nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2014‒03‒01
sixteen papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. A resource pool for environmental innovation By Rasi Kunapatarawong; Ester Martinez Ros
  2. Industry Concentration, Knowledge Diffusion, and Economic Growth Without Scale Effects By Colin Davis; Ken-ichi Hashimoto
  3. A Policy Perspective On The Russian Technology Platforms By Liliana Proskuryakova; Dirk Meissner; Pavel Rudnik
  4. The effectiveness of R&D support in Italy. Some evidence from matching methods By Aiello, Francesco
  5. FDI inflows and outflows, intellectual property rights, and productivity growth By Sasatra, Sudsawasd; Santi, Chaisrisawatsuk
  6. How Innovation Systems and Development Theories complement each other By Natera, Jose Miguel; Pansera, Mario
  7. Do Green Innovations stimulate Employment? – Firm-level Evidence From Germany By Georg Licht; Bettina Peters
  8. School Attainment and Knowledge in Arab Countries By Driouchi, Ahmed
  9. Employment polarization and the role of the apprenticeship system By Michelle Rendall; Franziska J. Weiss
  10. University Contribution Studies Using Input-Output Analysis By Zoë O. Ambargis; Charles Ian Mead; Stanislaw J. Rzeznik
  11. Technology Parks Potential for Small and Medium Enterprises By Anna V. Vilisova; Qiang Fu
  12. Process Innovation and Product Quality Improvement in a Dynamic Monopoly By L. Lambertini; R. Orsini
  13. Do KIPP Schools Boost Student Achievement? By Philip M. Gleason; Christina Clark Tuttle; Brian Gill; Ira Nichols-Barrer; Bing-ru Teh
  14. Motivating knowledge agents: Can incentive pay overcome social distance? By Erlend Berg; Maitreesh Ghatak; R Manjula; D Rajasekhar; Sanchari Roy
  15. Dokumentation zur Innovationserhebung 2013 By Aschhoff, B.; Crass, D.; Doherr, T.; Hud, M.; Hünermund, P.; Iferd, Y.; Köhler, C.; Peters, B.; Rammer, C.; Schubert, T.; Schwiebacher, F.
  16. An Economic Model of Learning Styles By Gervas Huxley; Mike Peacey

  1. By: Rasi Kunapatarawong; Ester Martinez Ros
    Abstract: This paper reports research on the relationship between sourcing strategy of a firm and its environmental innovation propensity. The data is taken from the Spanish TechnologicalInnovation Panel (PITEC) survey during the period of 2007-2011. The uniqueness of the Spanish innovation structure and the increasing relevance of environmental issues for the Spanish economy make it a proper setting to investigate environmental innovation dynamics. The results from 5,352 firms indicate that large firms are more likely to undertake environmental innovation than small- and medium-sized firms (SMEs). These firms rely quite equally on all four sources of knowledge &- internal, market, institutional and freely-available sources &- when deciding to develop environmental innovation. The broad horizons with respect to knowledge sources are likely to increase firms' propensity to introduce environmental innovation. In addition, weprovide the evolutionary nature of firm's innovation search as firms grow in size. Small firmsrely on both internal and freely-available sources rather equally, while internal source is the most relevant for medium firms, and market is the most important source used by large firms indriving environmental innovation. Particularly important is how firms who are already innovators and who receive local funding from the Spanish government are more likely to introduce environmental innovation.
    Keywords: Environmental innovation , Knowledge sourcing , Discrete choice model
    Date: 2014–02
  2. By: Colin Davis (The Institute for Liberal Arts, Doshisha University); Ken-ichi Hashimoto (Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University)
    Abstract: This paper develops a two region model of trade to study the relationship between geographic patterns of industry and economic growth without scale effects. With transport costs, imperfect knowledge diffusion, and perfect capital mobility, firms locate production, process innovation, and product development independently in their lowest cost regions, leading to the partial concentration of production and the full agglomeration of innovation in the region with the largest market. A rise in industry concentration increases knowledge spillovers from production to innovation, resulting in a fall or a rise in the level of market entry depending on whether productivity increases more for process innovation or for product development. As a result, the rate of economic growth may rise or fall, depending on the effects of industry concentration on market entry.
