nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2012‒09‒03
fifteen papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. Quantity or quality? Collaboration strategies in research and development and incentives to patent By Hottenrott, Hanna; Lopes-Bento, Cindy
  2. An 'extended" Knowledge Production Function approach to the genesis of innovation in the European regions By Charlot, S.; Crescenzi, R.; Musolesi, A.
  3. Collaborative R&D as a strategy to attenuate financing constraints By Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hottenrott, Hanna
  4. The role of geographical proximity in innovation: Do regional and local levels really matter? By Gust-Bardon, Natalia Irena
  5. The Dynamics of Resource-Based Economic Development: Evidence from Australia and Norway By Simon Ville; Olav Wicken
  6. Regional development in the context of an innovation process By Gust-Bardon, Natalia Irena
  7. Gains and Losses from International Trade in a Knowledge-driven Semi-endogenous Growth Model with Heterogeneous Firms By katsufumi, fukuda
  8. Engineering Knowledge By Nathan Rosenberg; W. Edward Steinmuller
  9. Evidence on the Impact of Education on Innovation and Productivity By Junge, Martin; Severgnini, Battista; Sørensen, Anders
  10. Competences as drivers and enablers of globalization of innovation: Swedish ICT industry and emerging economies By Chaminade, Cristina; de Fuentes, Claudia
  11. Common Knowledge: Removing Uncertainty in Risk Preference Assessments By Sproul, Thomas W.
  12. How to evaluate the impact of academic spin-offs on regional development By Donato Iacobucci; Alessandra Micozzi
  13. Innovation stratégique et business model des écosystèmes “mobiquitaires”: rôle et identification de l’acteur leader. By Amel Attour
  14. New ICT sectors: Platforms for European growth? By Reinhilde Veugelers
  15. Leçons d'innovation sociale des micro-angels By Arvind Ashta; Glòria Estapé-Dubreuil; Jean-Pierre Hédou; Stéphan Bourcieu

  1. By: Hottenrott, Hanna; Lopes-Bento, Cindy
    Abstract: This study shows for a large sample of R&D-active manufacturing firms that collaborative R&D has a positive effect on firms' patenting in terms of both quantity and quality. When distinguishing between alliances that aim at joint creation of new knowledge and alliances that aim at exchange of existing knowledge, the results suggest that the positive effect on patent quantity is driven by knowledge exchange rather than joint R&D. Firms engaged in joint R&D, on the other hand, receive more forward citations per patent indicating that joint R&D enhances patent quality. In light of literature on strategic patenting, our results further suggest that knowledge creation alliances lead to patents that are filed to protect valuable intellectual property, while exchange alliances drive portfolio patenting, resulting in fewer forward citations. --
    Keywords: R&D Collaboration,Knowledge Exchange,Patents,Innovation,Count Data Models
    JEL: O31 O32 O33 O34
    Date: 2012
  2. By: Charlot, S.; Crescenzi, R.; Musolesi, A.
    Abstract: The paper looks at the genesis of innovation in the EU regions in ordre to shed light on the link between innovative inputs (R&D and Human Capital) and the genesis of economically valuable knowledge. The 'traditional' regional Knowledge Production Function (KPF) is innovatively developed in three complementary directions. Firs, the KPF is 'augmented' in order to control for all possible 'unobsrevable' and 'immesurable' time varying factors that influence the genesis of innovation (i.e. localised institutional and relational factors, regional innovation policies). Second, a semi-parametric approach that relaxes any arbitrary assumption on the 'shape' of the KPF is adopted. Finally, the assumption of homogeneity in the impact of R&D and Human Capital is relaxed by explicity accounting for the differences between 'core' and 'peripherial' regions. The econometric results confirm the importance of accounting for time varying unobserved heterogeneity through the adoption of a 'random growth' specification: R&D efforts exert a significant influence on innovation only after controlling for regional specific time varying unobserved factors. In addition, the semi parametric approach uncovers significant threshold effects for both R&D expenditure and Human Capital and highlights a strong complementarity between these two factors. However, 'core' regions benefit from a persistent advantage in terms of the 'productivity' of their innovation inputs. This has important implications for the EU innovation policies at the regional level.
