nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2014‒05‒04
fourteen papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. Capacité d’une communauté de pratique à créer des connaissances utiles pour le processus d’innovation: l’approche « située » de la communauté créative By Humbert Lesca; Dorota Leszczynska
  2. Historical Trajectory and Knowledge Embeddedness: A Case Study in the French Perfume Cluster. By Dorota Leszczynska
  3. Technology Transfer and its effect on Innovation By Sen, Neelanjan
  4. Governing Knowledge for Development: Knowledge Clusters in Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia By Ariff, Syamimi; Hans-Dieter, Evers; Anthony Banyouko, Ngah; Farah, Purwaningrum
  5. Structural Change and Innovation as Exit Strategies from the Middle Income Trap By Vivarelli, Marco
  6. Capital risque industriel et innovation technologique By Jean-Sebastien Lantz; Jean-Michel Sahut; Frédéric Teulon
  7. From organizing for innovation to innovating for organization: how co-design fosters change in organizations By Louis-Etienne Dubois; Pascal Le Masson; Benoît Weil; Patrick Cohendet
  8. Quelles pratiques informationnelles pour soutenir la créativité organisationnelle? By Dorota Leszczynska
  9. University Knowledge Spillovers & Regional Start-up Rates: Supply and Demand Side Factors By Hellerstedt, Karin; Wennberg, Karl; Frederiksen, Lars
  10. On the R&D giants' shoulders: Do FDI help to stand on them? By Antonio Vezzani; Sandro Montresor
  11. La localisation d’une entreprise multinationale et le savoir enraciné. L’étude de cas d’un cluster industriel By Dorota Leszczynska; Erick Pruchnicki
  12. Estimating UK investment in intangible assets and Intellectual Property Rights By Haskel, J; Goodridge, P; Wallis, G
  13. La Meglio Gioventù: Earnings Gaps across Generations and Skills in Italy By Naticchioni, Paolo; Raitano, Michele; Vittori, Claudia
  14. Teaching (and learning) negotiation: is there still room for innovation ? By Claude Alavoine; Ferkan Kaplanseren; Frédéric Teulon

  1. By: Humbert Lesca; Dorota Leszczynska
    Abstract: This publication presents theoretical documents dealing with the capacity of a community of practice to create useful knowledge favouring the innovative process in its emerging stage. This research aims at a better understanding of innovative communities, and deals with the 2 situated dimension of these communities. This research also raises the question of the potential means to support the activity of a community of practice with innovative projects. The main line of investigation concerns the modes of communicational regulation chosen by innovative communities in order to match the specific features of the environment of their activity. The case study followed by a process of research / intervention favours an empirical questioning of the situated conceptualization of the communities of creators. The case of a long-standing innovative community, widely acknowledged by several generations, is compared to the cases of two firms attempting, ex nihilo, to set up a community of creative practitioners with innovative aims. These examples highlight some aspects of creative exchanges, such as human sensorial knowledge, emotional environment, shared emotions, tacit communication, etc.
    Keywords: innovative community, situated approach, communicational regulation, tacit knowledge, sensorial.
    Date: 2014–04–29
  2. By: Dorota Leszczynska
    Abstract: Much of the research on clusters refers to trajectories as a central feature of regional development. In this article, we explore changes within a French perfume cluster in order to show how a theory of cluster trajectory could be improved by an analysis of this specific case. Using central concepts from Mahoney’s theory, we analyse the historical sequences of the development trajectory of this regional cluster and put forward a conceptual model and a case study. In particular, we argue that embedded knowledge and innovation influence trajectory sequences in the long and discontinuous history of the cluster. Our research has also led us to identify some types of managerial behaviour that support embedded knowledge.
