nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2013‒09‒28
eight papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. Universities as local knowledge hubs under different technology regimes – New evidence from academic patenting By Friedrich Dornbusch; Thomas Brenner
  2. “Do labour mobility and technological collaborations foster geographical knowledge diffusion? The case of European regions” By Ernest Miguélez; Rosina Moreno
  3. "Carry-on-Activity" and Process Innovation By Stefano Zambelli; N. Dharmaraj
  4. Relational Knowledge Transfers By Garicano, Luis; Rayo, Luis
  5. Overcoming localization of knowledge: The role of professional service firms By Stefan Wagner; Karin Hoisl; Grid Thoma
  6. La politique d’innovation chinoise face au défi de la transition énergétique China's innovation policy and the challenge of energy transition: the case of photovoltaic and wind turbine industries By Zeting LIU
  7. Employer education, agglomeration and workplace training: poaching vs knowledge spillovers By Giuseppe Croce; Edoardo Di Porto; Emanuela Ghignoni; Andrea Ricci
  8. Mapping and Analysing Prospective Technologies for Learning - Results from a Consultation with European Stakeholders and Roadmaps for Policy Action By Stefania Aceto; Spiros Borotis; Jim Devine; Thomas Fischer

  1. By: Friedrich Dornbusch (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Competence Center Policy and Regions); Thomas Brenner (Economic Geography and Location Research, Philipps-Universität Marburg)
    Abstract: It is often claimed that universities act as local knowledge factories. Although this function is largely analyzed in previous research, there still is a knowledge gap regarding the role of a technological match between the profiles of partners in university-industry interactions. In addition, the effects of different knowledge dynamics in technological regimes remain under-researched. In this paper, we thus draw special attention to the question how geographical distance and the specific role of a technological fit between the knowledge provided by the university and the technological needs of the local industry affects interactions between universities and firms. Thereby, we differentiate between six technological regimes constituted by different knowledge dynamics. Our analyses are based on a unique dataset containing all German universities’ academic patenting and publication activities. As these are further enriched by secondary data, they enable us to show that the technological fit between a university and its surrounding region (in terms of local industry needs) indeed has a significant influence on a university’s innovation-related research interactions, especially with small firms. We further show that this effect additionally depends on the underlying knowledge base in heterogeneous technological regimes.
    Keywords: university-industry interaction, technological fit, knowledge base, academic patenting, technology regime, local knowledge hub
    JEL: O31 R12 L14
    Date: 2013–10–09
  2. By: Ernest Miguélez (Economics and Statistics Division, WIPO and AQR-IREA); Rosina Moreno (Faculty of Economics, University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: The goal of this paper is twofold: first, we aim to assess the role played by inventors’ cross-regional mobility and collaborations in fostering knowledge diffusion across regions and subsequent innovation. Second, we intend to evaluate the feasibility of using mobility and co-patenting information to build cross-regional interaction matrices to be used within the spatial econometrics toolbox. To do so, we depart from a knowledge production function where regional innovation intensity is a function not only of the own regional innovation inputs but also external accessible knowledge stocks gained through interregional interactions. Differently from much of the previous literature, cross-section gravity models of mobility and co-patents are estimated to use the fitted values to build our ‘spatial’ weights matrices, which characterize the intensity of knowledge interactions across a panel of 269 regions covering most European countries over 6 years.
    Keywords: inventors’ spatial mobility, co-patenting, gravity models, weights matrix, knowledge production function. JEL classification: C8, J61, O31, O33, R0.
    Date: 2013–07
  3. By: Stefano Zambelli; N. Dharmaraj
    Abstract: Economic growth driven by the creation of new ideas, knowledge, and innovations is an interesting and challenging phenomenon to be modelled and analysed. Dominant approaches, like Romer’s endogenous growth models, Aghion-Howitt creative destruction growth models, RBC models, or the not so dominant ones, like that of the Neo-Austrians, of industrial structuralisms, or Nelson and Winter’s evolutionary theory, emphasize the need for modelling innovations in a comprehensive manner but fail to encapsulate the intrinsic indeterminacies of the innovational process in an insightful manner. Romer (1986, 1990, 1993), in his seminal works, has stressed the importance of modelling ideas and knowledge and showed how ideas can be encoded as information bit-strings, using the chemistry set metaphor. Zambelli (2004, 2005) developed the idea further, modelling an innovation process as a Turing Machine (TM) process and applied the TM metaphor within Romer’s endogenous growth model in an interesting way. But due to the time-less property of the production function, the dynamic interactions between the production and innovational processes could not be explored in detail. In this paper, we harness the intrinsic indeterminacies within the TM metaphor to model process innovations and analyse its dynamic interactions with the production processes within a time to build framework.
    Date: 2013
  4. By: Garicano, Luis; Rayo, Luis
    Abstract: An expert must train a novice. The novice initially has no cash, so he can only pay the expert with the accumulated surplus from his production. At any time, the novice can leave the relationship with his acquired knowledge and produce on his own. The sole reason he does not is the prospect of learning in future periods. The profit-maximizing relationship is structured as an apprenticeship, in which all production generated during training is used to compensate the expert. Knowledge transfer takes a simple form. In the first period, the expert gifts the novice a positive level of knowledge, which is independent of the players' discount rate. After that, the novice's total value of knowledge grows at the players' discount rate until all knowledge has been transferred. The inefficiencies that arise from this contract are caused by the expert's artificially slowing down the rate of knowledge transfer rather than by her reducing the total amount of knowledge eventually transferred. We show that these inefficiencies are larger the more patient the players are. Finally, we study the impact of knowledge externalities across players.
