nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2013‒08‒05
five papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. Technology Platforms in Europe: an empirical investigation By Lisa De Propris; Carlo Corradini
  2. Approche relationnelle de la coopération d'innovation inter-entreprises : proposition de modèle conceptuel By Romaric Servajean-Hilst
  3. The Machine Tool Industry in Italy: Industrial Innovations and Performances By Fabio Campanini; Serena Costa; Paolo Rizzi
  4. International Technology Diffusion of Joint and Cross-border Patents By Michael McAleer; Chia-Lin Chang; Ju-Ting Tang
  5. Challenges of Critical and Emancipatory Design Science Research: The Design of ‘Possible Worlds’ as Response By Heusinger, Marcel

  1. By: Lisa De Propris; Carlo Corradini
    Abstract: In the last decades, innovation activity has been defined by an increasing complexity and a faster pace of the underlying technological change. Accordingly, several studies have shown that competitive systems of innovation benefit from being able to build upon a wide but integrated spectrum of technological capabilities characterised by a sustained dynamism in the level of inter-sectoral technology flows. In this context, technological platforms – defined as knowledge and scientific launching pads that spin out of key enabling technologies - may create the opportunity for technological externalities to take place across a set of related sectors through a swarm of increasingly applied and incremental innovations. In this report, we look at the presence and determinants of these technological platforms across EU Countries and explore the mechanisms through which these influence inter sectoral technology spillovers, thus fostering technological shifts and technological synthesis within the broader economy. Using data on patents and patent citations obtained from the PATSTAT-CRIOS database, covering all patent applications made to the European Patent Office (EPO), we try to model the systemic nature of technology platforms. In particular, our aim is to provide empirical evidence that the presence of key enabling technologies at the base of the platform may lead to a more sustained interaction across second tier innovations characterised by a “distant” knowledge base. Then, we endeavour to investigate the relationship that may take place between this process and the role played by the national dimension.
    Keywords: Clusters, ecological innovation, industrial innovation, innovation, innovation policy, new technologies, patents, socio-ecological transition, sustainable growth
    JEL: O3 O31 O32 O33 O38
    Date: 2013–07
  2. By: Romaric Servajean-Hilst (CRG - Centre de recherche en gestion - Polytechnique - X - CNRS : UMR7176)
    Abstract: Les coopérations d'innovation se sont multipliées depuis une trentaine d'année, et avec elles les travaux de recherche s'y rapportant. Dans notre communication, nous développons un modèle conceptuel pour nous intéresser à ces coopérations sous l'angle de la relation entre deux entreprises, au-delà des projets et programmes d'innovation qu'elles sont amenées à réaliser ensemble. Afin de comprendre comment ces entreprises peuvent maximiser la performance de leur relation, nous formulons des propositions sur les interactions entre les différents éléments de ce modèle qui sont (I) la gouvernance de la relation, (II) sa performance, (III) son niveau de développement et (IV) le degré d'innovation des projets ou programmes menés en collaboration. Cette communication s'appuie sur un travail de recherche mené de manière abductive. 35 entretiens ont été réalisés, auprès de praticiens travaillant sur le développement des relations inter-entreprises, en parallèle avec une revue de littérature portant sur les relations interentreprises et sur l'innovation ouverte. Pour cela, nous avons constamment navigué entre les données issues de ces entretiens et la recherche de nouvelles théories pour construire le modèle proposé dans cette communication. Ainsi, nous nous sommes appuyés sur le modèle relationnel proposé par l'IMP group (Håkansson & IMP Project Group 1982 ; Paliwoda 2011) pour décrire les éléments constitutifs de la coopération d'innovation. Et, nous avons choisi un cadre théorique fondé sur la théorie des coûts de transaction et sur la resource based-view (RBV), en particulier la knowledge based view (Grant 1996), pour saisir la nature des interactions entre les différents éléments de notre modèle. Selon nos propositions, la performance d'une relation de coopération d'innovation est impactée par les mécanismes de gouvernance mis en œuvre au sein des entreprises et entre elles (P1). Et, pour ne pas la réduire, les mécanismes de gouvernance de chaque entreprise doivent être alignés (P3) tout en étant ajustés mutuellement au cours du temps (P2). Par ailleurs, nous proposons que chaque niveau de développement d'une telle relation corresponde à un niveau croissant de performance (P4) ainsi qu'à une configuration caractéristique de ses mécanismes de gouvernance (P5). Et, comme le type d'innovation ciblé dans chaque projet d'innovation mené en commun impacte la configuration de la gouvernance (P6), cela nous permet de suggérer aux praticiens de porter une attention particulière à la cohérence des mécanismes de gouvernance de leurs coopérations d'innovation pour en maximiser les retombées pour leurs entreprises. Les résultats de notre travail doivent être confirmées et enrichies par des recherches supplémentaires que nous proposons dans cette communication. Quoiqu'il en soit, nous suggérons que le cadre conceptuel présenté ici participe au développement de la recherche portant sur l'innovation ouverte en proposant d'envisager de la sorte les coopérations d'innovation avec une unité d'analyse dyadique, et non pas du point de vue d'une seule organisation. Par ailleurs, notre appel à une approche relationnelle de la coopération d'innovation inter-entreprises permet d'envisager la place de la rente relationnelle comme facteur clef de réussite des coopérations d'innovation, du fait de la construction d'une capacité d'innovation et de collaboration spécifique à la dyade.
