nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2013‒09‒26
seven papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. Innovations and Knowledge Transfer for the Food Supply Chain Sustainability: Challenges in the Czech Dairy Industry By Ratinger, Tomas; Boskova, Iveta
  2. The Relative Importance of Human Resource Management Practices for a Firm’s Innovation Performance By Spyros Arvanitis; Tobias Stucki; Florian Seliger
  3. Financial Innovation, Collateral and Investment By Ana Fostel; John Geanakoplos
  4. Beyond ‘the Beamer, the boat and the bach’? A Content Analysis-Based Case Study of New Zealand Innovative Firms By Les Oxley; Shangqin Hong; Philip McCann
  5. Creativity, cities and innovation By Lee, Neil; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés
  6. Beyond inducement in climate change: Does environmental performance spur environmental technologies? By Claudia Ghisetti; Francesco Quatraro
  7. Políticas de Inovação no Brasil e na China do Século XXI By Bruno Cézar Araújo

  1. By: Ratinger, Tomas; Boskova, Iveta
    Abstract: A mobilisation of research, knowledge transfer and innovation to deal with the current challenges as raising world food demand while protecting natural resources is a priority area of the EU. The effective knowledge transfer and innovation activities in the agri-food supply chain may push all producers in the vertical to improve their competitiveness while saving resources. In the paper we examine the current level of innovation activities and knowledge transfer in milk processing industry in the Czech Republic, with a particular focus on the collaboration of firms with R&D organisations and other important agents, in order to assess the potential for enhancing sustainable dairy production. Most of the interviewed milk processors confirmed that sustainability objective did not rank high within firms’ strategies while it showed a great potential for innovations. It is apparent from the conducted interviews with stakeholders as well as from the statistics that the level of cooperation for innovations is rather low among the Czech food and particularly dairy processors. The low cooperation level concerns not only research institution but also other agents including farmers. This is in contrast to considering cost as a hurdle for innovations. The lack of cooperation among producers can partly be accounted to property rights protection and the need to get advantage over the competition. The interviews and the statistics showed that companies with in-house R&D staff have higher absorption capacity and thus requirements concerning cooperation with research institutions and that these firms are not satisfied with what is offered in the country and seek support abroad. The current support programme increased the sector innovation activity, but at the same time used-up limited capacities of the national research base. Continuation of the support in the current way seems unsustainable.
    Keywords: Sectoral system of innovation, absorption capacity, dairy processing industry, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2013
  2. By: Spyros Arvanitis (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Tobias Stucki (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Florian Seliger (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: Human resource management (HRM) practices are generally expected to stimulate a firm’s innovation performance. However, which of these practices do really pay off? Based on a unique dataset that includes detailed information for both a firm’s innovation activities and different types of HRM practices we find that primarily new workplace organization practices seem to enhance a firm’s innovation activities. Flexible practices of working time management and incentive payment schemes show only small effects on both innovation propensity and innovation success. Further training does only affect innovation success, but not innovation propensity. Overall, we find a stronger linkage between innovative HRM practices and innovation propensity than with innovation success.
    Keywords: human resource management, workplace organization, innovation performance
    JEL: O31
    Date: 2013–09
  3. By: Ana Fostel; John Geanakoplos
    Date: 2013–09–19
  4. By: Les Oxley (University of Waikato); Shangqin Hong (University of Canterbury); Philip McCann (University of Groningen)
    Abstract: In this paper we will use case studies to seek to understand the dynamic innovation processes at the level of the firm and to explain the apparent 'enigma' between New Zealand's recent innovation performance and economic growth. A text-mining tool, Leximancer, (version 4) was used to analyse the case results, based on content analysis. The case studies reveal that innovation in New Zealand firms can be best described as 'internalised', and the four key factors that affect innovation in New Zealand firms are ‘Product’, ‘Market’, ‘People’ and ‘Money’. New Zealand may be an ideal place for promoting local entrepreneurship, however, many market/technology opportunities cannot be realized in such a small and isolated economy, hence the poor economic performance.
