nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2013‒10‒18
eight papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. Is Money All? Financing Versus Knowledge and Demand Constraints to Innovation By Gabriele Pellegrino; Maria Savona
  2. Are Public Research Spin-Offs More Innovative? By Stephan, Andreas
  3. Cultural Diversity, Cities and Innovation: firm Effects or City Effects? By Neil Lee
  4. The Multi-Dimensional Additionality of Innovation Policies: A Multi-Level Application to Italy and Spain By Alberto Marzucchi; Sandro Montresor
  5. Grassroots Digital Fabrication and Makerspaces: Reconfiguring, Relocating and Recalbirating Innovation? By Adrian Smith; Sabine Hielscher
  6. Neighbors and the Evolution of the Comparative Advantage of Nations: Evidence of International Knowledge Diffusion? By Bahar, Dany; Hausmann, Ricardo; Hidalgo, Cesar A.
  7. Scoping paper: Developing University Innovation Capacity: How can innovation policy effectively harness universities’ capability to promote high-growth technology businesses? By Einar Rasmussen; Paul Benneworth; Magnus Gulbrandsen
  8. Developing Skills for Innovative Growth in the Russian Federation By World Bank; National Research University – Higher School of Economics

  1. By: Gabriele Pellegrino (Barcelona Institute of Economics - University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza and Milano); Maria Savona (SPRU, University of Sussex, UK)
    JEL: C23 O31
    Date: 2013–10–09
  2. By: Stephan, Andreas (Ratio & JIBBS)
    Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to analyse whether research spin-offs, that is, spinoffs from either public research institutes or universities, have greater innovation capabilities than comparable knowledge-intensive firms created in other ways. Using a sample of about 2,800 firms from highly innovative sectors, propensity score matching is used to create a sample group of control firms that is comparable to the group of spin-offs. The paper provides evidence that the 121 research spin-offs investigated have more patent applications and more radical product innovations, on average, compared to similar firms. The results also show that research spin-offs’ superior innovation performance can be explained by their high level of research cooperation and by location factors. An urban region location and proximity to the parent institution are found to be conducive to innovation productivity. The paper also finds evidence that research spin-offs are more successful in attracting support from public innovation support programs in comparison to their peers.
    Keywords: Spin-Offs; Innovation Performance; Propensity Score Matching; Location Factors; Cooperation; Public R&D Subsidies
    JEL: M13 O18
    Date: 2013–10–08
  3. By: Neil Lee
    Abstract: Growing cultural diversity is seen as important for innovation. Research has focused on two potential mechanisms: a firm effect, with diversity at the firm level improving knowledge sourcing or ideas generation, and a city effect, where diverse cities helping firms innovate. This paper uses a dataset of over 2,000 UK SMEs to test between these two. Controlling for firm characteristics, city characteristics and firm and city diversity, there is strong evidence for the firm effect. Firms with a greater share of migrant owners or partners are more likely to introduce new products and processes. This effect has diminishing returns, suggesting that it is a 'diversity' effect rather than simply the benefits of migrant run firms. However, there is no relationship between the share of foreign workers in a local labour market and firm level innovation, nor do migrant-run firms in diverse cities appear particularly innovative. But urban context does matter and firms in London with more migrant owners and partners are more innovative than others.
    Keywords: Cultural diversity, innovation, cities, SMEs, migration
    JEL: J61 L21 M13 R23
    Date: 2013–10
  4. By: Alberto Marzucchi (Faculty of Political Sciences, Catholic University of Milan, Italy; INGENGIO (CSIC-UPV), Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain); Sandro Montresor (JRC-IPTS, European Commission, Seville, Spain; Department of Economics, University of Bologna, Italy)
    Keywords: innovation policy, additionality, innovation system, multi-level policy
    JEL: R58
    Date: 2013–10–09
  5. By: Adrian Smith (SPRU, University of Sussex, UK); Sabine Hielscher (SPRU, University of Sussex, UK)
    Date: 2013–10–09
  6. By: Bahar, Dany (Harvard University); Hausmann, Ricardo (Harvard University); Hidalgo, Cesar A. (MIT)
    Abstract: The literature on knowledge diffusion shows that it decays strongly with distance. In this paper we document that the probability that a product is added to a country's export basket is, on average, 65% larger if a neighboring country is a successful exporter of that same product. For existing products, having a neighbor with comparative advantage in them is associated with a growth of exports that is higher by 1.5 percent per annum. While these results could be driven by a common third factor that escapes our controls, they are what would be expected from the localized character of knowledge diffusion.
    JEL: F10 O31 O33
    Date: 2013–08
  7. By: Einar Rasmussen (Bodø Graduate School of Business (HHB), University of Nordland); Paul Benneworth (Center for Higher Education Policy Studies (CHEPS) at the University of the Twente); Magnus Gulbrandsen (Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture (TIK), University of Oslo)
    Abstract: Some universities and departments have been very successful in stimulating university spin-off firms (USOs). This has persuaded policy makers and university administrators to devote considerable resources to improve universities' capabilities to promote USOs, but with little tangible results. Related research has considered why some universities contributes more to business innovation than others, but whether the majority of universities can become innovation hotbeds remains an open question. This paper takes a novel interdisciplinary approach integrating insights from two separate literatures, academic entrepreneurship and university management. We start by taking the firm’s perspective and seek to understand the challenges faced by USOs and how universities can assist these firms in developing their entrepreneurial competencies. The structure and main purpose of universities are very different from that of new technology businesses and the transition from being an academic research activity to become a commercial business activity poses challenges both for the university and the USO. Much research on universities’ entrepreneurial capability focuses on ‘what’ universities can do to support USOs at the expense of ‘why’ universities’ might choose to promote USOs when they are under many intense competing demands from outside. We explore not only what universities can do to support USOs, but also how universities experience USOs’ support demands, and the circumstances under which universities can develop capability to promote USOs. We address the barriers that arise between universities and USOs and discuss mitigating factors which support the competencies of USOs whilst at the same time meet the different university stakeholders’ needs.
    Date: 2013–10
  8. By: World Bank; National Research University – Higher School of Economics
    Keywords: Education - Access & Equity in Basic Education Education - Education For All Education - Educational Sciences Education - Knowledge for Development Education - Primary Education
    Date: 2013–06

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