    Keywords: trajectory, regional development, embedded knowledge, cluster, historical sequences
    Date: 2014–04–29
  3. By: Sen, Neelanjan
    Abstract: This paper analyses technology transfer and innovation activities by the high cost firm in a Cournot duopoly framework, where technology transfer between the firms may occur after the innovation decision. The two effects of innovation are to access the superior technology of the low cost firm if higher cost prohibits technology transfer and to affect the pricing rule of technology transfer via higher bargaining power. The incentive for innovation is more in fixed-fee licensing than in two-part tariff (royalty) licensing if cost difference between firms is low. The possibility of licensing, irrespective of the licensing scheme, encourages innovation if the cost difference between the firms is high.
    Keywords: Technology licensing; Innovation; Welfare
    JEL: D45 L24
    Date: 2014–04–26
  4. By: Ariff, Syamimi; Hans-Dieter, Evers; Anthony Banyouko, Ngah; Farah, Purwaningrum
    Abstract: With the dwindling of natural resources, like oil and gas, even resource-rich countries like Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia have to re-adjust their development strategies. Governing knowledge for development (K4D) is seen as a way out of the dilemma of reduced revenues from natural resources. This paper analyses the attempts to create knowledge clusters as a strategy to move Brunei and Malaysia towards knowledge-based economies. Our study shows that several knowledge clusters have already been established in Peninsular Malaysia and are starting to emerge in Brunei Darussalam. The paper is structured as follows: the first section explains the dangers of falling into a “knowledge trap” and the strategies a country may adopt to govern knowledge. The second section looks at the epistemic landscapes in Peninsular Malaysia. Two knowledge clusters are the focal points of analysis, namely the North Corridor-Penang Knowledge Cluster and the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC-Cyberjaya) Knowledge Cluster. We then provide empirical evidence of knowledge cluster formation in Brunei Darussalam as an effort to build up knowledge institutions and to diversify its economy. The paper ends with recommendations how to build the basis for a move towards a knowledge-based economy.
    Keywords: knowledge governance, knowledge cluster, development strategies, knowledge economy, Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam
    JEL: L2 L8 L86 L88 O2 O3 O53 R1 Z13 Z18
    Date: 2014–03–10
  5. By: Vivarelli, Marco (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)
    Abstract: This paper is intended to provide an updated discussion on a series of issues that the relevant literature suggests to be crucial in dealing with the challenges a middle income country may encounter in its attempts to further catch-up a higher income status. In particular, the conventional economic wisdom – ranging from the Lewis-Kuznets model to the endogenous growth approach – will be contrasted with the Schumpeterian and evolutionary views pointing to the role of capabilities and knowledge, considered as key inputs to foster economic growth. Then, attention will be turned to structural change and innovation, trying to map – using the taxonomies put forward by the innovation literature – the concrete ways through which a middle income country can engage a technological catching-up, having in mind that developing countries are deeply involved into globalized markets where domestic innovation has to be complemented by the role played by international technological transfer. Among the ways how a middle income country can foster domestic innovation and structural change in terms of sectoral diversification and product differentiation, a recent stream of literature underscores the potentials of local innovative entrepreneurship, that will also be discussed bridging entrepreneurial studies with the development literature. Finally, the possible consequences of catching-up in terms of jobs and skills will be discussed.
    Keywords: catching-up, structural change, globalization, capabilities, innovation, entrepreneurship
    JEL: O14 O33
    Date: 2014–04
  6. By: Jean-Sebastien Lantz; Jean-Michel Sahut; Frédéric Teulon
    Abstract: Le capital risque industriel (CVC) joue un rôle moteur dans le développement d’innovations technologiques. C’est à la fois un apport en fonds propres ainsi qu’en compétences techniques et stratégiques aux start-up. Mais c’est également une stratégie entrepreneuriale réalisée à l’extérieur des grands groupes car ces derniers ne peuvent plus se contenter d’essayer de créer en interne des innovations. Le capital risque industriel permet ainsi de réduire le risque de l’innovation tout en gardant un certain contrôle sur l’entreprise cible ou une option de rachat sur l’innovation une fois que cette dernière aura dépassé le stade de l’émergence. Le CVC apparaît donc comme un mode de financement de l’innovation externe et plus efficient. Malgré les crises, il continue de se développer dans les secteurs high-tech les moins touchés notamment dans les biotechnologies. Les avantages qu’il apporte à chaque étape du projet par rapport au financement par des fonds de capital risque sont un gage de sa pérennité.
