nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2013‒12‒15
twenty papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. Knowledge flows percolation model – a new model for the relation between knowledge and innovation By Popescul, Daniela
  2. The Role of Product Innovation Output on Export Behavior of Firms By Tavassoli, Sam
  3. Spillover Use and Innovation Success: What Role Does R&D Play? By Uwe Jirjahn
  4. The Impact of Cooperation on R&D, Innovation and Productivity: an Analysis of Spanish Manufacturing and Services Firms By Fernández Gual, Verónica; Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958-
  5. Innovation and Trade Policy Coordination: the Role of Firm Heterogeneity By Antonio Navas; Davide Sala
  6. Do Inventors Talk to Strangers? On Proximity and Collaborative Knowledge Creation By Crescenzi, Riccardo; Nathan, Max; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés
  7. The Impact of Formal Institutions on Knowledge Economy By Antonio R. Andrés; Simplice A. Asongu; Voxi Amavilah
  8. Firm voluntary measures for environmental changes, eco-innovations and CSR: Empirical analyses based on data surveys By LE BAS Christian; POUSSING Nicolas
  11. Neighbors and the Evolution of the Comparative Advantage of Nations: Evidence of International Knowledge Diffusion? By Bahar, Dany; Hausmann, Ricardo; Hidalgo, César A.
  12. Innovating without Information Constraints: Organizations, Communities, and Innovation When Information Costs Approach Zero By Elizabeth J. Altman; Frank Nagle; Michael L. Tushman
  13. Financial Dependence and Innovation: The Case of Public versus Private Firms By Viral V. Acharya; Zhaoxia Xu
  14. Stimulating Innovation in ASEAN Institutional Support, R&D Activity and Intellectual Property Rights By Rajah RASIAH
  15. Intangible Knowledge Capital and Innovation in China By Fleisher, Belton M.; McGuire, William H.; Smith, Adam Nicholas; Zhou, Mi
  16. Growth through heterogeneous innovations By Akcigit, Ufuk; Kerr, William R.
  17. Modeling Knowledge Networks in Economic Geography: A Discussion of Four Empirical Strategies By Tom Broekel; Pierre-Alexandre Balland; Martijn Burger; Frank van Oort
  18. Exportações e Processos Inovativos: Um Estudo Para a América Latina e a Europa do Leste By Marcelo José Braga Nonnenberg; Ana Paula Avellar
  19. Employment and innovation: Firm level evidence from Argentina By Ramiro De Elejalde; David Giuliodori; Rodolfo Stucchi
  20. Can non-market regulations spur innovations in environmental technologies? : A study on firm level patenting By Marit E. Klemetsen; Brita Bye; Arvid Raknerud

  1. By: Popescul, Daniela
    Abstract: The present paper proposes a new way of thinking regarding the relation between innovation and knowledge using a Physics-borrowed model, trying to prove whether knowledge resources can „flow” (be percolated) in a network or a grid, in order to be transformed in technological innovation. In the Knowledge Flow Percolation Model centre, human beings are seen as thinking electrons, both consuming and generating knowledge flow. Through the inter-dependent actions of individuals, knowledge circulates inside different types of organisations, allowing functioning and innovating in order to obtain competitive advantages. The model can be extended also at a national level, and some assumptions of self similarity appear in this process of extension. The model must be seen as a proposal for the research community and as a basis for future observations regarding the importance of knowledge flows in innovation.
    Keywords: technological innovation, knowledge, knowledge flows, knowledge flows percolation model
    JEL: D83 M12 O31 O32
    Date: 2012–06–09
  2. By: Tavassoli, Sam (CSIR, Blekinge Inst of Technology)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the role of innovation on the export behavior of firms. Using two waves of Swedish CIS data merged with register data on firm-specific characteristics. I estimate the influence of the innovation output of a firm on its export propensity and intensity, respectively. I find that the innovation output of firms (measured as sales due to innovative products) has a positive and significant effect on export behavior of firms. The results also show that it is indeed innovation output, rather than innovation input (innovative efforts), that matters for export behavior of firms. Specifically, innovation output leads to increase in later export propensity and intensity of firms. Moreover, there is also strong association of productivity and ownership structure of firms with export propensity and intensity of firms. The results are robust when unobserved time-invariant heterogeneity of firm and also potential endogeneity of innovation-export are taken into accounted.
    Keywords: Innovation output; innovation input; export propensity; export intensity
    JEL: F14 O31 O33
    Date: 2013–12–03
  3. By: Uwe Jirjahn
    Abstract: Based on data from Germany, this study finds a positive link between using knowledge spillovers from rivals and innovation success in establishments without R&D but not in establishments with R&D. This supports the hypothesis that rivals’ knowledge is more valuable to establishments that are below the frontier of technology and product development.
