nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2012‒11‒24
fifteen papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. Analysing agricultural innovation systems: a multilevel mixed methods approach By Konig, Bettina; Kuntosch, Anett; Bokelmann, Wolfgang; Doernberg, Alexandra; Schwerdtner, Wim; Busse, Maria; Siebert, Rosemarie; Koschatzky, Knut; Stahlecker, Thomas
  2. A Systemic Innovation Policy Framework: The Cases of Scottish and Dutch Agrifood Innovation Systems By Lamprinopoulou, Chrysa; Renwick, Alan W.; Klerkx, Laurens; Hermans, Frans; Islam, Md. Mofakkarul; Roep, Dirk
  3. Le système des brevets: idées reçues et critiques By David Encaoua; Thierry Madiès
  4. Knowledge intensive business services and long term growth By Benoit Desmarchelier; Faridah Djellal; Faïz Gallouj
  5. Collaboration between firms and universities in Italy: the role of a firm’s proximity to top-rated departments By Davide Fantino; Alessandra Mori; Diego Scalise
  6. Commercialization of publicly funded research and development (R&D) in Russia : scaling up the emergence of spinoff companies By Gutierrez, Juan Julio; Correa, Paulo
  7. Real and Imaginary Parts of Decidability-Making By Gilbert Giacomoni
  8. Intellectual Property Rights and Efficient Firm Organization By Giacomo Ponzetto
  9. Multi-Factor Optimization and Factor Interactions during Product Innovation By Hron, Jan; Macak, Tomas
  10. High-Performance Management Practices and Employee Outcomes in Denmark By Cristini, Annalisa; Eriksson, Tor; Pozzoli, Dario
  11. Impact of Adoption of Sustainable Production Systems on Farm Profitability By Robinson, Ian
  12. The Role of Training in Fostering Cluster-Based MSE Development By Tetsushi Sonobe; Keijiro Otsuka
  13. Assessing of the Projects Promoting Innovations in Rural Areas in the Czech Republic By Pechrova, Marie; Kolarova, Alena
  14. LEADER - an approach to innovative and suitable solutions in rural areas? By Schnaut, Gitta; Pollermann, Kim; Raue, Petra
  15. A Stepwise Innovation toward Viable Educational Services in Agriculture: Evidence from Japan By Ohe, Yasuo

  1. By: Konig, Bettina; Kuntosch, Anett; Bokelmann, Wolfgang; Doernberg, Alexandra; Schwerdtner, Wim; Busse, Maria; Siebert, Rosemarie; Koschatzky, Knut; Stahlecker, Thomas
    Abstract: Innovations of agricultural suppliers, producers and retailers are directly or indirectly shaping sustainability within the agro food web. If sustainable innovations targeted at the key challenges agriculture is facing worldwide, such as food security, climate change, sustainable use of natural resources etc. should be promoted, knowledge about current innovation processes is needed to reveal mechanisms that allow for promoting sustainable agricultural innovations. In this paper we present the development of an analytical framework to study agricultural innovation systems. We divide the agricultural sector into four levels and expand the innovation system approach (Malerba 2002 and 2004, Koschatzky 2009) to study innovation processes. On the example of the role of farmers and extension services in agricultural innovation processes we demonstrate the adequateness of the approach and give detailed insight into the later stages of the innovation process, where barriers occur most in the German agricultural innovation system.
    Keywords: innovation system, precision farming, animal monitoring, energy in horticulture, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2012–09–18
  2. By: Lamprinopoulou, Chrysa; Renwick, Alan W.; Klerkx, Laurens; Hermans, Frans; Islam, Md. Mofakkarul; Roep, Dirk
    Abstract: Innovation and knowledge exchange are receiving increased attention among policy makers as a means to address sustainable economic development challenges (European Commission, 2011). However, a range of factors such as inappropriate structures and institutional or capabilities barriers may negatively influence the spread or direction of processes of innovation and knowledge exchange (Klein-Woolthuis et al., 2005). These problems are often referred to as systemic weaknesses or failures, and highlight the need to focus on the innovation system (IS) as a whole (Smiths and Kuhlmann, 2004; Raven et al., 2010). The purpose of the paper, using a comprehensive innovation systems failure framework, is to assess and he performance of agrifood innovation systems of Scotland and the Netherlands, through analysis of the key innovation actors (organisations, networks or influential individuals), and their key functions (research provider, intermediary etc), and those mechanisms that either facilitate or hinder the operation of the IS (known as inducing and blocking mechanisms, respectively). This framework was drawn up based on literature research and a series of semi-structured interviews and/or workshops with experts involved in the agrifood innovation systems in the two countries. The findings confirm the appropriateness of considering actors, functions, inducing or blocking mechanisms and governance instruments as analytical tools to evaluate the performance of agrifood innovation systems. In both countries, blocking mechanisms in terms of actors’ interactions and competencies as well as market and incentive structure were revealed. The proposed mix of governance mechanisms in each country offers actors a better chance to influence the direction and speed of innovation in agrifood systems.