    Keywords: capital risque, innovation, performance, financement, motivation, investissement
    Date: 2014–04–22
  7. By: Louis-Etienne Dubois (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris, HEC Montréal - HEC MONTRÉAL); Pascal Le Masson (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Benoît Weil (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Patrick Cohendet (HEC Montréal - HEC MONTRÉAL)
    Abstract: Amongst the plethora of methods that have been developed over the years to involve users, suppliers, buyers or other stakeholders in the design of new objects, co-design has been advertised as a way to generate innovation in a more efficient and more inclusive manner. Yet, empirical evidence that demonstrates its innovativeness is still hard to come by. Moreover, the fact that co-design workshops are gatherings of participants with little design credentials and often no prior relationships raises serious doubts on its potential to generate novelty. In this paper1, we study the contextual elements of 21 workshops in order to better understand what codesign really yields in terms of design outputs and relational outcomes. Our data suggest that codesign emerges in crisis situations and that it is best used as a two-time intervention. We also suggest using collaborative design activities as a way to bring about change through innovation.
    Keywords: co-design, design, innovation, collaboration, change management
    Date: 2014–05
  8. By: Dorota Leszczynska
    Abstract: This publication presents a comparison of the distinctive roles of innovative communities and virtual communities, in the perspective of organizational creativity. The main line of investigation concerns the informational mechanisms chosen respectively by innovative communities and virtual communities, in order to match the specific features of the environment of their activity. The research methodology is that of a case-study followed by a process of research/intervention. The case of a long-standing innovative community, widely acknowledged for several generations, is compared to the case of a virtual community which has been set up thanks to the advent of new technologies of fragrance transmission via the Internet. These examples highlight some aspects of creative exchanges, such as human sensorial knowledge, emotional environment, shared emotions, tacit communication etc
    Keywords: Innovative community, virtual community, informational mechanism, tacit knowledge, fragrance transmission via the Internet.
    Date: 2014–04–29
  9. By: Hellerstedt, Karin (Jönköping International Business School); Wennberg, Karl (The Ratio Institute and Stockholm School of Economics.); Frederiksen, Lars (Innovation Management Group, Department of Business Administration, Aarhus University,)
    Abstract: This paper investigates regional start-up rates in the knowledge intensive services and high-tech industries. Integrating insights from economic geography and population ecology into the literature on entrepreneurship, we develop a theoretical framework which captures how both supply- and demand-side factors mold the regional bedrock for start-ups in knowledge intensive industries. Using multi-level data of all knowledge intensive start-ups across 286 Swedish municipalities between 1994 and 2002 we demonstrate how characteristics of the economic and political milieu within each region influence the ratio of firm births. We find that economically affluent regions dominate entrepreneurial activity in terms of firm births, yet a number of much smaller rural regions also revealed high levels of start-ups. Knowledge spillovers from universities and firm R&D strongly affect the start-up rates for both knowledge intensive manufacturing and knowledge intensive services firms. However, the start-up rate of knowledge-intensive service firms is tied more strongly to the supply of highly educated individuals and the political regulatory regime within the municipality. This suggests that knowledge intensive service-start-ups are more susceptible to both demand-side and supply-side context than manufacturing start-ups. Our study contributes to the growing stream of research that explains entrepreneurial activity as shaped by contextual factors, most notably educational institutions that contribute to technology startups.