    Keywords: Corporate Spillover asymmetry, R&D, Learning, Product innovation
    JEL: L60 O31 O32
    Date: 2012
  4. By: Fernández Gual, Verónica; Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958-
    Abstract: This paper investigates relationships between cooperation, R&D, innovation and productivity in Spanish firms. It uses a large sample of firm-level micro-data and applies an extended structural model that aims to explain the effects of cooperation on R&D investment, of R&D investment on output innovation, and of innovation on firms’ productivity levels. It also analyses the determinants of R&D cooperation. Firms’ technology level is taken into account in order to analyse the differences between high-tech and low-tech firms, both in the industrial and service sectors. The database used was the Technological Innovation Panel (PITEC) for the period 2004-2010. Empirical results show that firms which cooperate in innovative activities are more likely to invest in R&D in subsequent years. As expected, R&D investment has a positive impact on the probability of generating an innovation, in terms of both product and process, for manufacturing firms. Finally, innovation output has a positive impact on firms’ productivity, being greater in process innovations. Keywords: innovation sources; productivity; R&D Cooperation
    Keywords: Tecnologia -- Innovacions, Indústria -- Productivitat, Investigació industrial, 338 - Situació econòmica. Política econòmica. Gestió, control i planificació de l'economia. Producció. Serveis. Turisme. Preus,
    Date: 2013
  5. By: Antonio Navas (Department of Economics, The University of Sheffield); Davide Sala (Department of Business and Economics, University of Southern Denmark)
    Abstract: Recent studies have concluded that R&D grants can induce firms to export and that exporting and innovating can be complementary activities at the firm level. Yet the trade literature has paid little attention to the scope of innovation policy as a stimulus to both trade and innovation. To investigate this question we rely on a general work-horse model of trade and firm heterogeneity with firm investments in R&D activities. The multiplicity of equilibria together with the interplay of innovation and trade policies uncover novel results. In particular, we show that the effects of either policy depend on the degree of protectionism in a country. Therefore, countries can respond differently to the same policy, and similarly to different policies. In such a context, different governments may face different degrees of freedom regarding how to achieve a given target. This finding leads us to discuss the issue of policy coordination.
    Keywords: innovation; innovation policy; heterogenous firms; technology adoption; trade policy
    JEL: F12 F13 F15 O32
    Date: 2013
  6. By: Crescenzi, Riccardo (London School of Economics); Nathan, Max (London School of Economics); Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper investigates how physical, organisational, institutional, cognitive, social, and ethnic proximities between inventors shape their collaboration decisions. Using a new panel of UK inventors and a novel identification strategy, this paper systematically explores the net effects of all these 'proximities' on co-patenting. The regression analysis allows us to identify the full effects of each proximity, both on choice of collaborator and on the underlying decision to collaborate. The results show that physical proximity is an important influence on collaboration, but is mediated by organisational and ethnic factors. Over time, physical proximity increases in salience. For multiple inventors, geographic proximity is, however, much less important than organisational, social, and ethnic links. For inventors as a whole, proximities are fundamentally complementary, while for multiple inventors they are substitutes.
    Keywords: innovation, patents, proximities, cities, regions, knowledge spillovers, collaboration, ethnicity
    JEL: O31 O33 R11 R23
    Date: 2013–12
  7. By: Antonio R. Andrés (Eastern Mediterranean University, Department of Economics); Simplice A. Asongu (African Governance and Development Institute); Voxi Amavilah (Glendale College)
    Abstract: Using Kauffman, Kraay, and Mastruzzi governance indicators, this article analyzes the impact of formal institutions on the knowledge economy- by assessing how the enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) through good governance mechanisms affects the knowledge economy. The article also employs the World Bank’s four components of the knowledge economy index characteristic of its knowledge for development (K4D) framework. We estimate panel data models for 22 Middle East & North African and Sub-Sahara African countries over the period 1996-2010. The results show that for this group of countries the enforcement of IPR laws (treaties), although necessary, is not a sufficient condition for a knowledge economy. The results also suggest that other factors are more likely to determine the knowledge economies of these nations. Overall these findings have important implications for both policy and further research.
