nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2013‒09‒24
thirteen papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. New Firm Formation and the properties of local knowledge bases: Evidence from Italian NUTS 3 regions By Alessandra Colombelli; Francesco Quatraro
  2. Cognitive distance in research collaborations By Margherita Balconi; Valeria Lorenzi; Pier Paolo Saviotti; Antonella Zucchella
  3. One Ring to Rule Them All? Globalization of Knowledge and Knowledge Creation By Richard B. Freeman
  4. La veille créative, une veille orientée innovation REATIVE WATCH, AN INFORMATION WATCH ORIENTED TOWARDS INNOVATION By Stéphane GORIA
  5. Features of the Public Procurements of Innovation Products in Russian and the World By Sergey Belev; Olga Boldareva; Ilya Sokolov; Anna Zolotareva
  6. China's new energy vehicles: value and innovation By Chris Kimble; Hua Wang
  7. Academic patenting and the scientific enterprise: Lessons from a Japanese university. By René Carraz
  8. Growing out of the Crisis: Hidden Assets to Greece's Transition to an Innovation Economy By Herrmann, Benedikt; Kritikos, Alexander S.
  9. The organizational and regional determinants of inter-regional collaborations – Academic inventors as bridging agents By Friedrich Dornbusch; Sidonia von Proff; Thomas Brenner
  10. U.S. High-Skilled Immigration, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship: Empirical Approaches and Evidence By William R. Kerr
  11. Innovation and the Financial Guillotine By Ramana Nanda; Matthew Rhodes-Kropf
  12. Standards, Learning and Growth in Britain 1901-2009 By Cristopher Spencer; Paul Temple
  13. Mental Health in France, Policies and Actors : Developing administrative knowledge in a segmented world By Philippe Mossé; Caroline Maury; Nicolas Daumerie; Jean-Luc Roelandt

  1. By: Alessandra Colombelli (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis [UNS] - CNRS : UMR6227); Francesco Quatraro (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR7321 - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis [UNS])
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between the creation of new firms and the properties of the local knowledge bases, like coherence, cognitive distance and variety. By combining the literature on the knowledge spillovers of entrepreneurship and that on the recombinant knowledge approach, we posit that locally available knowledge matters to the entrepreneurial process, but the type of knowledge underlying theses dynamics deserve to be analyzed. The analysis is carried out on 104 Italian NUTS 3 regions observed over the time span 1995-2011. The results show that the complementarity degree of local knowledge is important, while increasing similarity yields negative effects. This suggests that the creation of new firms in Italy is associated to the exploitation of well established technological trajectories grounded on competences accumulated over time, although cognitive proximity is likely to engender lock-in effects and hinder such process.
    Keywords: New Firm Formation; Knowledge-Spillovers Theory of Entrepreneurship; Recombinant Knowledge; Knowledge Coherence; Variety; Cognitive Distance; Italy
    Date: 2013–07–20
  2. By: Margherita Balconi (Department of Economics and Management, University of Pavia); Valeria Lorenzi (Dipartimento di Scienze Economico Aziendali, Università di Milano Bicocca, Italy); Pier Paolo Saviotti (INRA GAEL, Univérsité Pierre Mendés-France, Grenoble, France); Antonella Zucchella (Department of Economics and Management, University of Pavia)
    Abstract: This paper addresses the cognitive dimension of proximity/distance in research collaborations of small biotechnology firms. While the theory of optimal cognitive distance assumes learning as motive of collaborations, we suggest that small specialised firms or sub-units of big diversified organizations tend to collaborate with actors endowed with different specific knowledge, with the purpose of accessing rather than acquiring and assimilating the pieces of knowledge they lack. This leads to the expectation of high cognitive distance between collaborators, who however can understand each other since they share the same basic knowledge. We apply this framework to investigate the research collaborations of a sample of Italian biotech firms, using data on the papers co-authored by individuals belonging to different organizations. In order to measure cognitive distance at a very disaggregated level, we introduce an index originally developed by ecologists to measure distance between different species. As expected, most co-publishing partners have high cognitive distance. Moreover, the knowledge accessing motive is also consistent with the finding that even small firms often engage in extensive networks of collaborations with a remarkable variety of actors and do not tend to enlarge their scope over time.