    Keywords: Start-ups; Spillovers; Universities; R&D; Political regime
    JEL: L26 M13 P25 R12
    Date: 2014–04–24
  10. By: Antonio Vezzani (JRC-IPTS); Sandro Montresor (University of Bologna)
    Abstract: The paper investigates the extent to which outward FDI affect the MNC's capacity of entering (and remaining in) the club of top R&D world investors, benefiting from performance gains in both financial and economic markets. By merging the European Industrial Research and Innovation Scoreboard with the fDi Markets dataset, we find supporting evidence. Increasing the number of FDI projects helps firms overcome the discontinuities that, in the distribution of R&D expenditures, separate the largest R&D investors from those below them. The same is true for the number of FDI projects in R&D, which are also more important than greater FDI portfolios in becoming a top R&D spender. Furthermore, unlike FDI in general, more FDI in R&D guarantee firms to remain in this top club of firms as it increases their capacity of competing among the top R&D spenders. Results at the extensive margin (i.e. the number of FDI projects) are confirmed with respect to the scale of FDI projects (i.e. at the intensive margin). However, increasing their size is not enough to become one of the highest ranking R&D firms. Policy implications about the support to R&D internationalisation are drawn accordingly.
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investments (FDI), Multinational Corporations (MNC), Research & Development (R&D)
    JEL: O32 F23 O33
    Date: 2014–01
  11. By: Dorota Leszczynska; Erick Pruchnicki
    Abstract: Research works haven’t yet shed much light on the performance of the location choice of multinational companies. The aim of this publication is to highlight the link between geographically embedded knowledge, the location of a multinational company and its consequential performance. We put forward a conceptual approach allowing to formulate the bases of a mathematical modelisation. A case-study is carried out within the industrial cluster in Grasse. Our research has led us to highlight some types of managerial behaviours which will ensure the location performance within a cluster.
    Keywords: mathematical modelisation, embedded knowledge, cluster, location, performance
    Date: 2014–04–29
  12. By: Haskel, J; Goodridge, P; Wallis, G
    Date: 2014–04–16
  13. By: Naticchioni, Paolo (University of Rome 3); Raitano, Michele (Sapienza University of Rome); Vittori, Claudia (Sapienza University of Rome)
    Abstract: This paper documents the evolution of the experience-earnings profiles of private employees in Italy over the first six years of working career across three birth cohorts (1965-1969, 1970- 1974, 1975-1979). We explore the average trends and disentangle how the patterns vary according to individual skills, defined in terms of both educational levels and percentiles of the unconditional earnings distribution. Unlike previous studies, and in contrast with the expectations prompted by the skill-biased literature, our results surprisingly show that the Italian "best of youth", i.e. the best workers of the most recent cohorts (the high skilled), have suffered, compared to the previous cohorts, an earnings penalty much more severe than that experienced by unskilled workers. This finding also raises questions about the effectiveness of the European Employment Strategy, which repeatedly stressed the importance of human capital and technological knowledge as main drivers for European performance.
    Keywords: youth, cohorts, education, earnings, Italy
    JEL: J24 J31
    Date: 2014–04
  14. By: Claude Alavoine; Ferkan Kaplanseren; Frédéric Teulon
    Abstract: Negotiation is often considered as an art requiring specific skills and competencies that can only be practiced by talented or gifted people. Therefore learning about negotiation could be considered useless as it necessitates a certain aptitude revealed in situations that are always different, depending on many conditional aspects like the actors, interests, context or nature of conflict. Most practitioners and future negotiators are looking for prescriptive advices on how to lead effective negotiation. Training comes frequently as an answer to the question and simulation exercises can be, in that sense, adequate and powerful pedagogical tools. Our intention in this paper is to explore several paths based on some of the most fundamental elements and driving forces of negotiation: trust, stakes and power.
    Keywords: Negotiation; Pedagogy; Trust; Stakes; Power.
    Date: 2014–04–22

This nep-knm issue is ©2014 by Laura Stefanescu. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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