    Keywords: Formal institutions; Knowledge economy; Panel data; Principal component analysis (PCA)
    JEL: O10 O34 O38 P00 P48
    Date: 2013–07
  8. By: LE BAS Christian; POUSSING Nicolas
    Abstract: Despite the increased strategic importance of environmental innovation on the one hand and corporate social responsibility on the other, there are still few studies that show firm voluntary measures create a primary determinant of environmental changes. First, we clarify the meaning of voluntary measures and CSR. Second, we utilize a survey carried out in Luxemburg on firm CSR practices jointly with the Community Innovation Survey 2008 (CIS 2008). We merge them and show through the estimation of a probit model that CSR is an important factor that explains environmental innovation. Thanks to a question from CIS 2008 we can contribute to the literature by developing a new indicator measuring the scale of the positive impacts on the environment coming from the firm technological innovation capacity. A negative binomial regression enables us to estimate a significant and positive effect of CSR and firm value on this scale.
    Keywords: environmental innovation; corporate social responsability; Community Innovation Survey 2008; innovation impacts on the environment
    JEL: D22 H23 L21 O31
    Date: 2013–12
  9. By: Samuli Leppälä
    Abstract: Following the development of knowledge economies, there has been a rapid expansion of economic analysis of knowledge, both in the context of technological knowledge in particular and the decision theory in general. This paper surveys this literature by identifying the main themes and contributions and outlines the future prospects of the discipline. The wide scope of knowledge related questions in terms of applicability and alternative approaches has led to the fragmentation of research. Nevertheless, one can identify a continuing tradition which analyses various aspects of the generation, dissemination and use of knowledge in the economy.
    Keywords: knowledge, information, belief, uncertainty, innovation, intellectual property rights, scientific research, technological change
    JEL: D80 O30 I20 B00
    Date: 2012
  10. By: Fabiana Carneiro Silva De Holanda (UESC - Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz - UESC); Gesil Sampaio Amarante Segundo (UESC - Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz - UESC); Mickaël Coustaty (L3I - Laboratoire Informatique, Image et Interaction - Université de La Rochelle : EA2118); Eric De Almeida Monteiro (CRHIA - Centre de recherches en histoire internationale et Atlantique - Université de Nantes - Université de La Rochelle : EA1163)
    Abstract: This paper aims to present the reality of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC) (Ilhéus / Brazil) and the Universidade de La Rochelle (ULR) (France) in relation to the activities of innovation management, intellectual property (IP) and technology transfer (TT) performed at each university. The structure of the universities and of their Technology Transfer Offices, the legislation on innovation of each country, patents deposited and cases of technology transfer are presented. The objective is to compare the activities developed in the different realities and to seek, through best practices, a possibility to adapt those practices to the Brazilian case. The data were derived from the revision of the literature especially regarding the legislation on innovation, from the databases of the universities, and from an interview with the director of the ULR value, Prof. Jean- Marc Wallet. It was noticed that the universities have almost the same age and share the same efforts to develop research, teaching and extension activities. The ULR has a structure different from UESC regarding to the management of innovation processes, IP and TT, which allows, by means of legal provisions, greater flexibility in their actions, resulting in more successful and agile processes of technology transfer.
    Keywords: Innovation Management, Technology Transfer, Technology Transfer Offices, Intellectual Property
    Date: 2013–10–01
  11. By: Bahar, Dany; Hausmann, Ricardo; Hidalgo, César A.
    Abstract: The literature on knowledge diffusion shows that knowledge decays strongly with distance. In this paper we document that the probability a product is added to a country’s export basket is, on average, 65% larger if a neighboring country is a successful exporter of that same product. For existing products, growth of exports in a country is 1.5 percent higher per annum if it has a neighbor with comparative advantage in these products. While these results could be driven by a common third factor that escapes our controls, they align with our expectations of the localized character of knowledge diffusion.
  12. By: Elizabeth J. Altman (Harvard Business School); Frank Nagle (Harvard Business School); Michael L. Tushman (Harvard Business School, Organizational Behavior Unit)
    Abstract: Innovation has traditionally taken place within an organization's boundaries and/or with selected partners. This Chandlerian approach to innovation has been rooted in transaction costs, organizational boundaries, and information processing challenges associated with distant search. Information processing, storage, and communication costs have long been an important constraint on innovation and a reason for innovative activities to take place inside the boundaries of an organization. However, exponential technological progress has led to a dramatic decrease in information constraints. In a range of contexts, information costs approach zero. In this chapter, we discuss how sharply reduced information costs enable organizations to engage with communities of developers, professionals, and users for core innovative activities, frequently through platform-based businesses and ecosystems and by incorporating user innovation. We then examine how this ease of external engagement impacts the organization and its strategic activities. Specifically, we consider how this shift in information processing costs affects organization boundaries, business models, interdependence, leadership, identity, search, and intellectual property. We suggest that much of the received wisdom in these areas of organization theory requires revisiting. We then discuss the implications for an organization's management of innovation and conclude with research opportunities.
