nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2012‒05‒29
ten papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. External knowledge sourcing and innovation performance: the role of managerial practices By García Granero,Ana; Vega-Jurado,Jaider
  2. Motives for inter-firm cooperation on R&D and innovation: empirical evidence from Argentine and Spain By Edwards-Schachter, Mónica; Anlló, Guillermo; Castro-Martínez, Elena; Sánchez-Barrioluengo, Mabel & Fernández De Lucio, Ignacio
  3. Productivity in innovation: the role of inventor connections and mobility By Favaro, Donata; Ninka, Eniel; Turvani, Margherita
  4. Learning from innovation echoes in mature organizations - The case of the automotive industry By Sophie Hooge; Cédric Dalmasso
  5. The relevance of marketing in the success of innovations By Abraham Garcia
  6. Community as a locus of innovation: co-innovation with users in the creative industries By Guy Parmentier; Vincent Mangematin
  7. Patents Wars (2ème partie) : Les conséquences : la paralysie de l'industrie, le freinage de l'innovation By Pierre-André Mangolte
  8. Job Creation Effects of R&D Expenditures: Are High-tech Sectors the Key? By Francesco Bogliacino; Mariacristina Piva; Marco Vivarelli
  9. Projection of R&D-intensive enterprise growth to the year 2020: Implications for EU policy? By Pietro Moncada-Paternò-Castello; Peter Voigt
  10. On the dynamics of innovators and imitators By Cerqueti, Roy; Tramontanta, Fabio; Ventura, Marco

  1. By: García Granero,Ana; Vega-Jurado,Jaider
    Abstract: In this paper, we argue that the ability of a firm to transform external knowledge into commercial success goes beyond the firms’ technological capabilities. Thus, we underscore the role played by managerial practices (related with knowledge sharing, formalization and incentives) in the leveraging and utilization of external knowledge. We further consider that the effectiveness of external knowledge exploitation can be contingent on the types of external sources (scientific and industrial partners) and on the degree of novelty in innovations (imitative and new-to-the-market innovations). The research draws on survey data from the Spanish Ceramic Tile Industry and the main results suggest that firms adopting knowledge sharing mechanisms are more likely to attain better results in exploiting external scientific knowledge. On the contrary, formalization-based mechanisms tend to exert a detrimental effect on the exploitation of external scientific knowledge. Knowledge incentives are non significant in the case of scientific agents and negative for industrial agents.
    Keywords: External knowledge sourcing, scientific and industrial partnering, managerial practices, product innovation
    JEL: M19
    Date: 2012–05–21
  2. By: Edwards-Schachter, Mónica; Anlló, Guillermo; Castro-Martínez, Elena; Sánchez-Barrioluengo, Mabel & Fernández De Lucio, Ignacio
    Abstract: Motives and determinants supporting inter-firm technological cooperation have been extensively investigated in developed countries but scarcely addressed in developing countries. This paper addresses these issues, investigating empirically several factors influencing the likelihood to cooperate on R&D and innovation between Argentine and Spanish firms, their strategic motives and firms characteristics which influence cooperation. We draw upon data collected through a survey of 104 firms and complementary information gathered from 19 in-depth interviews, combining both qualitative and quantitative methodology. Results of a multinomial regression and the interviews show that the probability to cooperate increases with the firm size and exportation activities and decrease with the firm age whereas, opposite to literature findings, technological intensity of the firm is a non-significant variable. While for Argentine firms the principal motives are cost reduction and the possibilities for improving learning and capabilities, access to new knowledge for technological development and the search for market opportunities are the principal motives for firms located in Spain. Results of interviews also indicates that firm-specific motives and expectations may differ considerably according the activity sector, with relevant implication for norms and regulation policies in each country.
