nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2014‒02‒02
twelve papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. Do eco-innovations need specific regional characteristics? By Horbach, Jens
  2. In-house R&D and External Knowledge Acquisition What Makes Chinese Firms Productive? By Böing, Philipp; Müller, Elisabeth
  3. Financing Patterns of Innovative SMEs and the Perception of Innovation Barriers in Germany By Heike Belitz; Anna Lejpras
  4. Collective Bargaining and Innovation in Germany: Cooperative Industrial Relations? By John T. Addison; Paulino Teixeira; Katalin Evers; Lutz Bellmann
  5. Innovation Complementarity and Environmental Productivity Effects: Reality or Delusion? Evidence from the EU By Massimiliano Mazzanti; Susanna Mancinelli; Marianna Gilli
  6. Innovations and productivity: the shift during the 2008 crisis By Grigorii V. Teplykh
  7. How Mergers A ffect Innovation: Theory and Evidence By Stiebale, Joel; Haucap, Justus
  8. Compulsory Licensing, Innovation and Welfare By Seifert, Jacob
  9. Comment favoriser et mesurer la contribution à l'innovation par les fournisseurs ? By Pauline Mercier
  10. Growth and Welfare Effects of Health Care in Knowledge Based Economies By Kuhn, Michael; Prettner, Klaus
  11. A dynamical countries-interaction model based on technology for the study of European growth and stability By Bernardo Maggi; Daniel Muro
  12. Competitive intelligence system inorganizations - difficulties identified by experience feedback By Manel Guechtouli

  1. By: Horbach, Jens
    Abstract: The theoretical and empirical innovation literature stresses the importance of regional fac-tors and locational conditions for location choice of firms and their innovation success. Innovation activities are not equally distributed in space because agglomeration effects and specific regional infrastructures may promote innovation success. Concerning environmentally oriented innovations, the so-called eco-innovations, there is a widespread empirical literature analyzing their determinants but - because of the lack of adequate data - the inclusion of regional and locational factors has been neglected. This paper tries to close this gap by using the establishment panel of the German Institute for Employment Research in Nuremberg combined with data at the regional level. To explore specific regional determinants of eco-innovations compared to other innovations including variables at the firm and the regional level, a two-level mixed effects logistic regression has been applied. Our econometric results show that external knowledge sources such as the regional proximity to research centers and universities are more important for eco-innovations compared to other innovations. Eco-innovations seem to be a chance for under-developed, disadvantaged regions because especially regions characterized by a high unemployment rate are more likely to adopt eco-innovations. Furthermore, eco-innovations need more effort concerning R&D inputs, further education measures within a firm and the qualifi-cation of the personnel. --
    JEL: Q55 R11 C25
    Date: 2013
  2. By: Böing, Philipp; Müller, Elisabeth
    Abstract: This paper analyses the influence of in-house R&D and external knowledge acquisition on the total factor productivity (TFP) of listed Chinese firms for the time period 2001-2010. We find a quantitatively important positive effect of in-house R&D. The achieved level of technological sophistication of Chinese firms is sufficient to benefit from R&D collaboration with domestic partners. We do not find a significant effect for employing inventors with access to international knowledge or for collaborating with international partners. International knowledge acquisition is only effective if conducted via joint ventures, i.e. if it is supported by a deep organizational relationship. --
    JEL: O32 O33 O39
    Date: 2013
  3. By: Heike Belitz; Anna Lejpras
    Abstract: We analyze the role of public support in the financing pattern of R&D in German SMEs and their assessment of financing conditions in the context of other framework conditions for innovation. In Germany, there is a diversity of overall well-funded technology-neutral and technology-specific programs providing grants to R&D and innovation projects. Different types of SMEs access public funding for R&D and innovation activities to varying degrees. Using an extensive sample of 2,700 German SMEs that participated in public R&D promotion programs during the 2005-2010 period, we identify four groups of companies with different patterns of public and private sources of R&D finance, such as own capital, grants, private and subsidized loans. The firms in our sample are generally positive about public financing of R&D in Germany in 2010. Despite the different funding patterns, we find only slight variations in this assessment across the four groups of subsidized SMEs. Nevertheless, medium-sized R&D companies (often with external equity investment) that have to finance the market introduction of innovations without a track record, appear to suffer from deficiencies in the provision of loans. Further, the companies perceive obstacles to innovation primarily in the non-financial sphere, namely the supply of skilled personnel, market regulation and competition conditions. Therefore, future work on innovation policies for SMEs should put greater emphasis on the non-financial external framework conditions for firm R&D and innovative activities.