    Keywords: innovation; New Zealand; case study; content analysis
    Date: 2013–09–10
  5. By: Lee, Neil; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés
    Abstract: The creative industries have long been seen as an innovative sector. More recent research posits that creative occupations are also a fundamental, but overlooked, driver of innovation. Theory also suggests cities are important for both creative industries and occupations, with urban environments helping firms innovate. Yet little empirical work has considered the links between creative industries, occupations, cities and innovation at the firm level. This paper addresses this gap using a sample of over 9,000 UK SMEs. Our results stress that creative industries firms are more likely to introduce original product innovations, but not those learnt from elsewhere. Creative occupations, however, appear a more robust general driver of innovation. We find no support for the hypothesis that urban creative industries firms are particularly innovative. However, creative occupations are used in cities to introduce product innovations learnt elsewhere. The results suggest future work needs to seriously consider the importance of occupations in empirical studies of innovation.
    Keywords: Cities; Creative industries; Creative occupations; Innovation; Learning
    JEL: O31 O38 R11 R58
    Date: 2013–08
  6. By: Claudia Ghisetti (Département des sciences économiques - Università di Bologna); Francesco Quatraro (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR7321 - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis [UNS])
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the debate on the inducement of environmental innovations by analysing the extent to which endogenous inducement mechanisms spur the generation of greener technologies in contexts characterized by weak exogenous inducement pressures. In the presence of a fragile environmental regulatory framework, inducement can indeed be endogenous and environmental innovations may be spurred by firms' reactions to their direct or related environmental performance. Cross-sector analysis focuses on a panel of Italian regions, over the time span 2003-2007, and is conducted by implementing zero-inflated regression models for count data variables. The empirical results suggest that in a context characterized by a weak regulatory framework, such as the Italian one, environmental performance has significant and complementary within- and between-sector effects on the generation of green technologies.
    Keywords: Green technologies; Environmental Performance; Regional NAMEA; Technological innovation; Knowledge production function
    Date: 2013–09–09
  7. By: Bruno Cézar Araújo
    Abstract: Este texto apresenta uma breve apreciação das políticas de inovação no Brasil e na China, acompanhando as mudanças no sistema legal, nos programas governamentais e também no ambiente institucional nos dois países, particularmente na última década. Ao menos no que se refere aos documentos oficiais, ambos os países perseguem objetivos similares, utilizam o mesmo instrumental de medidas de política e seus incentivos fiscais à inovação estão entre os mais generosos do mundo. No entanto, embora a China tenha conseguido mudar estruturalmente seus indicadores de ciência, tecnologia e inovação (CT&I), é consenso entre os especialistas que o Brasil não tem sido capaz de transformar o seu boom científico em inovação. Uma das razões – entre muitas – reside nas diferenças acerca da estrutura institucional de apoio à inovação: a China tem políticas de inovação com foco claramente definido e apresenta uma estrutura burocrática que incentiva inovações institucionais e a reprodução de melhores práticas, enquanto no Brasil há dificuldade para estabelecer prioridades, e as políticas de inovação são difusas e enviesadas para o setor acadêmico. This paper presents a summary and a brief appraisal of innovation policies in Brazil and China, following the changes in the legal system, in governmental programs and also in the institutional environment of innovation policies in both countries, mainly during the last decade. Both countries have similar policy measures and fiscal incentives that are considered to be among the most generous in the world. However, whilst China has managed to structurally change its Science, Technology and Innovation figures in the last two decades, Brazil has not been able to transform its ‘scientific boom’ into innovation. This may be partly explained by institutional differences regarding their innovation support structure: China has innovation policies that have a clearly defined focus and a bureaucratic structure which stimulates institutional innovations and the dissemination of best practices. In turn, innovation policies are diffuse and biased towards the academic sector in Brazil.
    Date: 2013–08

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