nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2012‒06‒25
fifteen papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. Management of Knowledge Workers By Hvide, Hans K.; Kristiansen, Eirik Gaard
  2. Rethinking the role of intermediaries as an architect of collective exploration and creation of knowledge in open innovation By Marine Agogue; Anna Yström; Pascal Le Masson
  3. Innovation et externalisation des services: une analyse empirique sur données d'entreprises tunisiennes By Sdiri, Hanen; Ayadi , Mohamed
  4. Regional innovation policy and innovative behaviours. A propensity score matching evaluation By Antonioli,Davide; Marzucchi,Alberto; Montresor,Sandro
  5. Reduction of disaster vulnerability through Indigenous knowledge By Pathan, Pervez.A; Khan, A. Razzaq; Razzaq, S; Jariko, Gulam.A
  6. Approximate Knowledge of Rationality and Correlated Equilibria By Fabrizio Germano; Peio Zuazo-Garin
  7. A New Index Measure of Technological Capabilities for Developing Countries By Nabaz T. Khayyat; Jeong-Dong Lee
  8. The emergence of new technology-based sectors at the regional level: a proximity-based analysis of nanotechnology By Alessandra Colombelli; Jackie Krafft; Francesco Quatraro
  9. Managerial spans, industry tasks and ICT: evidence from the U.S. By Westling, Tatu
  10. Knowledge Production Process, Diversity Type and Group Interaction as Moderators of the Diversity-Performance-Link: An Analysis of University Research Groups By Kerstin Pull; Birgit Pferdmenges; Uschi Backes-Gellner
  11. Les plateformes d'innovation sur Internet : arrangements contractuels, intermédiation et gestion de la propriété intellectuelle By Isabelle Liotard
  12. A Stock-Flow Analysis of a Schumpeterian Innovation Economy By Stefano Lucarelli
  13. Joint innovation in ICT standards: How consortia drive the volume of patent filings By Justus Baron; Yann Ménière; Tim Pohlmann
  14. Innovative capacity and productivity: an empirical analysis of Australian grain growers By Nossal, Katarina
  15. Innovation and market dynamics: A two-mode network approach to user-producer relation By Uwe Cantner; Marco Guerzoni; Arianna Martinelli

  1. By: Hvide, Hans K. (University of Aberdeen); Kristiansen, Eirik Gaard (Norwegian School of Economics (NHH))
    Abstract: We study how firm-specific complementary assets and intellectual property rights affect the management of knowledge workers. The main results show when a firm will wish to sue workers that leave with innovative ideas, and the effects of complementary assets on wages and on worker initiative. We argue that firms protected weakly by complementary assets must sue leaving workers in order to obtain positive profits. Moreover, firms with more complementary assets pay higher wages and have lower turnover, but the higher pay has a detrimental effect on worker initiative. Finally, our analysis suggests that strengthening firms' property rights protection reduces turnover costs but weakens worker initiative.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, innovation, intellectual property rights, litigation, personnel economics, R&D, start-ups, worker mobility
    JEL: J30 J60
    Date: 2012–05
  2. By: Marine Agogue (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - Mines ParisTech); Anna Yström (Chalmers - Chalmers University of Technology - Chalmers University of Technology); Pascal Le Masson (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - Mines ParisTech)
    Abstract: This paper questions the applicability of traditional notions of intermediary activities, which are usually categorized as either brokering or networking, in cases of high uncertainty regarding technologies, markets or which actors to involve. In the case of collaborative open innovation, especially in circumstances when no single organization is able to take on the challenge alone, the activities traditionally associated with intermediation do not suffice to describe what an intermediary can do to support innovation. This paper presents two cases of intermediaries working with the early phases of traffic safety innovations, and how they have managed to develop their activities beyond solely brokering and networking, but also to take an active role in the process of joint exploration and creation of knowledge. We use a qualitative approach to analyze the two cases in order to provide examples of how rethinking intermediation activities can support open innovation in a collaborative setting. The findings suggest that intermediaries taking on a more active role, which could be described as an architect which designs prerequisites and offers leadership in the process of joint exploration and creation of knowledge.