    Keywords: innovation R&D, inter-firm cooperation, motives for cooperation, funding program
    JEL: O31 O32 L22
    Date: 2012–05–18
  3. By: Favaro, Donata; Ninka, Eniel; Turvani, Margherita
    Abstract: We study the transmission of knowledge arising from working relationships established by inventors, and its impact on firms’ innovation production. The study’s contribution to the literature is twofold. First, we consider those relationships that originate through inventor connections (”multi-applicant” inventors) and inventor mobility. Second, we analyse their effect on companies’ innovation production. The study focuses on the role played by geographical proximity, and the dynamic effects of knowledge flows. The geographical question is dealt with on a detailed level, by measuring knowledge spillovers observed within the same Local Labour System (LLS), between different LLSs of the region and, finally, with extra-regional LLSs. Dynamics are captured by measuring inventor mobility and connections occurring up to 20 years before patent filing. The analysis is carried out on the Italian region of Veneto and is based upon the original OECD REGPAT database of patent applications filed at the European Patent Office. The manual procedure we used to clean the data allows us to resolve some issues raised in the literature. Our results show that the impact of working relationships on innovation production depends on both geography and dynamics. Therefore, we can not conclude that productivity effects of knowledge flows occurring through the labour market are localized. However, we can conclude that working relationships have sizable productivity effects on innovation, either in the short or in the long run, depending on the geographical distance.
    Keywords: labour mobility; inventor connections; knowledge diffusion; innovation; geographical proximity;
    JEL: J61 J24 O3
    Date: 2012–05–20
  4. By: Sophie Hooge (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - Mines ParisTech); Cédric Dalmasso (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - Mines ParisTech)
    Abstract: In competitive industries, intensive and repeated innovation is a recognized necessity (Wheelwright and Clark, 1992; Le Masson et al., 2010). Literature on innovation (Utterback, 1994; Henderson & Clark, 1990) distinguishes Dominant Design revisions (radical innovations) from local improvements (incremental innovations). Regarding the innovation process management, one success factor lies in the knowledge articulation between front end and new product development (NPD) stages (Koen et al, 2002; Cooper et al, 2001). Then, central issue becomes NPD stakeholders' management (Elias et al., 2002) and their ability to establish perennial learning dynamics across the two parts of the organization (O'Connor, 2008). Our paper fits into this research field for local innovations on the dominant design. We discuss the role of technical expertise level of NDP stakeholders involved in early stages. The research mobilized two longitudinal studies (Yin, 1989) carried out with a global car manufacturer since 2005, one focusing on the innovation management process and organization, while the other was devoted to learning dynamics of engineering development departments. Leading as collaborative management research (Hatchuel and David, 2007), analyses were enhanced through deep interviews with project managers, technical experts and decision-makers. Analyzing local innovation impacts, we find that effect of breakthrough innovation projects on NPD organization was similar to waves: close expertise are quickly and strongly affected while distant expertise are more weakly and later affected. Our research material shows that tracking of key stakeholders is based on functional division of the organization whereas force and temporality of the innovation impact could potentially follow other propagation logic. Stakeholders identified by the organization as key actors could be in reality weakly impacted but we observed they were able to convey useful knowledge to heavily affected actors inside their organization when they had a high level of technical expertise of the dominant design. Expertise robustness plays a screen role that returns, as an amplified echo, the innovation low impact on their technical perimeter toward those heavily impacted.
    Keywords: Innovation management; R&D stakeholders; learning dynamics; mature firms
    Date: 2011–06–07
  5. By: Abraham Garcia (JRC-IPTS)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on marketing expenditures and their relation with R&D investments and innovative sales. A higher investment in R&D is associated with the production of a higher quality or faster innovation, with a positive impact on sales and in a macro sense, an increase of GDP. This paper raises the issue that good innovation need a strong marketing effort in order for this innovation to have an impact on sales, it needs to be desired by consumers. This paper finds empirical evidence that marketing expenditures explain a lot of the success of the innovation 0.5 to 0.7% (measured in terms of the elasticity of this effort to innovative sales), even more than the flow of investment in R&D(which counts for 0.3 %). In fact, the size of the coefficient for marketing doubles those found for R&D, a quite surprising result taking into consideration the little importance that marketing has in innovation studies. The paper uses Community Innovation Survey data, the third wave (CIS 3) and set up a system of simultaneous equations like in Crepon et al. (1998).
    Date: 2011–12
  6. By: Guy Parmentier (ESC Chambéry - GROUPE ESC Chambéry, IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - Université de Savoie); Vincent Mangematin (MTS - Management Technologique et Strategique - Grenoble École de Management (GEM))
    Abstract: The aim of the paper is to characterize innovation with user communities and to explore managerial implications for creative industries. Based on four case studies, we explore the interrelations between the firm and user communities. The digitalization and virtualization of interactions change the ways in which the boundaries between the firm and its user community are defined. User communities are actively developing new products, new services. Definitions of value differ for firms and users. Users are valuating the possibility to be creative, to transform individual creativity into products while firms are making money with innovation. Finally, innovation with user communities may modify the respective identities of firms and communities.
