
  12. By: Wang L. (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: In recent decades there has been a sharp increase in Chinas scientific output. Behind its fast growth, little is known about Chinas comparative advantages in different academic disciplines. Meanwhile, despite Chinas rising position now in second place worldwide for research output, its research quality has been long in dispute. Based on citation rates, many studies expressed negative opinions on the quality of Chinas scientific output. This paper argues that citation reflects more social impact than quality. On the other hand, the time lag between being cited and the eventual publication of citing papers masks the real recent situation in developing countries. In particular prior to 2006, almost half of research papers in China were published in Chinese journals, which were not visible or readable to people outside of China. Consequently, it is not surprising that citation rates of Chinese researchers were rather low. Given that the publication structure in China has changed tremendously in recent years, evaluation of the quality of Chinese science needs to be carried out according to the latest research output from China. This paper examines the comparative advantages of each academic discipline as well as their shifts over the years. Focusing on the top 5 per cent journals by each discipline, we evaluate the quality of Chinas scientific output compared to the rest of the world. Different from the criticism stated in previous literature, this paper finds that the quality of Chinas research in terms of publications in top journals is promising. Since 2006 the growth of scientific publications in China has been driven by papers published in English-language journals. The increasing visibility of Chinese science paves the way for its wider recognition and higher citation rates. Keywords Bibliometrics, Scientometric analysis, Revealed comparative advantage, Publications, Scientific output, Publication quality, Citation, High-impact journals
    Keywords: Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D; Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes; Comparative Studies of Countries;
    JEL: O31 O32 O33 O57
    Date: 2014
  13. By: Andres RODRIGUEZ-POSE (London School of Economics); Marco DI CATALDO (London School of Economics); Alessandro RAINOLDI (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: Research and innovation strategies for smart specialisation (RIS3) are trying to introduce a new vision of innovation policy in European regions. However, the success of RIS3 policy measures is closely dependent on the capacity of regional government institutions to act as coordinators or facilitators of the interventions. The way in which institutional mechanisms govern innovation processes and provide incentives for the interaction between regional actors remains a largely unexplored area of scientific research. This policy note discusses the importance of sound institutional frameworks for the effectiveness of smart specialisation, presenting an econometric study that investigates the link between government institutions and innovation. The empirical results confirm the key role played by governance structures for technological advances at the regional level, suggesting that the greatest gains in innovative capacity from institutional reforms would be obtained in peripheral territories where the initial level of government quality is lower. This analysis has important implications for the identification of the necessary pre-requisites for successful RIS3 strategies in EU regions.
    Keywords: European cohesion policy, Structural Funds, smart specialisation, Innovation Union, Regional Policy, Institutional Framework, Coordination, Governance Structures
    Date: 2014–03
  14. By: Aristovnik, Aleksander
    Abstract: Information and communication technology (ICT) is one of the most important driving forces promoting economic growth in the economy. However, one puzzling question concerns the efficient and effective impact of ICT on educational outputs and outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of the paper is to discuss and review some previous research studies on development of the information society and its impact on educational outputs/outcomes at regional level. Respectively, a definition, measurements and the empirical application of the efficiency and effectiveness of the ICT at the regional (NUTS 2) level in the EU is considered (based on 2007–2011 average data). The research findings suggest that a wide range of NUTS 2 regions is characterized by a relatively low efficiency rate of transforming information society progress into educational outputs/outcomes, particularly in Eastern and Southern Europe.
    Keywords: information technology; education; efficiency; DEA; EU; NUTS-2 regions
    JEL: C6 I2 R1
    Date: 2014–04

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