    Keywords: R&D promotion, financing of R&D, small and medium sized enterprises, barriers to innovation
    JEL: O14 O25 O38 L20
    Date: 2014
  4. By: John T. Addison (University of Durham, University of South Carolina, IZA Bonn, and GEMF); Paulino Teixeira (University of Coimbra/GEMF and IZA Bonn); Katalin Evers (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung der Bundesagentur für Arbeit); Lutz Bellmann (Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung der Bundesagentur für Arbeit, and IZA Bonn)
    Abstract: The effect of collective bargaining on innovation has long been in dispute. At the level of theory, the hold-up problem has been used to justify positive as well as negative effects of unionism. At the empirical level, although some would consider the North American evidence as cut and dried, this is not the case for other countries. In Europe there is some suggestion that certain industrial relations systems, either alone or in combination with the regulatory framework in which they are embedded, may tip the balance in favor of a beneficial union effect. In the present paper, we assemble nationally representative data for Germany – for many observers the exemplar of a cooperative industrial relations regime – to investigate the impact of collective bargaining on (several measures of) process innovation and product innovation. Our cross section and longitudinal analysis fails to indicate that unionism retards innovation. Indeed, in conjunction with workplace representation, collective bargaining at sectoral level might even be pro innovative.
    Keywords: Germany, collective bargaining, innovation.
    JEL: J51 J53 O31
    Date: 2013–12
  5. By: Massimiliano Mazzanti; Susanna Mancinelli; Marianna Gilli
    Abstract: Innovation is a key element behind the achievement of desired environmental and economic performances. Regarding CO2, mitigation strategies would require cuts in emissions of around 80-90% with respect to 1990 by 2050 in the EU. We investigate whether complementarity, namely integration, between the adoption of environmental innovation measures and other technological and organizational innovations is a factor that has supported reduction in CO2 emissions per value added, that is environmental productivity. We merge new EU innovation and WIOD data to assess the innovation effects on sector CO2 performances at a wide EU level. We find that jointly adopting different innovations is not a widespread factor behind increases in environmental productivity. Nevertheless, even though complementarity is not a low hanging fruit, a case where ‘innovation complementarity’ arises is for manufacturing sectors, that integrate eco innovations with product innovations. One example of this integrated action is a strategy that pursue energy efficiency with product value enhancement. We believe that the lack of integrated innovation adoption behind environmental productivity performance is a signal of the current weaknesses economies face in tackling climate change and green economy challenges. Incremental rather than more radical strategies have predominated so far. The latter have been confined to industrial ‘niches’, in terms of number of involved firms. This is probably insufficient when we look at long-term economic and environmental goals.
    Keywords: Complementarity; Innovation; Climate Change; Sector Performance
    JEL: L6 O3 Q55
    Date: 2014–01–28
  6. By: Grigorii V. Teplykh (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Innovations and related knowledge are important drivers of corporate success in modern economies. However the crisis of 2008 strongly influenced investment decisions including R&D expenditure. This may be explained by the fact that the crisis has changed a transformation of corporate resources into economic benefit. Innovation activity is found to be a survival factor during the downturn. The aim of this study is to investigate how the crisis has changed relations between innovation and firm performance in western Europe. We apply a structural framework of the CDM model which takes into account endogeneity and selection bias. The study is based on new balanced panel data of 429 western European manufacturing firms.