    Keywords: national innovation system, IS failure matrix, Dutch, Scottish, agrifood, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2012–09–18
  3. By: David Encaoua (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Paris I - Panthéon Sorbonne, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris); Thierry Madiès (CREM - Centre de Recherche en Economie et Management - CNRS : UMR6211 - Université de Rennes 1 - Université de Caen Basse-Normandie)
    Abstract: Cet article propose une réflexion générale sur le système des brevets. Trois questions sont d'abord examinées: 1. Le brevet favorise-t-il l'innovation? 2. La propriété intellectuelle est-elle comparable aux autres formes de propriété? 3. La protection par le brevet est-elle complémentaire de la concurrence? Deux critiques fondamentales sont ensuite adressées: 1. L'attribution abusive d'un brevet à des nombreuses demandes ne satisfaisant pas les critères de brevetabilité, ce qui pose la question de la qualité des brevets. 2. L'incompatibilité du système unique des brevets à la diversité technologique et l'innovation cumulative, ce qui entraîne un coût excessif d'implémentation.
    Keywords: droit de propriété, qualité du brevet, mécanisme d'incitation, implémentation, innovation,
    Date: 2012–11
  4. By: Benoit Desmarchelier (CLERSE - Centre lillois d'études et de recherches sociologiques et économiques - CNRS : UMR8019 - Université Lille 1 - Sciences et Technologies); Faridah Djellal (CLERSE - Centre lillois d'études et de recherches sociologiques et économiques - CNRS : UMR8019 - Université Lille 1 - Sciences et Technologies); Faïz Gallouj (CLERSE - Centre lillois d'études et de recherches sociologiques et économiques - CNRS : UMR8019 - Université Lille 1 - Sciences et Technologies)
    Abstract: The goal of this paper is to (re)assess the relationship between knowledge intensive busi- ness services (KIBS) and the economic growth. Taking into account various conflicting relationships between KIBS and growth, we build a multi agent-based system involving industrial firms, consumer-services firms, consumers, KIBS firms and a banking system. Our main result is that KIBS can be regarded as an engine for the economic growth and that they operate as a substitute for the material capital accumulation. Nevertheless, material capital accumulation still appears as a significant factor of economic growth.
    Keywords: Economic growth, Business services, Structural change
    Date: 2012–07–01
  5. By: Davide Fantino (Bank of Italy); Alessandra Mori (Bank of Italy); Diego Scalise (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: In the last decade R&D expenditure in Italy has been lagging at a bare 1.2-1.3 per cent of GDP. Its private share is low by international standards and Italian firms take out only a small number of patents. External sources of innovation, however, are available to firms. This work aims at examining the determinants of research collaboration between firms and universities using the results of the 15th Bank of Italy Business Outlook Survey on Firms, together with data on the quality and importance of university research. Controlling for endogeneity problems, we show that the distance from top research centres is the most important factor in determining the probability of collaboration. Other results indicate that the presence of different innovation sources increases the probability of collaboration; and that proximity is more important for small- and medium-sized firms, while larger ones collaborate with universities that are better able to sell the results of their research, regardless of their location. Sector effects also emerge from the analysis.
    Keywords: research collaboration, innovation, R&D expenditure, technology transfer
    JEL: L24 O31 O32 R12
    Date: 2012–10
  6. By: Gutierrez, Juan Julio; Correa, Paulo
    Abstract: This paper explores fundamental issues affecting technology commercialization of publicly funded research and development (R&D) in the Russian Federation. Despite substantial R&D investments, Russia has experienced a decline in scientific output and employment. Nevertheless, the innovation system remains strong in several technological fields. This paper develops an analytical framework to discuss conditions for technology commercialization, which hinge on the innovation system research base, governance of research institutions, alignment between specialization and sector prioritization, availability and performance of scientists and engineers, intellectual property (IP) regime for publicly funded discoveries, and early stage finance. The paper identifies areas for policy and regulatory improvement to incentivize research institutes and scientists to undertake research with market potential. These include: stronger results-based management that rewards commercialization efforts and focuses not only on high-technology sectors, but also on sectors where Russia has technological comparative advantages. In addition, researchers'career development could consider performance metrics that include entrepreneurial achievements, as well as support for young scientists and for international collaboration. Moreover, the IP regime for federally funded R&D may consider transferring full ownership of research discoveries to research organizations. Finally, to increase deal-flow of new ventures, enhancing the supply of early-stage financing for new technologies may be considered.