    Keywords: biotech; cognitive distance; knowledge; research collaborations.
    Date: 2013–09
  3. By: Richard B. Freeman
    Abstract: This paper directs attention at the globalization of knowledge and knowledge creation as the fundamental global driver of economic outcomes in today's information economy. It documents the globalization of knowledge and spread of scientific research from advanced to developing countries and argues that these developments undermine trade models in which advanced countries invariably have comparative advantage in high tech goods and services; determine the immigration of skilled workers; boosts labor standards; and influences incomes and inequality within and across countries. To the extent that knowledge is the key component in productivity and growth, its spread and creation is the one ring of globalization that rules the more widely studied patterns of trade, capital flows and immigration, per my title.
    JEL: F11 F16 F22 J24 J44 J81
    Date: 2013–08
  4. By: Stéphane GORIA (Université de Lorraine, Laboratoire CREM)
    Abstract: La Veille est connue, formalisée et pratiquée en France depuis une trentaine d’années au moins. Elle se décline habituellement en veille technologique, marketing, juridique, commerciale, sociétale, concurrentielle et stratégique, etc. Même si dès ses premières formalisations, l’un des objectifs fondamentaux de la veille avait été de contribuer à la capacité d’innovation de l’organisation, avec le temps, il semblerait que cette contribution ait perdu de son importance au profit d’une surveillance de produits, marchés, concurrents, etc. En réaction à cet oubli progressif, de nouvelles expressions de veilles associées à l’innovation ont fait leur apparition à partir des années 1990 (veille esthétique, veille stylistique, veille créative, etc.). Parmi, celles-ci, depuis la seconde moitié des années 2000, « la veille créative » commence à être acceptée. Dans le cadre de cette présentation, nous présenterons comment la veille créative peut être définie ainsi que la période de son apparition. Nous développerons ensuite quelques-unes de nos conceptions de la veille créative concernant la recherche de signaux de routines et la mise en œuvre de wargames sur cartes. Information watch has been known, formalized and practiced in France for thirty years at least. It usually comes in the form of technological intelligence, market intelligence, legal intelligence, business information watch, social intelligence, competitor intelligence, strategic intelligence, ... Even though from its earliest formalizations, one of the fundamental objectives of information watch was to contribute to the innovative capacity of the organization, over time, it seems that this contribution has lost its importance in favor of the monitoring of products, markets, competitors, etc.. In response to this progressive oversight, new expressions of information watch associated with innovation have appeared in France from the 1990s (aesthetic intelligence, stylistic awareness, creative watch, etc.). Among these, from the second half of the 2000s, «the creative watch» begins to be accepted. In this paper, we present how the creative watch can be defined and how it has appeared. We then develop some of our conceptions on the creative watch like the routine signal search and the information display inspired by strategic board games.
    Keywords: Veille informationnelle, wargame, jeu utilitaire, visualisation d’information, création de connaissances, Creative competitive intelligence, serious game, information visualization, knowledge creation
    JEL: O31 O34 D5
    Date: 2013
  5. By: Sergey Belev (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Olga Boldareva (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Ilya Sokolov (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Anna Zolotareva (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the legal basis and the elements of the institutional environment of public procurements of innovations produce in Russia and the world. Authors analyze procurement procedures for complex and hi-tech products. They determine ways for the development of Russian procurement legislation regarding procurement of innovation products.