    Keywords: Managing Innovation, Information Costs, Information Constraints, Communities, Organization Boundaries, Technological Progress, Platforms and Ecosystems, User Innovation
    Date: 2013–11
  13. By: Viral V. Acharya; Zhaoxia Xu
    Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between innovation and firms' dependence on external capital by analyzing the innovation activities of privately-held and publicly-traded firms. We find that public firms in external finance dependent industries generate patents of higher quantity, quality, and novelty compared to their private counterparts, while public firms in internal finance dependent industries do not have a significantly better innovation profile than matched private firms. The results are robust to various empirical strategies that address selection bias. The findings suggest that public listing is beneficial to the innovation of firms in industries with a greater need for external capital.
    JEL: G31 G32 O16 O30
    Date: 2013–12
  14. By: Rajah RASIAH (Faculty of Economics and Administration Building, University of Malaya)
    Abstract: Using a stylized framework of technological capability development through pursuing Keynesian-Kaleckian style demand management strategies, this paper discusses initiatives that poorer member governments should take to stimulate technological upgrading of firms at the bottom with a focus on innovation, as well as, discussed the governance framework of intellectual property rights (IPRs) in ASEAN. Typologies of taxonomies and trajectories were used to evolve a policy framework to coordinate the relationship between macroinstitutions, meso-organizations and micro-agents (firms) for ASEAN members upgrade to transform from developing nations to join Singapore as developed nations. Recognizing the varying capacities of ASEAN members, the paper recommends that a common platform of IPRs be developed with the more developed members assisting the LDC members to quicken the development of a technologically more egalitarian region.
    Keywords: Innovation, intellectual Property Rights, ASEAN, Institutions, R&D
    JEL: O31 O32 O38 O43
    Date: 2013–11
  15. By: Fleisher, Belton M. (Ohio State University); McGuire, William H. (University of Washington Tacoma); Smith, Adam Nicholas (Ohio State University); Zhou, Mi (Agricultural Bank of China)
    Abstract: Intangible knowledge capital (IKC) – technology produced by workers but not embodied in them – can offset the "middle income trap" as China exhausts the benefits of international technology transfer. IKC is productivity-enhancing among Chinese enterprises – more so in domestically owned than in foreign invested enterprises. Consistent with other research, we find that China's IKC generates patents in China, but fewer than in major industrialized economies. Among domestically owned enterprises, IKC growth has flowed more toward higher-tech, export-oriented industries, while among foreign invested enterprises, it has been oriented more toward domestic sales.
    Keywords: intellectual capital, technology, economic growth, intellectual property, Asia, China
    JEL: O31 O33 O34 O43 P33
    Date: 2013–12
  16. By: Akcigit, Ufuk (University of Pennsylvania and NBER); Kerr, William R. (Harvard University and NBER)
    Abstract: We study how exploration versus exploitation innovations impact economic growth through a tractable endogenous growth framework that contains multiple innovation sizes, multi-product firms, and entry/exit. Firms invest in exploration R&D to acquire new product lines and exploitation R&D to improve their existing product lines. We model and show empirically that exploration R&D does not scale as strongly with firm size as exploitation R&D. The resulting framework conforms to many regularities regarding innovation and growth differences across the firm size distribution. We also incorporate patent citations into our theoretical framework. The framework generates a simple test using patent citations that indicates that entrants and small firms have relatively higher growth spillover effects.
    Keywords: endogenous growth; innovation; exploration; exploitation; research and development; patents; citations; scientists; entrepreneurs
    JEL: L16 O31 O33 O41
    Date: 2013–11–22
  17. By: Tom Broekel; Pierre-Alexandre Balland; Martijn Burger; Frank van Oort
    Abstract: The importance of network structures for the transmission of knowledge and the diffusion of technological change has been emphasized in economic geography. Since network structures drive the innovative and economic performance of actors in regional contexts, it is crucial to explain how networks form and evolve over time and how they facilitate inter-organizational learning and knowledge transfer. The analysis of relational dependent variables, however, requires specific statistical procedures. In this paper, we discuss four different models that have been used in economic geography to explain the spatial context of network structures and their dynamics. First, we review gravity models and their recent extensions and modifications to deal with the specific characteristics of networked relations. Second, we discuss the quadratic assignment procedure that has been developed in mathematical sociology for diminishing the bias induced by network dependencies. Third, we present exponential random graph models that not only allow dependence between observations, but also model such network dependencies explicitly. Finally, we deal with dynamic networks, by introducing stochastic actor oriented models. Strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches are discussed together with domains of applicability for the analysis of (knowledge) network structures and their dynamics.