    Keywords: Tertiary Education,E-Business,ICT Policy and Strategies,Scientific Research&Science Parks,Science Education
    Date: 2012–11–01
  7. By: Gilbert Giacomoni (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - Mines ParisTech)
    Abstract: Firms seeking an original standpoint, in strategy or design, need to break with imitation and uniformity. They specifically attempt to understand the cognitive processes by which decision-makers manage to work, individually or collectively, through undecidable situations generated by equivalent possible choices and design innovatively. The purpose of the study is to better understand the regeneration and meta-restructuring processes of knowledge systems triggered by decision makers in order to redefine their decidable space by abstraction. The theoretical breakthroughs liable to account a dual form of reasoning, deductive to prove (then make) equivalence and abstractive to represent (then unmake) it, in subtle mechanisms of decisional symmetry, indiscernibility (antisymmetry) and asymmetry, are presented. The proposed formalism is an extension of the most widespread models of rationality based on a real dimension (for preference-making), by adding a visible imaginary one (for abstraction-making) and open up vistas capacity in the fields of information systems, knowledge and decision. This extension takes complex numbers as generalizable objects.
    Keywords: decision-making, equality, indiscernibility, undecidability, imaginary, abstraction, knowledge, information, symmetry-breaking, identity, relation,
    Date: 2012–06–29
  8. By: Giacomo Ponzetto
    Abstract: This paper shows that intellectual property rights yield static efficiency gains, irrespective of their dynamic role in fostering innovation. I develop a property-rights model of firm organization with two dimensions of non-contractible investment: how much cost-minimizing effort to exert, and whether to direct it towards partnership or defection. In equilibrium, the first best can be attained if and only if property rights are as strong for intangible as for tangible assets. When IP rights are weaker, the structure of the firm is distorted and efficiency declines. An entrepreneur must either integrate her suppliers, which induces a fall in their investment; or else risk their defection, which entails a waste of her human capital. My model predicts greater prevalence of vertical integration in response to weaker IP rights. It also predicts a switch from integration to outsourcing over the product cycle. Both empirical predictions are consistent with evidence on the organization of multinational companies. As a normative implication, I …find that IP rights should be strong but narrowly defined, to protect one business opportunity without holding up its potential spin-offs.
    Keywords: intellectual property, organization, hold-up problem, property rights, vertical integration, outsourcing, product cycle, spin-off, licensing
    JEL: D23 D86 K11 L22 L24 O34
    Date: 2012–10
  9. By: Hron, Jan; Macak, Tomas
    Abstract: In this paper, we develop core of an expert system for planning of innovation. The practical outcome of the paper is based on rules determination for search of perspective innovation and its distinguish from commercially unperceptive innovation. The second practical outcome of the paper is a research of interactions between factors during optimization of the product. In general, we gain process synergy, which can be a source of competitive advantage during product innovation in the presence of organizational complexity by systematically moving through the process definition, control, and improvement elements. The improvement elements can cause interactions between these elements (or factors/process parameters). First, we have to distinguish between synergistic and antagonistic interactions. For synergistic interaction can be used graphic illustration - lines on the plot do not cross each other. In contrast, for antagonistic interaction, the lines on the plot cross each other. In this case, the change in mean response for factor at low level is noticeable high compared to high level. Searching for positive interactions leading to the creation of synergies in the performances we can do at each stage of management innovations. At first, we realize only part of the possible gain, with unrealized potential remaining. Using process control, over time, we stabilize our process and obtain additional limited gain. Using process improvement, we can realize additional gain (it looks as short vertical line during the time), with some potential gain remaining. When new, feasible options develop, we can redefined our process and continue with our control and improvement efforts. Hence, each process-related issue definition, control, improvement has a distinct role to play. Confusion between roles or the omission of any of the roles creates disharmony and frustration in the production system, which ultimately limits production system effectiveness and efficiency. Sometimes, in the presence of confusion, it is possible that effectiveness and efficiency may decrease. In this situation, we hope to learn from our negative factor interactions (or failures) and subsequently improvement trends in long term with using sophisticated methods and own intuition. This paper objective is to create rules for planning innovation expert system. According to this rules will be possible to distinguish perspective innovation from commercially unperceptive innovation. The second paper objective is to explore interactions between factors during a product optimization. For this purpose will be used the methodology based on minimization of logic functions and design of experiments (analytical tools of DOE).
    Keywords: Innovation, expert system, multi-criteria optimization, effectiveness, efficiency, synergy, process improvement, logic function, redundancy factor, design of experiments, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2012–09–18
  10. By: Cristini, Annalisa (University of Bergamo); Eriksson, Tor (Aarhus School of Business); Pozzoli, Dario (Aarhus University)
    Abstract: High-performance work practices are frequently considered to have positive effects on corporate performance, but what do they do for employees? After assessing the correlation between organizational innovation and firm performance, this article investigates whether high-involvement work practices affect workers in terms of wages, wage inequality and workforce composition. The analysis is based on a survey directed at Danish firms matched with linked employer-employee data and also examines whether the relationship between high-involvement work practices and employee outcomes is affected by the industrial relations context.