    Date: 2012
  3. By: Sdiri, Hanen; Ayadi , Mohamed
    Abstract: Recently, outsourcing services became an important component of the organizational strategy of the firm. However, a large number of studies focused mainly on the determinants of outsourcing ignoring its structural effects. The aim of this paper is to examine to what extent outsourcing relationships can be a source of innovation in industrial services using a sample of 108 Tunisian service firms. Specifically, we are interested in the domestic outsourcing of auxiliary activities. Our results support the evidence of positive effects of outsourcing service activities on the capacity of innovation. This suggests that outsourcing allows Tunisian service firms to create value, to increase flexibility and to improve the quality of their services.
    Keywords: Innovation; Externalisation; Secteur des services
    JEL: D23 L21 O32 O31 L80
    Date: 2012–05
  4. By: Antonioli,Davide; Marzucchi,Alberto; Montresor,Sandro
    Abstract: The paper aims at evaluating the additionality of innovation policy in terms of innovative behaviours at the regional level. Innovation behaviours are distinguished, depending on their occurrence within and across the firms and the regional boundaries.The policy role with respect to them is evaluated for a sample of firms in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, by making use of an original, survey-based dataset, to which a Propensity Score Matching approach is applied. Funded firms are more likely to upgrade their competencies, when compared to similar non subsidised companies. On the other hand, their innovation cooperation with other business partners is not significantly affected by the policy, both within and outside the region, unless in the interaction with particular partners. All in all, the investigated innovation policy in the ER region seems to show more of what could be termed ‘cognitive capacity additionality’, rather than ‘network additionality’. 
    Keywords: Innovation Cooperation, Regional Innovation Systems, Behavioural Additionality
    JEL: O32 O38 R11 R58
    Date: 2012–06–13
  5. By: Pathan, Pervez.A; Khan, A. Razzaq; Razzaq, S; Jariko, Gulam.A
    Abstract: Linking indegenious knowledge of the community with modern techniques to mesure, analyse and reduce disaster vulnerability is one way of engaging and moblising community capacity. This paper discuses he use of the local/ indegenious knowledge into disater management. It suggest a way to moblise available human and technical resources in order to strengthen a good partnership between local communities and local and national institutions. The study conducted through field work in two districts “Thatta and Badin” of coastal area of Sindh Province of Pakistan. Multistage cluster sampling technique has used to select the sample size of 360 households from the area. Data was collected through well structured questioner. With the increasing socio-economic changes in this global village, local knowledge is wear away unremittingly and having no severe to sightsee. New peers are accepting new ways of life and grownup groups reminisce very less. Proper utilization of local wisdom, knowledge along with modern tools and techniques can give rid from disaster worst situation and can reduce risk. To measure local knowledge and wisdom of the community statistically new model has developed through primary data, Model for local knowledge. In the model Local Knowledge is dependent variable whereas, age, experience, living status and prediction about disasters are independent variable. The impact of these independent variables on dependent variable has measured through multiple regressions and in the end suggestions and recommendations put forward in the light of local vulnerability to have minimum loss in upcoming disasters.
    Keywords: Cyclone; Flood; Disaster; Disaster Management; Local Knowledge; Vulnerability; Hazards; Taluka; Climate Change; Reconstruction; Awareness
    JEL: I30 I39 I31 I3
    Date: 2012–04–18
  6. By: Fabrizio Germano; Peio Zuazo-Garin
    Abstract: We extend Aumann's theorem (Aumann, 1987) in deriving correlated equilibria as a consequence of common priors and common knowledge of rationality by explicitly allowing for non-rational behavior. We replace the assumption of common knowledge of rationality with a substantially weaker notion, p-belief of rationality, where agents believe the other agents are rational with probabilities p or more. We show that behavior in this case constitutes a constrained correlated equilibrium of a doubled game satisfying certain p-belief constraints and characterize the topological structure of the resulting set of p-rational outcomes. We establish continuity in the parameters p and show that, for p sufficiently close to one, the p-rational outcomes are close to the correlated equilibria and, with high probability, supported on strategies that survive the iterated elimination of strictly dominated strategies. Finally, we extend Aumann and Dreze's theorem (Aumann and Dreze, 2008) on rational expectations of interim types to the broader p-rational belief systems, and also discuss the case of non-common priors.