    JEL: R11 C14 C23
    Date: 2012
  3. By: Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hottenrott, Hanna
    Abstract: The ability of firms to establish R&D collaborations that combine resources, exploit complementary know-how, and internalize R&D externalities has been shown to be of high importance for the successful creation and implementation of new knowledge. We argue in this article that collaborative R&D may not only be beneficial in terms of appropriability of returns to R&D investment, access to the partner's knowledge base and the exploitation of scale and scope in R&D, but that it may also be a strategy to cope with financing constraints for R&D. Studying panel data we show that collaboration with science alleviates liquidity constraints for research. Horizontal collaboration reduces liquidity constraints for both research as well as R and D. Vertical collaboration has no such effects. --
    Keywords: Collaborative Research,Industry-Science Links,Research and Development,Liquidity Constraints,Innovation Policy
    JEL: O31 O32 O38
    Date: 2012
  4. By: Gust-Bardon, Natalia Irena
    Abstract: Globalisation and the advent of information and communication technology (ICT) change the role of spatial distance in innovation activities. Geographical proximity used to be seen as a necessary condition to share tacit knowledge and to enhance trust between innovators; now this approach is being challenged by claiming that the role played by spatial distance diminishes with time. The aim of this paper is to present territorial innovation models as examples of theories based on assumptions of a crucial role of local environment and spatial distance in innovation processes and to present arguments against the said assumption. The paper concludes advocating the encouragement to cooperate both within the local network area and with distant partners and the creation of territorial innovation models as open systems engaged in interactive learning by global connectivity. --
    Date: 2012
  5. By: Simon Ville (University of Wollongong); Olav Wicken (University of Oslow)
    Abstract: Australia and Norway have achieved modern levels of development as resource-based economies, thus avoiding the so-called resource curse. Their ability to achieve this rested heavily upon diversification into new resource products and industries. These processes relied heavily on innovation, confirming the close ties that have existed between resource-based industries and knowledge-producing and disseminating sectors of society. We develop a resource-based diversification model that analyses the interaction between ‘enabling’ sectors and resource industries and apply it to the historical experience of the two countries.
    Keywords: resource curse; enabling sectors; knowledge economy; social technologies
    JEL: N50 O13 O57 Q01
    Date: 2012
  6. By: Gust-Bardon, Natalia Irena
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify main components and driving forces behind an innovation process in order to support regions in organising their endogenous innovation process. To that end, we study models of an innovation process and analyse the case of Sophia Antipolis. This theoretical study allows us to identify general inputs leading to creation of an endogenous innovation process in a region. --
    Date: 2012
  7. By: katsufumi, fukuda
    Abstract: We consider a semi endogenous R&D growth model with international trade, firm heterogeneity, and local knowledge spillover in a closed economy and international knowledge spillover in a symmetric two country economy. We show that by opening trade R&D difficulty (the number of varieties produced) and welfare are ambiguously affected. When the international spillover is large (small), the former is increased (decreased). When the size of the international knowledge spillover is large (small) or the size of the international knowledge spillover is small and the size of intertemporal knowledge spillover is small (large), the latter increases (decreses). Without intertemporal and international knowledge spillovers, welfare increases.
    Keywords: Heterogeneous Firms; Semi Endogenous Growth; Gains and Losses from International Trade
    JEL: F15 O30 F12 O33
    Date: 2012–08–21
  8. By: Nathan Rosenberg (Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research); W. Edward Steinmuller (University of Sussex)
    Abstract: In historical perspective, both the nature of and arrangements for the generation of engineering knowledge have evolved over the past 150 years. We examine the historical development of the search for ‘useful knowledge’ in agriculture, aeronautics and chemical engineering during the first half of this period and the evolving balance between public and private initiative in supporting this search. During this period, the US was engaged in the engineering knowledge was often empirical, practice oriented, and difficult to reconcile with the aims and structure of university teaching. As a consequence, private and public initiatives were often co-mingled and connections with users of the knowledge were essential both for funding (either directly or through the mobilization of political constituencies) and for the testing of designs and emerging theories. Incorporation of engineering knowledge into university curricula was uneven and benefitted greatly, but not exclusively, from the Land Grant Universities. We highlight the distinctions between this early period and developments following World War II, when engineering knowledge has become more theoretical, science-oriented and strongly embedded in universities. In this new era of engineering knowledge, we consider whether areas remain where pre-theoretical empirical knowledge might usefully be exploited and whether the earlier period might provide a guide to funding and organisational arrangements for doing so.
    Keywords: knowledge, engineering, agriculture, aeronautical engineering, chemical engineering, universities, science policy
    JEL: I23 O30 O31 N71 N72 L62 L65
    Date: 2012–08
  9. By: Junge, Martin; Severgnini, Battista (Department of Economics, Copenhagen Business School); Sørensen, Anders (Department of Economics, Copenhagen Business School)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the importance of the educational mix of employees at the rm level for the probability of rms being involved in innovation activities. We distinguish between four types of innovation: product, process, organisational, and marketing innovation. Moreover, we consider three di erent types of education for employees with at least 16 years of schooling: technical sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Furthermore, we examine the in uence of these di erent innovation activities on rm productivity. Using a rotating panel data sample of Danish rms, we nd that di erent types of innovations are related to distinct educational types. Moreover, we nd that rms that adopt product and marketing innovation are more productive than rms that adopt product innovation but not marketing innovation and rms that adopt marketing innovation but not product innovation. In addition, rms that adopt organisational and process innovation demonstrate greated productivity levels than forms that adopt organisational innovation but not process innovation that again demonstrate greater productivity than rms that do not adopt process innovation but not organisational innovation. Finally, we establish that product and marketing innovation as well as organisational and process innovation are complementary inputs using formal tests for supermodularity. Complementarity can be rejected for all other pairs of innovation types.