    Keywords: workplace practices, wage inequality, workforce composition, hierarchy
    JEL: C33 J41 J53 L20
    Date: 2012–11
  11. By: Robinson, Ian
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management,
    Date: 2012–10–18
  12. By: Tetsushi Sonobe (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies); Keijiro Otsuka (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies)
    Date: 2012–11
  13. By: Pechrova, Marie; Kolarova, Alena
    Abstract: Innovative approach is essential for a growth, but the understanding of the content of it is not unified. The term innovation itself is broad and can cover wide range of activities. The article deals with the projects promoting innovations in the rural areas of the Czech Republic (CR) financed from the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD). Strategy Plans LEADER (SPL) submitted by Local Actions Groups (LAGs) which are operating under the LEADER1 scheme are analysed and their approach towards innovation is evaluated. The importance of the innovations in the projects is evaluated on the basis of established preferential criteria for selection of the projects and finances devoted to the measure Fiche2 which includes innovative projects. On the basis of case studies of the projects aimed on education I am coming to the conclusion that various types of projects are understood as innovative, but sometimes the term is misinterpreted. Preferential criteria for selecting projects defined by LAGs should be more precious and concrete. Despite the fact that innovations are one of the obligatory criteria for selecting projects which will be financed, its inclusion is mostly formal. Its relative weight in comparison with other criteria is quite low. Besides, the importance of innovative projects is not sufficiently underlined by finances. I argue that there is not adequate attention paid to the real contribution of the projects to innovations. I recommend the revision of the term innovation and its stronger inclusion into the preferential criteria for selection of the project in order to ensure that selected projects clearly correspond with the innovative approach.
    Keywords: Innovative Projects, Rural Area, Local Action Group, Strategic Plan LEADER, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2012–09–18
  14. By: Schnaut, Gitta; Pollermann, Kim; Raue, Petra
    Abstract: The research presented is part of the evaluation of Rural Development Programmes (RDP) in seven German “Länder” (federal states).Innovation is often mentioned as an important pillar of the development of rural areas. One part of Rural Development Programmes, which explicitly addresses innovation, is LEADER: a bottom up-oriented, participatory approach with cooperation by local actors in rural areas. In LEADER, a Local Action Group (LAG) with stakeholders of different institutions and origins comes together as a kind of a public-private partnership and decides about the financial support for regional projects. The LAG can be seen as a kind of new “network of practice.” In this context it is important for the LAGs to assemble people with various backgrounds and to foster a good communication and cooperative climate. A survey of LAG-members shows positive results: there are improvements in the “cooperation beyond administrative borders” (respectively, narrow village boundaries), in the “improving of understanding views from other groups” and in the „cooperation between different groups.” Thus LEADER is an example of how an external programme can connect actors from different interest groups who would, without this programme, in part not have met. In addition, LEADER offers the possibility to try out new approaches, as the regions have access to their “own” funding budget to implement their ideas. But in practice the possibilities of funding experimental or innovative projects via LEADER depend very much on the extent to which the RDPs are able to provide a suitable framework to fund projects outside the standard menu of measures. The assessments of the LAG-managers show that the real possibilities are limited, particularly compared with the former funding period (LEADER+). But despite these limitations, we found LEADER- projects fostering innovation in very different fields.
    Keywords: LEADER, Innovation, Evaluation, Funding, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2012–09–18
  15. By: Ohe, Yasuo
    Abstract: Although the educational function in agriculture is attracting growing attention as a kind of multifunctionality in agriculture, these services are not yet provided as a viable farm product. This paper explores how the educational externality could be internalized to establish a viable market for these services. We focused on educational dairy farms in Japan and used a questionnaire survey to quantitatively evaluate the attitudes of operators toward establishing viable services. First, a conceptual framework was presented to express operators’ orientation toward an economically viable service by incorporating a stepwise internalization process of positive externalities with the help of a social learning network. Then, empirically, statistical tests were conducted and factors that determined this orientation, a viable service determinant function, were explored by the ordered logit model. The result showed that, first, the higher the number of visitors to the farm, the more operators were oriented toward a viable service while no connection with ordinary dairy production was shown. Second, social learning was effective for initiating the internalization process. Third, marketing skills became more important for upgrading the internalization level. Consequently, it is important to create opportunities for those farmers who want to provide consumers with educational services to learn a new role for agriculture and to establish a new income source in a stepwise fashion.
    Keywords: educational tourism, educational function in agriculture, multifunctionality, rural tourism, farm diversification, product innovation, externality, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2012–09–18

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