    Keywords: Correlated equilibrium, approximate common knowledge, bounded rationality, p-rational belief system, common prior, information, noncooperative game
    JEL: C72 D82 D83
    Date: 2012–06
  7. By: Nabaz T. Khayyat (TEMEP, College of Engineering, Seoul National University); Jeong-Dong Lee (TEMEP, College of Engineering, Seoul National University)
    Abstract: This study is conducted to develop a new measurement tool to analyze the extent of innovation by developing nations. The role of science and technology in enhancing the rate of innovation is also investigated. The existing methods for measuring innovation such as Technology Index (WEF), Technology Achievement Index (UNDP), Industrial Development Scorecard (UNIDO), ArCo (Archibugi and Coco) and Science and Technology Index (RAND Corporation) are compared and based on their limitations a new tool with higher advantage is developed. The new index labeled as Technology Creation Index (TC-index) is decomposed into six distinct components. The index is estimated for 61 developing countries from Asia, North and South America and Africa. The countries are classified into three groups based on their extent of innovation derived from principal component analysis to assess the country group heterogeneity. The results suggest that in construction of the TC-index patents granted, human development index, local availability of specialized training and resources, foreign direct investment inflows, number of citations per science and education articles, secondary gross enrollment rate and science and education journals are identified as the main contributors to the higher rate of innovation in developing nations.
    Keywords: Innovation measurement, technological infrastructure, diffusion of innovations, human skills, economic and social indicators.
    JEL: C19 C49 I32 J24 O30 O32
    Date: 2012–06
  8. By: Alessandra Colombelli; Jackie Krafft; Francesco Quatraro
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the emergence of new technology-based sectors at the regional level. We focus on the specific case of nanotechnology as representative of an industry based on a technology still in infancy whose evolution can be reliably traced on the basis of filed patent submissions. We implement a methodological framework based on the „product-space? approach, which allows us to investigate whether the development of new technologies is linked to the structure of the existing local knowledge base. We use patent data over the period 1986-2006 to carry out the analysis at the NUTS 2 level over the EU 15 countries. The results of the descriptive and econometric analysis supports the idea that history matters in the spatial development of a sector, and that the technological competences accumulated at the local level are likely to shape the future patterns of technological diversification.
    Keywords: product space, technological diversification, new industries, capabilities, EU Regions
    JEL: R11 N94
    Date: 2012–06
  9. By: Westling, Tatu
    Abstract: The knowledge theoretic view of organization of production postulates that ICT, tasks and hierarchies intertwine. Utilizing Occupational Employment Statistics and O*NET data, this study investigates the proposition by exploiting the substantial cross-industry variation in hierarchical forms, which are here captured by spans of control among middle and corporate managers. Information [IT] and communication technologies [CT] are explored separately, and the parsimonious task taxonomy depicts industries in four dimensions: tacit knowledge, cognitive, physical/technical and interaction. The key predictions of the knowledge hierarchy literature can hence be tested and the findings largely reverberate with theory. First, ICT influences middle and corporate manager spans dissimilarly reflecting technological asymmetries in hierarchies. Higher IT utilization narrows organizations yet CT expands middle management. Second, industry tasks govern organizational outcomes. Cognitive tasks flatten and technical/physical tasks narrow hierarchies. Third, the descriptive evidence suggests that hierarchies are highly non-pyramidal across U.S. industries. Finally, the key insight is that spans in top hierarchy are insular to tasks yet organizations down the middle management reflect the nature of industry. With some exceptions the results are robust to exogenous variation in ICT utilization.
    Keywords: Organization; hierarchy; span of control; tasks; ICT; cross-industry
    JEL: L23 J21 L22
    Date: 2012–05–24
  10. By: Kerstin Pull (Department of Human Resource Management and Organization, University of Tuebingen); Birgit Pferdmenges (University of Tuebingen); Uschi Backes-Gellner (Department of Business Administration, University of Zurich)
    Abstract: In our paper, we explore the diversity-performance link in knowledge production and argue it to be the result of two countervailing effects (resource vs. process perspective). Theoretically, we show that the relative strength of the two effects crucially depends on moderating factors that relate to specificities of the knowledge production process, the type of diversity and group interaction. We empirically test our hypotheses based on an original data set of 45 university research groups from different disciplinary fields which are by nature expected to produce new knowledge and are faced with complex tasks. Employing traditional OLS regressions as well as non-parametric LOWESS analyses, our hypotheses are largely born out by the data. In particular, we find a U-shaped relation between cultural diversity and performance in research groups from the humanities & social sciences and a negative link between functional diversity and per-formance in research groups from the natural sciences. As the disciplinary fields proxy different underlying knowledge production processes, the implications of our study can be generalized to other settings and help derive general conclusions for the management of diversity and future competitiveness strategies in knowledge intensive economies.
