nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2014‒03‒30
thirteen papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. Systèmes d’innovation du Sud, transfert technologique et capacités d’apprentissage INNOVATION SYSTEMS FROM THE SOUTH, TECHNOLOGICAL TRANSFER AND LEANING CAPABILITIES By Vanessa CASADELLA
  2. Who collaborates with whom: the role of technological distance in international innovation By Jérôme Danguy
  3. How do communication structures shape the process of knowledge transfer? An agent-based model By Widad Guechtouli
  4. Cross-Functional Knowledge Integration, Patenting and Firm’s Performance By Marco MC Ceccagnoli; Nicolas van Zeebroeck; Roberto Venturini
  5. Reviving demand-pull perspectives: the effect of demand uncertainty and stagnancy on R&D strategy By José García-Quevedo; Gabriele Pellegrino; Maria Savona
  6. La difficile promotion de pme innovantes en Algérie THE DIFFICULT PROMOTION OF INNOVATIVE SMEs IN ALGERIA By Amina AISSAT LEGHIMA
  7. Corporate Science, Innovation and Firm Value By Marcus Simeth; Michele Cincera
  8. Le rôle du manager de proximité dans l’innovation sociétale By Marie José Scotto; Hervé Tiffon
  9. The Causal Effects of Competition on Innovation: Experimental Evidence By Philippe Aghion; Stefan Bechtold; Lea Cassar; Holger Herz
  10. A theory of trade liberalization and innovations with heterogeneous firms By Rutzer, Christian
  11. Prospects for the development of innovative processes management information base in the Russian economy By Alexander Abroskin
  12. Why don't poor countries do R&D ? By Goni, Edwin; Maloney, William F.
  13. Exploring Europe's R&D deficit relative to the US: differences in the rates of return to R&D of young leading R&D firms By Michele Cincera; Reinhilde Veugelers

  1. By: Vanessa CASADELLA (Université Picardie Jules Verne-CRIISEA, RRI)
    Abstract: Le concept de système d’innovation est un concept relativement récent, d’abord utilisé pour mesurer les différentes performances technologiques mais depuis peu appréhendé pour comprendre la croissance et le développement économique des nations. Les processus d’innovation et d’apprentissage du Sud se distinguent de ceux des économies développées. Le transfert technologique se réalise par la construction de capacités technologiques et d’efforts nationaux d’absorption et de diffusion des connaissances étrangères. Mais cette construction passe également par la création de processus d’apprentissage plus microéconomiques fondés sur les connaissances indigènes des acteurs du Sud. Au-delà même, l’objectif à terme serait d’appréhender les processus d’innovation sous la forme de réelles constructions de compétences dans l’objectif de promouvoir le développement économique. Le papier présenté sera articulé en trois parties : la première associera les S.I. avec ses caractéristiques dans le Sud, la seconde reviendra sur les stratégies d’innovation des P.E.D via les capacités technologiques et la troisième démontrera l’intérêt de construire des compétences à des fins de développement économique. The concept of Innovation System (I.S) is a relatively new concept, first used to measure the various technological performances but more recently to participate to the understanding of growth and economic development. Innovation processes in the economies of the South differ from those of developed economies. Technology transfer is achieved by building technological capabilities and through national efforts towards the absorption and diffusion of foreign knowledge. But this construction also involves the creation of more microeconomic learning processes based on the indigenous knowledge of Southern actors. The long-term objective would be to understand the role of innovation processes in the construction of competencies with the aim of promoting economic development. The paper includes three parts: the first associates the I.S concept to its characteristics in the South, the second describes innovation strategies in developing countries through the analysis of their technological capabilities and the third demonstrates the advantages of building competencies in the aim of supporting economic development.
    Keywords: Capacités, Apprentissage, Compétences, Innovation, Développement Economique, Capabilities, Learning, Competencies, Innovation, Economic Development
    JEL: O1 O3 O5
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Jérôme Danguy
    Abstract: This paper aims at investigating the role of technological distance in the globalized productionof innovation. It uses aggregate patent-based indicators for a unique panel datasetcovering international co-inventions between 29 countries across 21 industries between1988 and 2005. The empirical findings show a dual impact of technological distance onthe intensity of international collaborative innovation at the industry level. On the onehand, the more similar the industry-specific knowledge of two countries, the more easilythey collaborate by sharing common industrial knowledge. On the other hand, the moredifferent their non-industry-specific knowledge, the more they collaborate to gain accessto broad and interdisciplinary expertise. It suggests that the relative absorptive capacitybetween partner’s economies and the search for novel and complementary knowledge arekey drivers of the globalization of innovation. Moreover, the results confirm the additionaleffect of non-technological distance factors (spatial proximity, ease of communication, institutionalproximity, overall economic ties) in cross-border innovative relationships.