    Keywords: Economic geography, knowledge networks, network models, quadratic assignment procedure, gravity model, exponential random graph model, stochastic actor-oriented model
    JEL: R11 O32 D85
    Date: 2013–12
  18. By: Marcelo José Braga Nonnenberg; Ana Paula Avellar
    Abstract: Nas últimas décadas, um dos principais motores do crescimento do comércio exterior tem sido, sem dúvida, a inovação, entendida como a incorporação de conhecimento a produtos e processos produtivos. O objetivo deste Texto para Discussão é fornecer evidências de que a inovação contribui para o sucesso do desempenho exportador. Controla-se a presença de endogeneidade e o problema de viés de seleção por meio de variável instrumental e do modelo de seleção de Heckman. A análise baseia-se numa amostra de firmas pesquisadas pelo banco de dados Enterprise surveys, do Banco Mundial, para a América Latina e a Europa do Leste. As evidências encontradas sugerem que existe um padrão de comportamento entre as empresas da América Latina e da Europa do Leste. Tamanho, idade e participação de capital estrangeiro influenciam positivamente a decisão de exportar destas empresas. Quanto aos indicadores de inovação, os resultados apontam que a inovação afeta positivamente a probabilidade de as empresas exportarem. Os resultados do modelo de Heckman, somente para os países da América Latina, apontam que a inovação afeta a probabilidade de a empresa exportar e influencia negativamente a intensidade das exportações em relação às vendas. In the last decades one of the main engines of foreign trade growth has been innovation, the process of embedding knowledge in production processes. The purpose of this paper is to supply evidence favoring the hypothesis that innovation contributes positively to export performance when we control for endogeneity and selection bias by means of instrumental variables and Heckman selection model. The analysis is based upon a sample of firms from the Enterprise Surveys by the World Bank for Latin America and Eastern Europe. Evidence support the existence of a behavior pattern among firms in both regions. Size, age and foreign capital share have a positive influence on export decision. There is also a positive relationship between innovation and the likelihood of firms becoming exporters. Based on Heckman procedure, we also find evidence that innovative firms are more likely to become exporters but once they become exporters, the export intensity (relative to sales) affect negatively the result, only to Latin America countries.
    Date: 2013–11
  19. By: Ramiro De Elejalde (Facultad de Economía y Negocios, Universidad Alberto Hurtado); David Giuliodori (Universidad Nacional de Córdoba); Rodolfo Stucchi (Inter-American Development Bank)
    Abstract: This paper provides evidence about the effect of innovation on employment in Argentina in the period 1998-2001. In particular we quantify the impact of process and product innovations on employment growth and the skill composition. Our result show that (i) Product innovations have a positive impact on employment growth biased towards skill labor (ii) Process innovations do not effect employment growth or composition. (iii) There are no heterogeneous effects in technology intensity and size. (iv) Most of the contraction in employment in this period was explained by non-innovations.
    Keywords: process innovation, Product innovation, Employment Growth, Argentina
    JEL: D2 J23 L1
    Date: 2013–09
  20. By: Marit E. Klemetsen; Brita Bye; Arvid Raknerud (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: This paper provides new evidence on the role of non-market based (“command-and-control”) regulations in relation to innovations in environmental technologies. While pricing is generally considered the first-best policy instrument, non-market regulations, such as technology standards and non-tradable emission quotas, are common when a regulator faces multiple emission types and targets, heterogeneous recipients, or uncertainty with regard to marginal damages. Knowing whether these regulations spur or hinder innovation is of great importance to environmental policy. Using a unique Norwegian panel data set that includes information about the type and number of patent applications, technology standards, non-tradable emission quotas, and a large number of control variables for almost all large and medium-sized Norwegian incorporated firms, we are able to conduct a comprehensive study of the effect of non-market based regulations on environmental patenting. Unlike previous studies that are typically conducted at the industry level, we are able to take firm heterogeneiry into account, and thereby reduce the common problem of omitted variable bias in our analysis. We empirically identify strong and significant effects on innovations from implicit regulatory costs associated with the threat that a firm will be sanctioned for violating an emission permit.
    Keywords: Command-and-control regulations; Technology standards; Non-tradable emission quotas; Patents; Innovation; Environmental technologies; Random effects ordered probit model.
    JEL: C23 O34 Q52 Q53 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2013–09

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