    Keywords: general human capital; knowledge; relational contracts; skills
    JEL: C73 J24 L14
    Date: 2013–05
  5. By: Stefan Wagner (ESMT European School of Management and Technology); Karin Hoisl (University of Munich); Grid Thoma (University of Camerino)
    Abstract: The literature on organizational learning asserts that external learning is often limited geographically and technologically. We scrutinize to what extent organizations acquire external knowledge by accessing external knowledge repositories. We argue that professional service firms (PSFs) grant access to nonlocalized knowledge repositories and thereby not only facilitate external learning but also help to overcome localization. Focusing on patent law firms, we test our predictions using a unique dataset of 544,820 pairs of EP patent applications. Analyzing patterns of knowledge flows captured in patent citations we find that accessing a PSF’s repository facilitates the acquisition of external knowledge. As the effect is more pronounced for knowledge that is distant to a focal organization we conclude that having access to a knowledge repository compensates for localization disadvantages.
    Keywords: Learning, knowledge acquisition, localization, patent citations, professional service firm
    Date: 2013–09–06
  6. By: Zeting LIU (CLERSE)
    Abstract: Après trente ans de croissance économique annuelle de 9,9 % en moyenne depuis les réformes économiques lancées en 1978, la Chine est devenue la deuxième puissance économique mondiale. Elle est également le premier émetteur de CO2 et consommateur énergétique et de matières premières. La dégradation environnementale impacte sur la vie de millions d’habitants dans les villes ainsi que dans le milieu rural et crée des conflits avec les pays limitrophes. Cette étude propose une nouvelle approche pour analyser les politiques chinoises en matière de la transition durable en appuyant sur les théories du système national d’innovation (SNI). En analysant les deux industries clés de la transition énergétique en Chine – le photovoltaïque et l’éolienne, nous montrons la force et les faiblesses de la politique pour promouvoir l’innovation verte en Chine. Ces analyses nous permettent de retenir l’hypothèse qu’une convergence des politiques industrielle, énergétique et d’innovation est en train d’émerger pour former une politique de la transition durable en Chine. After thirty years of annual economic growth of 9.9% since the economic reforms initiated in 1978, China has become the world’s second largest economy. It is also the largest emitter of CO2 and consumers of energy and raw materials. Environmental degradation in China affects the lives of millions of people, in the cities as well as in rural areas, and creates conflicts with neighboring countries. This study proposes a new approach to analyze Chinese sustainable transition policies based on the theories of the national innovation system (NIS). By studying the two key industries - the photovoltaic and the wind turbine - of the energy transition in China, we show the strength and weaknesses of Chinese policies to promote green innovation in the country. These analyzes allow us to retain the hypothesis of a convergence of industrial, energetic and innovation policies to form a policy of sustainable transition in China.
    Keywords: politique d’innovation, système d’innovation, industrie photovoltaïque, industrie éolienne, transition, Chine, innovation policy, system of innovation, photovoltaic industry, wind turbine industry
    JEL: O38 O13 O33 N75
    Date: 2013–09
  7. By: Giuseppe Croce; Edoardo Di Porto; Emanuela Ghignoni; Andrea Ricci
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the role of the employer in workplace training, a novelty with respect to the literature on this topic. Taking advantage of a unique dataset on Italy, we study how individual employer profile and the agglomeration of employers influence firms’ propensity to invest in training. Our findings show that highly educated employers have a greater propensity to invest in workplace training. Moreover, we are able to capture the effect of employers’ human capital agglomeration on the training decision. We assert that such agglomeration leads to two different alternative scenarios: 1) a poaching effect may prevail, therefore competition among employers induces less propensity to train workers; 2) a positive knowledge spillover effect may prevail leading to a greater propensity to engage in training. We test these two options discovering that in the Italian case, where small businesses are prominent, the first effect is stronger. Several econometrics issues are considered in our empirical strategy: the skewed and bounded nature of the training decision indicator, the endogeneity issues derived from the agglomeration effect as well as the cross section dependence problems affecting standard errors.
    Keywords: workplace training; poaching; knowledge spillovers; entrepreneurship cluster, employer’s education, social capital, proximity.
    JEL: J24 O15 O18 R23
    Date: 2013–09
  8. By: Stefania Aceto (MENON Network); Spiros Borotis (MENON Network); Jim Devine (DEVINE Policy|Projects|Innovation (and former President, IADT)); Thomas Fischer (MENON Network)
    Abstract: EU policies call for the strengthening of Europe’s innovative capacity and it is considered that the modernisation of Education and Training systems and technologies for learning will be a key enabler of educational innovation and change. This report brings evidence to the debate about the technologies that are expected to play a decisive role in shaping future learning strategies in the short to medium term (5-10 years from now) in three main learning domains: formal education and training; work-place and work-related learning; re-skilling and up-skilling strategies in a lifelong-learning continuum. This is the final report of the study ‘Mapping and analysing prospective technologies for learning (MATEL)' carried out by the MENON Network EEIG on behalf of the European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies. The report synthesises the main messages gathered from the three phases of the study: online consultation, state-of-the-art analysis and a roadmapping workshop. Eight technology clusters and a set of related key technologies that can enable learning innovation and educational change were identified. A number of these technologies were analysed to highlight their current and potential use in education, the relevant market trends and ongoing policy initiatives. Three roadmaps, one for each learning domain, were developed. These identified long-term goals and specific objectives for educational change, which in turn led to recommendations on the immediate strategies and actions to be undertaken by policy and decision makers.
    Keywords: Prospective technologies for learning, Formal education and training, work-place and work-related learning, Re-skilling and up-skilling strategies in lifelong-learning continuum, Europe 2020 Strategy, educational change, Innovation & Creativity in Education and Training, ICT-enabled innovation for learning, roadmapping
    JEL: I20 I21 I28 I29
    Date: 2013–09

This nep-knm issue is ©2013 by Laura Stefanescu. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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