    Keywords: innovations, economic crisis, CDM model
    JEL: O31 O32 D22 D24
    Date: 2014
  7. By: Stiebale, Joel; Haucap, Justus
    Abstract: This papers analyses how horizontal mergers affect innovation activities of the merged entity and its non-merging competitors. We develop an oligopoly model with heterogeneous firms to derive empirically testable implications. Our model predicts that a merger is more likely to be profitable in an innovation intensive industry. For a high degree of firm heterogeneity a merger reduces innovation in both the merged entity and in non-merging competitors in an industry with high R\&D intensity. Using data on horizontal mergers among pharmaceutical firms in Europe, we find that our econometric results are consistent with many predictions of the theoretical model. Our main result is that after a merger patenting and R\&D of the merged entity and its non-merging rivals declines substantially. The results are robust towards alternative specifications and using an instrumental variable strategy. --
    JEL: D22 D43 O31
    Date: 2013
  8. By: Seifert, Jacob
    Abstract: This paper develops a three-stage model of innovation, fixed-fee licensing and production to evaluate the welfare effects of compulsory licensing, taking into account both static (information sharing) and dynamic (innovation incentive) effects. Compulsory licensing is shown to have an unambiguously positive impact on consumer surplus. Compulsory licensing has an ambiguous effect on total welfare, but it is more likely to increase total welfare in industries which are naturally less competitive. Furthermore, compulsory licensing can be an effective policy to safeguard the competitive process per se. These welfare results hold independently of whether R&D incentives in the absence of licensing favour the leading firm ('persistent dominance') or predict that the follower will overtake the incumbent ('action-reaction'). --
    JEL: L13 O31 O34
    Date: 2013
  9. By: Pauline Mercier (IAE Grenoble - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises - Grenoble - Université Pierre-Mendès-France - Grenoble II)
    Abstract: Les objectifs attribués aux fonctions achats reposent encore beaucoup sur le triptyque coût-délai-qualité. Pourtant, certaines entreprises vont plus loin et reconnaissent la valeur ajoutée que peuvent représenter les achats dans la contribution à la performance globale de l'entreprise. Et ceci peut notamment se manifester dans la recherche de solutions innovantes sur le marché amont, l'innovation constituant aujourd'hui un atout clef afin d'obtenir un avantage concurrentiel. Ainsi, nous nous intéressons dans ce mémoire de recherche à définir des bonnes pratiques achats en vue de favoriser et mesurer la contribution à l'innovation par les fournisseurs. Notre réflexion débute par une analyse théorique de revue de littérature afin de poser les bases du sujet et comprendre ce qui a été jusqu'à présent communiqué sur le sujet. Une analyse terrain des pratiques achats menée auprès d'acheteurs d'entreprises réputées innovantes permet d'étayer également ces propos. Des préconisations sont alors apportées, tout d'abord généralistes, puis spécifiques aux enjeux de l'entreprise ARaymond SARL.
    Keywords: Contribution, achats, innovation, bonnes pratiques, favoriser, mesurer, motiver
    Date: 2013
  10. By: Kuhn, Michael; Prettner, Klaus
    Abstract: We study the effects of a labor-intensive health care sector within an R&D-driven growth model with overlapping generations. Health care increases longevity and labor participation/productivity. We examine under which conditions expanding health care enhances growth and welfare. Even if the provision of health care diverts labor from productive activities, it may still fuel R&D and economic growth if the additional wealth that comes with expanding longevity translates into a more capital/machine-intensive final goods production and, thereby, raises the return to developing new machines. We establish mild conditions under which an expansion of health care beyond the growth-maximizing level is Pareto-improving. --
    JEL: I11 O41 O11
    Date: 2013
  11. By: Bernardo Maggi (Sapienza Universita' di Roma); Daniel Muro (Universita' di Roma III)
    Abstract: With this study we intend to define a methodology capable to deal with the task of evaluating and planning the interdependent dynamics of growth for some European countries together with their foreign partners. To that aim we employ a nonlinear differential equations system representing a disequilibrium model based on a Schumpeterian evolutionary context with endogenous technology. We use such a model in order to disentangle the interrelationships occurring among countries for the critical variables considered. That is, we succeed in evaluating the contribution to growth of a country with respect to another one in terms of the variables involved. We address and corroborate the validity of our conjectures on the importance of the business services in the innovation and production processes by presenting also a minimal model. Further, we provide an evaluation of the convolution integral of our differential system to determine the necessary initial conditions of the critical variables for policy purposes. We then perform a sensitivity analysis to assess per each country the effectiveness of some possible efforts in order to gain stability.
    Keywords: Continuous Time Panel Econometrics, Distance, Programming, Growth, Stability, Sensitivity, Technology, Business Services.
    JEL: C33 C62 C61 O11 O33 O34
    Date: 2014–01
  12. By: Manel Guechtouli
    Abstract: This paper is dealing with major issues on a competitive intelligence system. Our research is based on an inductive approach as we study the case of the competitive intelligence system of a big technological firm. Results identify three categories of factors that are widely discussed. Managerial recommendations are formulated.
    Keywords: Competitive Intelligence, organization, issues, formal, informal.
    Date: 2014–01–06

This nep-knm issue is ©2014 by Laura Stefanescu. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.