nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2013‒07‒05
six papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. Le système territorial d’innovation en Russie : du soviétisme au capitalisme The Territorial Innovation System in Russia: Sovietism to Capitalism By Guillem ACHERMANN
  2. Trade and innovation in services : evidence from a developing economy By Iacovone, Leonardo; Mattoo, Aaditya; Zahler, Andres
  3. Considerações sobre a Relação Demanda-Inovação em um Modelo Evolucionário By Thiago Calliari; Marco Valente; Ricardo Ruiz
  4. Between hope and hype: Traditional knowledge(s) held by marginal communities By Siriwardane, Rapti; Winands, Sarah
  5. What Affects the Main Engine of Growth in the European Economy? Industrial Interconnectedness and Differences in Performance of Business Services Across the EU25 By Maciej Sobolewski; Grzegorz Poniatowski
  6. The implementation of research and development policy in European and Asian countries By Reiljan, Janno; Paltser, Ingra

  1. By: Guillem ACHERMANN (Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation. ULCO)
    Abstract: Le système territorial russe hérite d’une grande partie du système territorial de l’URSS. Les Soviétiques ont organisé l’espace selon une logique de planification étatique verticale. La transition économique des années 1990 a permis au marché de rationaliser le système productif russe. Le processus d’innovation soviétique s’en retrouve ainsi grandement touché. La Russie dispose de ressources naturelles abondantes et d’un parc industriel important. Restructurer le système territorial d’innovation devient un enjeu pour l’ensemble des acteurs du processus d’innovation. The Russian territorial system inherits the greatest part of the Soviet territorial system. The Soviets have organized the space according to the vertical state planning. The economic transition in the 1990s allowed the market to rationalize the Russian productive system. The Soviet innovation process is deeply affected. Russia has abundant natural resources and an important industrial park. Rebuild the territorial innovation system is a challenge for all the actors of the innovation process.
    Keywords: système territorial d'innovation, transition économique, Russie
    JEL: O3 P21 O52
    Date: 2013–05
  2. By: Iacovone, Leonardo; Mattoo, Aaditya; Zahler, Andres
    Abstract: Studies on innovation and international trade have traditionally focused on manufacturing because neither was seen as important for services. Moreover, the few existing studies on services focus only on industrial countries, although in many developing countries services are already the largest sector in the economy and an important determinant of overall productivity growth. Using a recent firm-level innovation survey for Chile to compare the manufacturing and"tradable"services sector, this paper reveals some novel patterns. First, although services firms have on average a much lower propensity to export than manufacturing firms, services exports are less dominated by large firms and tend to be more skill intensive than manufacturing exports. Second, services firms appear to be as innovative as -- and in some cases more innovative than -- manufacturing firms, in terms of both inputs and outputs of"technological"innovative activity, although services innovations more often take a"non-technological"form. Third, services exporters (like manufacturing exporters) tend to be significantly more innovative than non-exporters, with a wider gap for innovations close to the global technological frontier. These findings suggest that the growing faith in services as a source of both trade and innovative dynamism may not be misplaced.
    Keywords: E-Business,ICT Policy and Strategies,Public Sector Corruption&Anticorruption Measures,Housing&Human Habitats,Commodities
    Date: 2013–06–01
  3. By: Thiago Calliari (ICSA-UNIFAL); Marco Valente (University of L’Aquila); Ricardo Ruiz (Cedeplar-UFMG)
    Abstract: This work aims to study the relationship among heterogeneity of demand and innovation taken by firms. Through the contributions of previous works – Valente (2008) and Valente (2012) – it is intended show how the influence of heterogeneous consumers regarding its perceptions, tolerances and preferences can modify market results – specifically on market share – of firms seeking innovation. The results show that can be relevant a better consideration of the “demand side” in “supply side” analysis, mainly the ones that consider technological change, as in evolutionary models.
    Keywords: evolutionary model, demand, heterogeneity, innovation.
    JEL: C63 L22 O33
    Date: 2013–06
  4. By: Siriwardane, Rapti; Winands, Sarah
    Abstract: Traditional Knowledge (TK) systems have always been integral to the survival and adaptation of human societies. Yet, they enjoy a fairly recent recognition and popularization by scientists, the media, politicians, corporates and the wider public. In this paper we present a typology of key driving forces behind the popularization of TK held by marginal communities: an equality preference motive, a value motive, a compliance motive, a scarcity motive and a strategic motive. Secondly, through the use of a simple model, we discuss the hype’s impact on marginal communities. Moreover, we critically assess the outcome of a number of policy instruments that intend, in part, to protect traditional knowledge bases of such communities. Our analysis primarily draws upon secondary literature; policy documents and case studies within economics, the social sciences, conservation biology and legal studies. We argue that whilst the public and institutional hype around TK may have resulted in its prioritization within international conventions and frameworks, its institutionalization may have adversely impacted marginalized communities, and in particular contexts, unintentionally led to the creation of “new” marginals. We purport that the traditional innovation incentive motive does not hold for protecting TK within a private property regime. Instead we identify a conservation incentive motive and a distribution motive that justify deriving policy instruments that focus on TK to protect marginal communities.
    Keywords: traditional knowledge, marginality, common property regime, social welfare, community participation, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Food Security and Poverty, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, D6, D8, J15, O34, Z13,
    Date: 2013–06
  5. By: Maciej Sobolewski; Grzegorz Poniatowski
    Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to determine what are the main factors which stand behind the diversity in performance of business services measured by their contribution to growth in the EU Member States. We show that in addition to typical growth factors which enhance labor productivity, also the extent of interconnectedness of business services with upstream industries is important to explain service-based economic growth. Our analysis yields two interesting results. Firstly, we show that patterns of industrial interconnectedness of business services are considerably diversified across the EU Member States indicating large differences in the integration of services as supplier with other sectors on a country level. Secondly we show that the diversified growth performance of business services across the EU25 countries can be explained by differences in labor productivity and differences in forward linkages. Our results indicate the fundamental role of business services as the main engine of growth in the European economy. This service-based growth is channeled mainly through increases in labor productivity and forward interconnectedness of services with downstream industries. On the policy making level our results indicate that investment in human and intangible capital are crucial for the service-dominated economy as they not only enhance economic growth inside knowledge intensive services but also facilitate transmission of growth impulses to downstream industries by increasing diffusion and integration of services as suppliers of high value added inputs to the economy.
    Keywords: Industrial Linkages,Business Services, Growth, Multipliers, Input-Output
    JEL: D57 L52 R15
    Date: 2013–06
  6. By: Reiljan, Janno; Paltser, Ingra
    Abstract: Research and development (R&D) policy has to fulfil a central role in innovation policy since it consists of government sector measures that support R&D in order to initialise and promote innovation. The authors of this article discuss first the theoretical reasoning for government sector intervention in R&D processes. The empirical study examines the level and structure of government sector resources and expenditures for R&D policy in EU member states (including Estonia), countries closely associated with the EU, China, Japan and South Korea. The aim of the article is to compare the position of these countries on the basis of R&D policy implementation from the aspect of resource and expenditure supply. In order to achieve the aim, the following research tasks are tackled: on the basis of research literature, the necessity, essence, measures and anticipated outcomes of R&D policy are explained to create the theoretical base for the empirical study; on the basis of the empirical analysis, an assessment on the international position of R&D policy implementation in several new EU member states and Asian countries is conducted. The data used in the empirical analysis is gathered from Eurostat and OECD databases. --
    Keywords: market and system failures,R&D policy,EU,Estonia,South Korea
    Date: 2013

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