    Keywords: internationalization, R&D collaboration, technological distance, patent statistics
    Date: 2014–02–24
  3. By: Widad Guechtouli
    Abstract: The process of knowledge diffusion is complex. Knowledge is intangible and therefore is not easy to capitalize within an organization, or share between a set of individuals. The aim of this paper is to study the impact of two different structures of communication on both processes of knowledge transfer and individual learning, in the context of a community of practice. We will specifically compare two types of communication structures (through face-to- face interactions and through a forum) by using agent-based models. Results show that each structure has a different impact on individual learning and knowledge transfer. Though, communication through face-to-face interactions seems to make individuals learn slower than on a web forum. Conclusions are widely discussed.
    Keywords: knowledge, communication structure, communities of practice, agent-based models.
    Date: 2014–02–25
  4. By: Marco MC Ceccagnoli; Nicolas van Zeebroeck; Roberto Venturini
    Abstract: Cross-functional knowledge integration and patenting are both reckoned to increase the productivity of human capital and the profitability of the firms implementing them. The combined effect of a joint use is in many ways ambiguous since those practices pursue different objectives in terms of managing the flow of information within the firm's boundaries. The presence of knowledge spillovers in situations of high technological rivalry could deteriorate the positive impact of knowledge integration. We investigate empirically different channels of interactions between patenting and knowledge integration and we find that they are substitutes in terms of economic profitability; consistently with our theory, the effect is exacerbated by high technological rivalry and scarce effectiveness of secrecy. Our empirical analysis is conducted using a cross-section database with detailed firm-level information on U.S. manufacturing firms.
    Keywords: R&D, Performance, Knowledge Integration, Patents, Spillovers
    Date: 2013
  5. By: José García-Quevedo (Universitat de Barcelona & IEB); Gabriele Pellegrino (University of Barcelona & IEB); Maria Savona (University of Sussex)
    Abstract: This paper looks at the effects of demand uncertainty and stagnancy on firms’ decisions to engage in R&D activities and the amount of financial effort devoted to it. The paper contributes to the innovation literature in three respects: first, it adds to the revived debate on demand-pull perspectives in innovation studies, by specifically looking at demand-related (lack of) incentives to invest in innovation. Also, importantly, it complements the emerging literature on barriers to innovation in a two-fold way: first, by focusing on demand-related obstacles rather than the more explored financial barriers; second, by analyzing in detail whether experiencing uncertainty or lack of demand is a sector-specific feature, namely whether firms active in high or low tech manufacturing or in knowledge intensive or low tech services are more or less dependent on demand conditions when deciding to perform R&D. We find that uncertain demand and lack of demand are perceived as two completely different barriers. While uncertainty on demand does not seem to constrain R&D efforts, the perception of lack of demand does strongly reduce not only the amount of investment in R&D but also the likelihood of firms to engage in R&D activities. We interpret this evidence in terms of the specific phase of the innovation cycle in which decisions to invest in R&D are taken. Sectoral affiliation does not seem to matter when it relates to demand conditions, supporting the conjecture that positive expectations on market demand is a structural and necessary condition to be fulfilled for all firms prior to invest in R&D.
    Keywords: R&D strategy, barriers to innovation, demand uncertainty, lack of demand, innovative inputs, panel data
    JEL: C23 O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2014
  6. By: Amina AISSAT LEGHIMA (Université Mouloud MAMMERI, Tizi Ouzou, Algérie)
    Abstract: L’esprit d’entreprendre permet de redynamiser la vie économique et sociale d'un pays. Nous vivons actuellement dans une société de savoirs où l’innovation, facteur déterminant dans la compétitivité de l’entreprise, est considérée comme étant un élément clé de la survie, de la croissance et du développement des PME. Cependant, l’innovation provient avant tout de la recherche et développement menée par les entreprises, les universités et les organismes de recherche. Nous cherchons à démontrer comment la recherche et développement peuvent contribuer à promouvoir l’innovation et l’entrepreneuriat dans les PME Algériennes, ceci en présentant un état de lieux de la situation actuelle de la recherche et développement en Algérie ainsi que de l'innovation dans les PME algériennes. Puis nous proposons des recommandations. The entrepreneurial spirit mays contribute to revitalize the economic and social activity of a country. In the current knowledge society, innovation stands as a factor of competitiveness for enterprises and is considered as a key element for the survival, the growth and the development of SMEs. However, innovation mainly ensues from the research and development carried out by firms, universities and research organizations. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how research and development activities may promote innovation and entrepreneurship in Algerian SMEs; In this aim, we present an inventory of the current results of research and development in Algeria and of innovation in Algerian SMEs. We then propose some recommendations for public policies.
    Keywords: Innovation, entrepreneuriat, PME algériennes, entrepreneurship, R&D, Algerian SMEs
    JEL: O31 O32 O55 L26
    Date: 2014–02
  7. By: Marcus Simeth; Michele Cincera
    Abstract: It can be observed that many R&D performing firms produce scientific knowledge and discloseresearch outcomes in scientific journals. At the micro-level, prior work identified several potentialbenefits of such a strategy like superior access to informal information networks or the opportunity ofrecruiting the best PhD graduates. However, scientific research is costly and subject to considerableuncertainty with respect to the outcomes, and the disclosure may lead to spillover effects that decreasethe ability of firms to generate returns of their R&D investments. Overall, it remains unclear if andunder what conditions science-oriented strategies are beneficial for firms. We address this gap andexamine the impact of scientific activities on the firm’s market value using accounting data for USfirms from Compustat and matched patent and scientific publication data. We find evidence for apositive impact of scientific publication stocks on the firm value beyond the effects of R&D, patentstocks and patent quality.