    Keywords: coopération d'innovation inter-entreprises ; gouvernance ; relation
    Date: 2013–06–10
  3. By: Fabio Campanini (DISCE, Università Cattolica); Serena Costa (DISCE, Università Cattolica); Paolo Rizzi (DISCE, Università Cattolica)
    Abstract: The machine tool industry has a leading role in the Italian manufacturing system, above all in Northern Italy. This industrial branch is a strategic intermediate point in many manufacture dies, with an average innovation intensity higher than that of many other industrial branches. This work investigates if and in which way the innovation and the R&D processes carried out in the sector firms affect their productivity. We built a significant sample, which answered a questionnaire based on the CIS (Community Innovation Survey). Also a regional geographic dimension is used, to test the presence of specific local effects. Results show a positive and strong contribution from human capital to productivity, while, in the short term, physical capital have a negative impact, a result probably influenced by the economic crisis.
    Keywords: Innovation; Machine tool industry; Firm productivity; Regions.
    JEL: L1 L64 O3
    Date: 2013–05
  4. By: Michael McAleer; Chia-Lin Chang; Ju-Ting Tang (University of Canterbury)
    Abstract: With the advent of globalization, economic and financial interactions among countries have become widespread. Given technological advancements, the factors of production can no longer be considered to be just labor and capital. In the pursuit of economic growth, every country has sensibly invested in international cooperation, learning, innovation, technology diffusion and knowledge. In this paper, we use a panel data set of 40 countries from 1981 to 2008 and a negative binomial model, using a novel set of cross-border patents and joint patents as proxy variables for technology diffusion, in order to investigate such diffusion. The empirical results suggest that, if it is desired to shift from foreign to domestic technology, it is necessary to increase expenditure on R&D for business enterprises and higher education, exports and technology. If the focus is on increasing bilateral technology diffusion, it is necessary to increase expenditure on R&D for higher education and technology.
    Keywords: International Technology Diffusion, Exports, Imports, Joint Patent, Cross-border Patent, R&D, Negative Binomial Panel Data
    JEL: F14 F21 O30 O57
    Date: 2013–07–20
  5. By: Heusinger, Marcel
    Abstract: Popper’s (1967) ’piecemeal social change’ is an approach manifesting itself in science as critical and emancipatory (C&E) research. It is concerned with incrementally removing manifested inequalities to achieve a ’better’ world. Although design science research in information systems seems to be a prime candidate for such endeavors, respective projects are clearly underrepresented. This position paper argues that this is due to the demand of justifying research ex post by an evaluation in practical settings. From the perspective of C&E research it is questionable if powerful actors grant access to their organization and support projects which ultimately challenge their position. It is suggested that theory development based on a synthesis of justificatory knowledge is a complementary approach that allows designing realizable responses to C&E issues–the design of ’possible worlds’ (Lewis, 1986) as basis for C&E design science research.
    Keywords: Critical and Emancipatory Research, Design Science, Possible Worlds, Design Theory, Information Systems Research,
    JEL: O33 Q51 Q55 Q56
    Date: 2013

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