    Keywords: Russian economy, public procurement, innovations, innovation products
    JEL: H57 H44
    Date: 2013
  6. By: Chris Kimble (MRM - Montpellier Recherche en Management - Université Montpellier II - Sciences et techniques : EA4557 - Université Montpellier I - Université Paul Valéry - Montpellier III - Groupe Sup de Co Montpellier (GSCM) - Montpellier Business School, Euromed Marseille - École de management - Association Euromed Management - Marseille); Hua Wang (Euromed Marseille - École de management - Association Euromed Management - Marseille)
    Abstract: Purpose The overarching theme is the importance of innovations that are created within the emerging economies. More specifically, the article looks at the development of various alternatives to vehicles powered by the internal combustion engine, new energy vehicles (NEVs) within China. Design/methodology/approach The broad strategic approach of two sectors within the NEV sector in China, the pure electric vehicle (EV) and the low-speed electric vehicle (LSEV) sectors, are compared using recent data and conclusions are drawn. Findings The EV sector is viewed by the central government as a key sector for China's future industrial growth and is heavily supported. In contrast, the LSEV sector receives no support from central government and yet clearly outstrips the sales of EVs. The article argues that the latter's success is a reflection of the LSEV sector's focus on business model rather than technological innovation. Practical implications The article highlights the importance of monitoring innovations that come from within emerging economies and also illustrates the benefits that can come from commercially focused innovations rather than those based on technology. Social implications Finding alternatives to vehicles powered by fossil fuels is one of the most important challenges facing the world today. This article looks at the search for one alternative and examines its implications. What is original/of value? The article examines a business sector that is peculiarly Chinese and yet has potential implications far beyond China. It also contains recent sales figures and other data collected directly from sources in China.
    Keywords: Business models; China; Electric vehicles; Emergent strategy; Emerging economies; Innovation; Innovation; New energy vehicles
    Date: 2013–08–01
  7. By: René Carraz
    Abstract: In this paper, we study the influence that academic patenting has on faculty members belonging to a research intensive Japanese uni- versity. We intend to contribute to the literature on both the use of patenting in academia and the influence it has on a researcher’s agenda setting. First, we document how recent policy changes have favored an increasing use of patents by faculty members in Japan. Then, us- ing two complementary set of data, cross-section and panel data, we focus our attention on three main dimensions: the effect of patenting on academic productivity measured in terms of publications and their quality; the role of financial factors; and the influence of peer effects. Our main findings are the following. First, we find that patenting and publishing were complementary activities in our two empirical settings. Moreover, we find that the output of colleagues working in the same department influences a researcher propensity to patent. The results show as well that the amount of contractual research funds received by a researcher is positively correlated with his/her number of patents, while the number of research grants - not the amount - is correlated to his/her patenting output. Finally, another interesting result concerns the influence of a researcher’s age on his/her propensity to patent.
    Keywords: Academic patenting, peer effects, intellectual property rights, technology transfer, university-industry relationships, Japanese innovation system.
    JEL: O3
    Date: 2013
  8. By: Herrmann, Benedikt (European Commission); Kritikos, Alexander S. (University of Potsdam, DIW Berlin)
    Abstract: Greece's currently planned institutional reforms will help to get the country going with limited economic growth. With an economy based primarily on tourism, trade, and agriculture, Greece lacks an established competitive industry and an innovation-friendly environment, resulting in a low export ratio given the small size of the country and its long-time EU-membership. Instead, Greece exports only its nation's talent, with low returns. To become prosperous, the country must better capitalize on its Eurozone membership and add innovative sectors to its economic structure. Given Greece's hidden assets, such as the attractiveness of the country, a small number of strong research centers and an impressive diaspora in research, finance and business, we envision a Greek "Silicon Valley" and propose a ten point policy plan to achieve that goal.
    Keywords: innovation, Greece, growth strategy, entrepreneurship, innovation systems, regulatory environment
    JEL: L2 L26 O3 O4
    Date: 2013–09
  9. By: Friedrich Dornbusch (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Competence Center Policy and Regions); Sidonia von Proff (Economic geography and Location Research, Philipps-Universität Marburg); Thomas Brenner (Economic geography and Location Research, Philipps-Universität Marburg)
    Abstract: Collaboration over distance is difficult to maintain in innovation projects which require a great deal of regional collaboration. However, patent documents reveal that a number of inventor teams are able to overcome long distances. Earlier literature started to investigate factors, which increase the probability of long-distance innovation co-operation. The paper at hand is restricted to patents with academic participation, but takes a close look at two types of factors in the environment of the inventors: (1) the characteristics of the university that employs the academic inventor(s), and (2) the influence of the regional environment. Research on the impact of these factors is still underdeveloped in the literature. By considering only patents with at least one academic inventor we have a relatively homogeneous subset of patents and can concentrate on the external impacts. We find that a similar research area structure, a high absorptive capacity as well as a high start-up rate foster intra-regional collaboration. More TTO staff and a larger university lead to more long-distance collaboration while the industry orientation of the university does not exert an influence on the distance between inventors.