    Keywords: diversity, performance, knowledge production process, group interaction
    JEL: M54 J44 I23
    Date: 2012–06
  11. By: Isabelle Liotard (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - Université Paris XIII - Paris Nord - CNRS : UMR7234)
    Abstract: L'innovation des entreprises passe depuis une période récente par de nouveaux canaux instaurés via Internet : les plateformes d'innovation. De telles structures d'intermédiation mettent en relation des entreprises en panne de solution pour leur R&D avec des internautes du monde entier (scientifiques, universitaires, chercheurs, retraités...). Le défi ainsi posté sur la plateforme est récompensé par une prime s'il est retenu. L'objet de l'article est d'analyser les arrangements contractuels qui sont à l'œuvre sur une plateforme spécifique (Innocentive), que ce soit en matière de propriété intellectuelle et de transferts de droit entre acteurs, ou d'aide et de supports techniques proposés à l'entreprise pour détecter les meilleurs solutions au défi. Il s'agit également de comprendre comment ces dispositifs répondent au problème d'asymétrie d'information et d'incertitude inhérent aux transferts de technologie, et largement mis en évidence dans la littérature économique.
    Keywords: innovation, plateforme d'innovation, propriété intellectuelle, licences, asymétrie d'information, intermédiation, Innocentive
    Date: 2012
  12. By: Stefano Lucarelli
    Abstract: Credit money plays a crucial role in Schumpeterian theoretical analysis of economic development. Nevertheless, it is not simple to propose an analytical framework which is able to clarify the meaning of credit creation considered as the monetary complement of innovation. This contribution aims to describe Schumpeterian economic development in a “monetary theory of production” framework. According to the Schumpeterian perspective, we propose to emphasize within the monetary circuit both the monetary nature and the qualitative change of the capitalist system (i.e. the innovative process). We will describe the different phases of Schumpeterian economic development by employing a set of accounting matrixes, which allows us to respect the condition of stock-flow consistency.
    JEL: B50 E51 O33
    Date: 2012
  13. By: Justus Baron (CERNA - Centre d'économie industrielle - Mines ParisTech); Yann Ménière (CERNA - Centre d'économie industrielle - Mines ParisTech); Tim Pohlmann (BERLIN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY - Berlin Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: The development of formal ICT standards is a loose form of collaborative innovation: firms first develop rival technologies, some of which are then eventually selected in the standard. Against this background, firms often use informal consortia to define a clearer technology roadmap ahead of the formal standard setting process. The paper aims to assess how such consortia influence the volume of patents filed around standards, and whether this is efficient. We show that their effect actually depends on the strength of firms' incentives to develop the standard. Consortium membership triggers a higher number of patent files when insufficient rewards for essential patents induce underinvestment in the standard. This effect is necessarily pro-efficient. In situations where excessive rewards induce patent races, consortium membership only moderately increases or even reduces their volume of patents. At least in the latter case, the effect of consortia membership is also pro-efficient.
    Date: 2012–06–11
  14. By: Nossal, Katarina
    Abstract: Slowing productivity growth in the Australian grains industry has led to calls for increasing investment in rural R&D to advance agricultural technology. However, recent research also suggests there is strong potential to increase productivity by enhancing uptake of existing innovations. The productivity gains from innovation adoption are likely to depend on the capacity of farmers to effectively select, adapt and integrate innovations into existing farming systems. In this paper, the innovative capacity of grain growers is characterised by variables related to the farm, the farmer and their operating environment. The influence of these factors on on-­‐farm innovation adoption is tested using an ordered probit model. The relationship between innovative capacity, innovation adoption and productivity is then evaluated. The results suggest that building innovative capacity is effective in increasing agricultural productivity.
    Keywords: innovation, grain growers, ordered probit, productivity, Crop Production/Industries, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2012–02
  15. By: Uwe Cantner; Marco Guerzoni; Arianna Martinelli
    Abstract: In this paper we propose a new mental representation of how markets, technology and their interaction concur in explaining the why of a certain innovation instead of another. We empirically test this theory in the telecommunication switches industry. We consider innovation as a new alignment of needs and opportunities, where markets and technology are not the sources, but the actors in this alignment process. In order to accomplish this task, we suggest proxies for technological opportunities, market needs, and, at the same time, for interactions of these two elements. We make use of a statistical tool that grasps the matching nature of this interactive phenomenon.
    Keywords: user-producer interaction, two-mode network, telecommunication manufacturing industry
    Date: 2012–06–06

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