    Keywords: R&D, Industrial science, Market value, Tobin's Q, Knowledge disclosure, Econometric evidence
  8. By: Marie José Scotto; Hervé Tiffon
    Abstract: Cet article a pour objectif d’analyser le processus d’innovation sociétale, en le situant dans le contexte des organisations d’entreprise. Un approfondissement sur le rôle du sens dans ce processus conduit à la notion constructiviste de co-création organisationnelle du sens. Le rôle du management de proximité dans cette construction est souligné et argumenté. Une enquête de terrain est à réaliser pour évaluer ces propositions.
    Keywords: Innovation sociétale, sens, co-construction organisationnelle, management de proximité.
    Date: 2014–02–25
  9. By: Philippe Aghion; Stefan Bechtold; Lea Cassar; Holger Herz
    Abstract: In this paper, we design two laboratory experiments to analyze the causal effects of competition on step-by-step innovation. Innovations result from costly R&D investments and move technology up one step. Competition is inversely measured by the ex post rents for firms that operate at the same technological level, i.e. for neck-and-neck firms. First, we find that increased competition leads to a significant increase in R&D investments by neck-and-neck firms. Second, increased competition decreases R&D investments by firms that are lagging behind, in particular if the time horizon is short. Third, we find that increased competition affects industry composition by reducing the fraction of sectors where firms are neck-and-neck. All these results are consistent with the predictions of step-by-step innovation models.
    JEL: C91 L10 O31
    Date: 2014–03
  10. By: Rutzer, Christian
    Abstract: This paper extends the firm heterogeneity model of Melitz (2003) by introducing a new concept of endegenous investments in process R&D. The novelty is that if a firm invests more R&D its expected innovation return hazard rate stochastically dominates the return of less R&D investments. Due to this property, entrants invest more in R&D in response to trade liberalization. As a result the aggregate productivity is affected by a reallocation of resources to more productive firms and a simultaneous increase in firms´ investments in innovations, which is consistent with empirical findings. At the same time the firms´ increased R&D investments lead to a sector distribution with a higher right-tail compared to the distribution prior to trade liberalization. Hence, the model gives an explanation for the empirically found differences in the distribution tails among sectors with different trade openness levels. Another advantage of this paper´s framework compared to other trade models with innovations is its foundation in and extension of Melitz (2003). It enables most of the heterogeneous firms trade models to be extended by endegenous firm-level R&D in an empirically relevant and analytically tractable way. --
    Keywords: aggregate level,firm size distribution,heterogeneous firms,R&D investments,trade liberalization
    JEL: F12 F13 O31
    Date: 2014
  11. By: Alexander Abroskin (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: The article is devoted to topical issues of the formation of modern innovative processes management information base in the Russian economy. The article discusses the topical problems of effective management organization, associated with the definition and structuring of its object, classification of institutional units relative to the innovative segment of the economy. Particular attention is paid to the methodology of modern innovation statistics as a basis for obtaining the primary data and the formation of a system of indicators used in the innovative processes management. The prospects for the development of innovative processes management information base in the Russian economy are analyzed from the standpoint of further improving the statistical methodology, increasing the materiality level of formed for management indicators and extension of management tasks completed through the use of advanced analytical and predictive methods and models. The latter aspect is considered in terms of prospects for the use of complex analysis and forecasting innovation processes approach provided for by the modern version of the System of National Accounts.
    Keywords: analysis, innovations, innovative processes, information base, methodology, controlled object, materiality of information, System of National Accounts, management.
    JEL: O11
    Date: 2014
  12. By: Goni, Edwin; Maloney, William F.
    Abstract: Using a global panel on research and development (R&D) expenditures, this paper documents that on average poor countries do far less R&D than rich as a share of GDP. This is arguably counter intuitive since the gains from doing the R&D required for technological catch up are thought to be very high and griffith2004 have documented that in the OECD returns increase dramatically with distance from the frontier. Exploiting recent advances in instrumental variables in a varying coefficient context we find that the rates of return follow an inverted U: they rise with distance to the frontier and then fall thereafter, potentially turning negative for the poorest countries. The findings are consistent with the importance of factors complementary to R&D, such as education, the quality of scientific infrastructure and the overall functioning of the national innovation system, and the quality of the private sector, which become increasingly weak with distance from the frontier and the absence of which can offset the catch up effect. China's and India's explosive growth in R&D investment trajectories in spite of expected low returns may be justified by their importing the complementary factors in the form of multinational corporations who do most of the patentable research.
    Keywords: Economic Theory&Research,Debt Markets,E-Business,Political Economy,Scientific Research&Science Parks
    Date: 2014–03–01
  13. By: Michele Cincera; Reinhilde Veugelers
    Date: 2013–01

This nep-knm issue is ©2014 by Laura Stefanescu. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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