    Keywords: Industry Concentration, Industry Share, Knowledge Diffusion, Productivity Growth, Scale Effect
    JEL: F43 O30 O40 R12
    Date: 2014–02
  3. By: Liliana Proskuryakova (National Research University Higher School of Economics (Russia)); Dirk Meissner (National Research University Higher School of Economics (Russia)); Pavel Rudnik (Russian Ministry for Economic Development)
    Abstract: The paper analyses the evolution of the ‘technology platform’ concept starting from an instrument for R&D and innovation management used by companies towards a policy instrument used for technology and economic development at national and international level. The authors propose a theoretical approach to technology platforms (TPs) as a policy concept and institutional framework useful for policy making in the sphere of science, technology and innovation. Furthermore the paper offers an analysis of the newly established Russian Technology Platforms that have the potential for advancing the national innovation system. The case-study of Russian Technology Platforms is aimed at analyzing technology platforms in Russia as a science, technology and innovation (STI) policy tool from theoretical and practical perspectives. The study addresses the question “What is the place of the Russian TPs in the national STI policy mix?” and outlines lessons learnt from the experience of the European technology platforms. Conclusions are drawn on the prospects of the TPs as an STI policy tool in Russia
    Keywords: technology platform, science and technology policy, innovation policy, regional development, economic development, public private partnerships
    JEL: O32 O33 O38
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Aiello, Francesco
    Abstract: In this study several matching procedures have been used to evaluate the impact of public R&D support received by Italian manufacturing firms over the three-year period 2004-2006. Data are from the Capitalia-UniCredit survey and estimations refer to a sample of 605 treated firms untreated are 2414). The evidence is mixed and depends on the objective-variable under consideration. As far as the total amount of R&D investments is concerned, the role of public support to innovation is positive and significant, while no impact has been found when considering the R&D intensity and the share of sales due to innovative-products. These differences in results are quite regular, whatever the matching method applied in the evaluation.
    Keywords: Policy Evaluation; R&D Investments; Innovative Sales; Matching estimators
    JEL: C2 H2 H7 L1 L2 L6 O32 O38
    Date: 2013–12–02
  5. By: Sasatra, Sudsawasd; Santi, Chaisrisawatsuk
    Abstract: Using panel data of 57 countries during the period of 1995-2012, this study investigates the impact of intellectual property rights (IPR) processes on productivity growth. The IPR processes are decomposed into three stages, innovation process, commercialization process, and IPR protection process. Our results suggest that better IPR protection is directly associated with productivity improvement only in developed economies. In addition, the contribution of IPR processes on growth through foreign direct investment (FDI) appears to be very limited. Only FDI inflows in developed countries which help to create a better innovative capability lead to a higher growth. And in connection with FDI outflows, only IPR protection and commercialization processes are proven to improve productivity in the case of developing countries, particularly when the country acts as the investing country.
    Keywords: Developing countries, Developed countries, Intellectual property, Foreign investments, Productivity, International business enterprises, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), Intellectual property rights, Productivity growth
    JEL: F23 O34
    Date: 2014–02
  6. By: Natera, Jose Miguel; Pansera, Mario
    Abstract: The paper aims at comparing some of the most influential theories of development with the notion of Innovation Systems (IS). The objective is to understand if this comparison can be used to delve into the role of innovation within the development process. We start defining the main features that characterizes Innovation Systems. Then we contrast it with different branches of development theories: the Sen’s theory of capability building and the Institutionalism, the neo-classic approach and cumulative processes (multiple equilibrium approaches) and finally, the Structures and System Theories (LA structuralism approach, the dependency and world-system theory). We conclude that the interaction between IS and the theories considered represents a mutual benefit. IS, indeed, provide a systemic vision that considers innovation as a holistic process, giving a central role to social and economic factors. Hence, IS might be successfully applied to complement the classic development approach. Innovation Systems could also get benefits from this interaction: development theories shed light on the different ways to think of systemic relationships. Finally, rather than focusing on the discussion of IS being or not a theory for development by itself, we believe that making this relational exercise could generate new benefits and frameworks of analysis for the research community.
    Keywords: Innovation, Innovation systems, Development theory.
    JEL: O1
    Date: 2013
  7. By: Georg Licht; Bettina Peters
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of environmental innovation on employment growth in the period 2006-2008 using firm-level data for German manufacturing and services. It extends the model by Harrison et al (2008) in order to distinguish between employment effects of environmental and non-environmental product as well as process innovation. As a robustness check patent data on green technologies are employed. The results demonstrate that both environmental and non-environmental product innovations stimulate employment growth. We find a similar gross employment effect of both types of product innovations. That is, one-percent increases in sales stemming from new environmental and non-environmental products increase gross employment by one percent each. Thus, we do not find evidence that that new products with environmental benefits for consumers are produced with higher or lower efficiency than old products. Yet, the net employment contribution of non-green product innovations is 4 to 5 times larger than the net contribution of green product innovations. This is the result of differences in the average innovation engagement and innovation success of both types of new products. In contrast, environmental and non-environmental process innovation plays only a little role for employment growth. In particular, we do not identify a significant trade-off between more environmental-friendly production technologies and employment growth. This holds for both cleaner production technologies and end-of pipe technologies.
    Keywords: Employment growth, environmental innovation, green patents
    JEL: O33 J23 L80 C21 C23
    Date: 2014–02
  8. By: Driouchi, Ahmed
    Abstract: This paper deals with school attainment in the Arab economies. It is based on descriptive statistical analyses on Barro and Lee data for the period 1950-2010. The opportunities lost with the low level of school attainment and the corresponding time trends in Arab countries are discussed. The relatively slow speed of recovery in schooling could already be expressed by the lowest knowledge performances achieved by the economies of North Africa, Sudan and Yemen.
    Keywords: School attainment, Arab economies.