    Keywords: patents, research collaboration, academic patents, collaboration over distance, Germany
    JEL: O31 R12 L14
    Date: 2013–09–18
  10. By: William R. Kerr
    Abstract: High-skilled immigrants are a very important component of U.S. innovation and entrepreneurship. Immigrants account for roughly a quarter of U.S. workers in these fields, and they have a similar contribution in terms of output measures like patents or firm starts. This contribution has been rapidly growing over the last three decades. In terms of quality, the average skilled immigrant appears to be better trained to work in these fields, but conditional on educational attainment of comparable quality to natives. The exception to this is that immigrants have a disproportionate impact among the very highest achievers (e.g., Nobel Prize winners). Studies regarding the impact of immigrants on natives tend to find limited consequences in the short-run, while the results in the long-run are more varied and much less certain. Immigrants in the United States aid business and technology exchanges with their home countries, but the overall effect that the migration has on the home country remains unclear. We know very little about return migration of workers engaged in innovation and entrepreneurship, except that it is rapidly growing in importance.
    JEL: F15 F22 J15 J31 J44 L14 L26 O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2013–08
  11. By: Ramana Nanda; Matthew Rhodes-Kropf
    Abstract: Our paper demonstrates that while failure tolerance by investors may encourage potential entrepreneurs to innovate, financiers with investment strategies that tolerate early failure endogenously choose to fund less radical innovations. Failure tolerance as an equilibrium price that increases in the level of experimentation. More experimental projects that don't generate enough to pay the price cannot be started. In equilibrium all competing financiers may choose to offer failure tolerant contracts to attract entrepreneurs, leaving no capital to fund the most radical, experimental projects. The tradeoff between failure tolerance and a sharp guillotine helps explain when and where radical innovation occurs.
    JEL: G24 G39 O31
    Date: 2013–08
  12. By: Cristopher Spencer (Loughborough University); Paul Temple (University of Surrey)
    Abstract: This paper considers the model of voluntary, consensus based standardization as developed through the British Standards Institution (BSI) and its contribution to learning and productivity growth. It discusses the contribution of professional engineers to the model's introduction, its extension at home and imitation overseas, arguing that by 1931 the BSI catalogue of standards represented a considerable stock of codified knowledge whose growth reflected underlying aggregate technological advance. To validate this claim we incorporate a measure of the BSI catalogue of standards into an econometric model of productivity growth in Britain. However, caution is required in the interpretation of this finding.
    JEL: O11 O33 O47 L52 C22
    Date: 2013–09
  13. By: Philippe Mossé (LEST - Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail - CNRS : UMR6123 - Université de Provence - Aix-Marseille I - Université de la Méditerranée - Aix-Marseille II); Caroline Maury (Agro Paris Tech - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA)); Nicolas Daumerie (CCOMS - Centre collaboratif OMS - WHO(OMS)); Jean-Luc Roelandt (CCOMS - Centre collaboratif OMS - WHO(OMS))
    Abstract: The new mental health care policy, which has been set up in France, involves a change of paradigm, which has been going on since the 2000s: the emphasis is shifting from psychiatry to mental health care. This shift mainly concerns the knowledge about mental health is produced and circulates among an increasingly large number of bodies. Mainly grounded on actor interview analysis, official reports and blueprints, this study shows that the results of this process are numerous. They include the development of ambulatory care and strong moves towards decentralization. More data and knowledge are therefore to be shared in this more complex system. However, the French State, in the form of the central administration, is taking advantage of this move and is still contributing significantly to the definition and implementation of the new policy. On the other hand, the new governance dynamic is not leading to standardization of medical practices, as the mental health field remains highly heterogeneous.
    Keywords: santé mentale ; politique de santé ; France
    Date: 2013

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