    Keywords: educational composition; human capital; innovation; productivity; complementarity
    JEL: D24 J24 O31 O32
    Date: 2012–07–16
  10. By: Chaminade, Cristina (CIRCLE, Lund University); de Fuentes, Claudia (Saint Mary’s University, Canada)
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to discuss the relationship between competences and the global innovation networks in the Swedish ICT industry using both survey data and information from a case company- TELEQUIP. The paper portrays the interplay between the availability of competences in the home country as well as in the host country, with the specific strategy of the firm for engaging in global innovation networks.
    Keywords: competence; globalization; global innovation networks; Sweden
    JEL: F23 O32
    Date: 2012–04–10
  11. By: Sproul, Thomas W.
    Keywords: Financial Economics,
    Date: 2012
  12. By: Donato Iacobucci (Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione, Università Politecnica delle Marche); Alessandra Micozzi (Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione, Università Politecnica delle Marche)
    Abstract: The paper proposes a framework to evaluate the impact of academic spin-offs at regional level and applies it to the context of the Marche region (Italy). Spin-off creation is the most complex way of commercializing academic research, compared to licensing and R&D collaborations, but with the highest potential impact on the regional context. The empirical analysis shows that when measured in quantitative terms the impact of spin-offs on local economies is rather low; however, there are qualitative direct and indirect effects that must be taken into consideration. By focusing on providing R&D services, spin-offs play an important role in promoting the up-grading of the regional industrial system, which is mainly based on small and medium-sized firms in low and medium-tech sectors. Though not very successful in terms of growth and job creation in the short run, spin-offs provide an entrepreneurial experience for a high number of young researchers. We can expect that in the longer terms these people can play an important role within the local system in the start-up of new companies or as agents of innovation for established firms.
    Keywords: spin-offs, technology transfer, regional innovation system
    Date: 2012–08
  13. By: Amel Attour
    Abstract: Au sein d’un écosystème, plusieurs entreprises peuvent endosser le rôle de firme pivot. Cette recherche propose une grille de lecture permettant d’identifier qui et quelles caractéristiques permettent à une firme pivot de se positionner dans le rôle de leader dans les différentes phases du cycle de vie de l’écosystème. Pour cela elle relève d’une démarche ingénierique au sens de Chanal et al. (1997) et s’appuie sur le projet « Nice Futur Campus (NFCampus) » et montre que seule deux fonctions du business model d’une innovation peuvent octroyer le rôle de leader à une firme pivot.
    Keywords: business models, écosystème d’affaires, innovation, mobiquité, firme pivot.
    Date: 2012
  14. By: Reinhilde Veugelers
    Abstract: Europe's failure to specialise in new ICT sectors and firms is likely to hold back Europeâ??s post-crisis recovery. Europe lacks in particular leading platform providers, who are capturing most of the value in the new ICT ecosystem. â?¢ In-depth analysis of some specific new emerging ICT sectors shows that the problem in Europe appears not to be so much in the generation of new ideas, but rather in bringing ideas successfully to market. Among the barriers are the lack of a single digital market, fragmented intellectual property regimes, lack of an entrepreneurial culture, limited access to risk capital and an absence of ICT clusters. â?¢ The EU policy framework, particularly the Innovation Union and Digital Agenda EU 2020 Flagships, could better leverage the growth power for Europe of new ICT markets. The emphasis should move beyond providing support for infrastructure and research, to funding programmes for pre-commercial projects. But perhaps most important is dealing with the fragmentation in European digital markets.
    Date: 2012–08
  15. By: Arvind Ashta (CEREN - Centre de Recherche sur l'Entreprise - Start entering a institution, university, grande ecole); Glòria Estapé-Dubreuil (CEREN - Centre de Recherche sur l'Entreprise - Start entering a institution, university, grande ecole); Jean-Pierre Hédou (CEREN - Centre de Recherche sur l'Entreprise - Start entering a institution, university, grande ecole); Stéphan Bourcieu (CEREN - Centre de Recherche sur l'Entreprise - Start entering a institution, university, grande ecole)
    Abstract: Les micro-entrepreneurs peuvent accroître leur capacité à s'endetter en prenant en même temps des participations, respectant ainsi des ratios de prudence et réduisant le stress. La micro-prise de participation a démarré en France en 1983 sous l'impulsion d'un mouvement socialement innovant, connu sous le nom de CIGALES. Nous envisageons l'évolution du mouvement des CIGALES sous un angle institutionnel, afin de comprendre comment ces clubs de micro-angels se sont multipliés, mais aussi pourquoi le mouvement n'a pas grandi plus vite et de façon plus globale. Nos résultats suggèrent que l'innovation "catalytique" exige non seulement de l'entrepreneur institutionnel qu'il collabore avec d'autres institutions complémentaires, mais aussi qu'il crée ces mêmes institutions. Les barrières à ce mouvement sont à la fois liées à des valeurs internes et aux contraintes institutionnelles externes. La compréhension de ce mouvement pourrait être utile aux efforts de développement à venir.
    Keywords: entrepreneur institutionnel, capital-risque, bonne fée des affaires, innovation catalytique, microfinance, micro-prise de participation
    Date: 2012–08–28

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