    JEL: O15
    Date: 2014–02–23
  9. By: Michelle Rendall; Franziska J. Weiss
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of the apprenticeship system on innovation and labor market polarization. A stylized model with two key features is developed: (1) apprentices are more productive due to industry-specific training, but (2) from the firm’s perspective, when training apprentices, technological innovation is costly since training becomes obsolete. Thus, apprentices correlate with slower adoption of skillreplacing technologies, but also less employment polarization. We test this hypothesis on German regions given local variation in apprenticeship systems until 1976. The results shows no employment polarization related to apprentices, but similar displacement of non-apprentices as in the US.
    Keywords: Apprentices, educational system, employment polarization, technology adoption
    JEL: E24 I24 J24 J62 O33
    Date: 2014–02
  10. By: Zoë O. Ambargis; Charles Ian Mead; Stanislaw J. Rzeznik (Bureau of Economic Analysis)
    Date: 2014–02
  11. By: Anna V. Vilisova; Qiang Fu
    Abstract: Being one of the most important factors of economic growth of the country, innovations became one of the key vectors in Russian economic policy. In this field technology parks are one of the most effective instruments which can provide growth of innovative activity in sectors, regions and economies. In this paper, we made a model that allows us to evaluate the effect of technology parks in the economy of the country and its potential for small and medium enterprises. The model is based on a system of coupled equations, whose parameters are estimated on the statistical data that reflect the activity of the economic entity, in an environment of this entity the technology parks are acting. Typically, there are regression equations linking a number of economic factors with some output indicators. We analyzed the property of increasing the share of surviving small and medium enterprises for Russian conditions as one of the effect of technology parks and built a working model for estimating the maximum (limit) values of the effect.
    Date: 2014–02
  12. By: L. Lambertini; R. Orsini
    Abstract: We investigate the optimal R&D portfolio of a single-product monopolist investing in cost-reducing activities accompanied by efforts improving the quality of its product. There emerges that the firm’s relative incentives along the two directions are conditional upon market affluency, measured by consumers’ willingness to pay for quality, and R&D efforts are complements at equilibrium. We also perform the stability analysis, showing that a stable branch exists along the quality dimension only.
    JEL: L12 O31
    Date: 2014–02
  13. By: Philip M. Gleason; Christina Clark Tuttle; Brian Gill; Ira Nichols-Barrer; Bing-ru Teh
    Abstract: This article measures the achievement impacts of 41 Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) charter middle schools nationwide and found consistently positive and statistically significant test-score effects in reading, math, science, and social studies.
    Keywords: KIPP, Student Achievement, Charter Schools, Education
    JEL: I
    Date: 2014–01–30
  14. By: Erlend Berg; Maitreesh Ghatak; R Manjula; D Rajasekhar; Sanchari Roy
    Abstract: This paper studies the interaction of incentive pay and social distance in the dissemination of information. We analyse theoretically as well as empirically the effect of incentive pay when agents have pro-social objectives, but also preferences over dealing with one social group relative to another. In a randomised field experiment undertaken across 151 villages in South India, local agents were hired to spread information about a public health insurance programme. Relative to at pay, incentive pay improves knowledge transmission to households that are socially distant from the agent, but not to households similar to the agent.
    Keywords: public services, information constraints, incentive pay, social proximity, knowledge transmission
    Date: 2014–01
  15. By: Aschhoff, B.; Crass, D.; Doherr, T.; Hud, M.; Hünermund, P.; Iferd, Y.; Köhler, C.; Peters, B.; Rammer, C.; Schubert, T.; Schwiebacher, F.
    Abstract: Das Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW) erhebt seit 1993 jährlich die Innovationsaktivitäten der deutschen Wirtschaft. Die Erhebungen finden im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) statt und sind als ein Panel konzipiert(Mannheimer Innovationspanels - MIP). Die Innovationserhebungen werden in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Fraunhofer Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung sowie dem Institut für angewandte Sozialwissenschaft (infas) durchgeführt. Die Innovationserhebungen im Rahmen des MIP sind gleichzeitig der deutsche Beitrag zu den Community Innovation Surveys (CIS) der Europäischen Kommission. In diesem Bericht werden wesentliche Ergebnisse der Erhebung des Jahres 2013 dokumentiert. --
    Date: 2014
  16. By: Gervas Huxley; Mike Peacey
    Abstract: Much of the economic literature on education treats the actual process of learning as a `black box'. While these `black box' models have many interesting uses, they are of little use when a college seeks advice about reallocating resources from one input to another (e.g. from lecture hours to tutorials). Commenting on such questions requires us to `open up' the black box. In this paper, we show what one such model would look like by explicitly modelling how students vary in their `learning styles'. This model allows us to simulate how reforms to higher education would affect students with different learning styles. We consider alternative tuition fee structures and the technological change that has led to the introduction of massive open online courses (MOOCs).
    Keywords: Human Capital, Education Production Function, Learning Style, Independent Learner, MOOC
    JEL: I20 I23
    Date: 2014–02

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