    Keywords: innovation; community; lead user; innovation with communities; boundaries; identity
    Date: 2011
  7. By: Pierre-André Mangolte (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - Université Paris XIII - Paris Nord - CNRS : UMR7234)
    Abstract: Dans cette deuxième partie de l'étude "Patent Wars", et dans une approche toujours comparative, sont analysées les conséquences pour l'activité industrielle et le changement technique des différentes guerres des patents. Dans les trois industries émergentes du cinéma, de l'automobile et de l'aviation, cohabitent alors deux types de modèles économiques, les modèles proprement industriels, accompagnés ou non par des titres, et les modèles plus spécifiquement construits sur la détention et l'exploitation de patents. Ces deux types de modèles économiques sont clairement contradictoires. L'importance accordée aux patents et aux droits des inventeurs et propriétaires de patents aux Etats-Unis explique en effet très largement les évolutions et performances globales, c'est-à-dire la suprématie mondiale du cinéma français sur le cinéma américain jusqu'en 1914, un phénomène étonnant à bien des égards, mais aussi le retard, en dépit de l'invention majeure et de l'avance des frères Wright, et même si d'autres éléments interviennent ici, de l'industrie américaine de la construction des avions; l'automobile représentant alors une sorte de contre-exemple, explicable par le déroulement particulier de l'affaire du brevet Selden. L'étude, détaillée et comparative, montre précisément dans chacune des industries, en quoi et dans quelle mesure les différents "patents wars" ont freiné le développement des activités industrielles et même l'innovation.
    Keywords: guerre des brevets; industrie émergente; innovation; Edison; frères Wright; Selden; Henry Ford
    Date: 2012–03–26
  8. By: Francesco Bogliacino (JRC-IPTS); Mariacristina Piva (Università Cattolica de Milano); Marco Vivarelli (Università Cattolica de Milano)
    Abstract: In this paper we assess the job creation effect of R&D expenditures, using a unique longitudinal database of 677 European companies over the period 1990-2008. We estimate a dynamic labour demand specification using a Least Squares Dummy Variable Corrected (LSDVC) technique. The labour-friendly nature of R&D emerges from the empirical analysis on the overall sample. However, this positive significant effect corresponds to the high-tech sector and services, while the effect is not significant for traditional manufacturing. The results support the policy agenda of promoting structural change in European economies.
    Keywords: innovation, employment, manufacturing, services, LSDVC
    JEL: O33
    Date: 2011–12
  9. By: Pietro Moncada-Paternò-Castello (JRC-IPTS); Peter Voigt (JRC-IPTS)
    Abstract: The paper investigates how sector composition and the magnitude of R&D investment in the EU may differ in 2020 in comparison to the past, if a selection of top R&D-investing SMEs were assumed to be on a fast growth track while the top R&D-investing large-scale companies continue to grow as before. The background of this research objective is the emerging focus on SMEs – and in particular the fast-growing among them – with regard to the "Europe 2020" policy strategy. The study relies on the sample of top R&D-investing firms as given by the latest available "EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard" editions, building there from an unbalanced panel. Scenarios were developed by distinguishing SMEs' assumed growth paths vs. that of large scale companies. A linear prediction model has been used to calculate the scenario simulations. Overall, the study indicates that if one expects the (R&D-intensive) small firms to be a driving force for a substantial structural change in the EU economy, from being driven by medium-tech sectors towards a high-tech based economy, it requires either a significant longer-term horizon of the assumed fast growth track than the simulated 10 years, or small firms' growth figures which even exceed the assumed annual 30% (as in the most optimistic scenario). Neither case appears to be particularly realistic. Hence, we need more top R&D investors in Europe to further intensify their engagement in R&D (increasing volume and R&D intensity) as well as numerous small firms that start and/or significantly increase their existing R&D activities and thus seek to become large firms and (global) leading R&D investors. Accordingly, a broad R&D and innovation (policy) strategy is needed with policy interventions which also target well all these options; i.e. stimulating firm growth and R&D and innovation-intensity across firm-sized classes.
    Keywords: SME, company growth, industrial dynamics, structural change, R&D/ innovation policy, Barcelona target, Europe 2020
    JEL: L11 L25 R38
    Date: 2012–01
  10. By: Cerqueti, Roy; Tramontanta, Fabio; Ventura, Marco
    Abstract: After deriving a model describing the law of evolution of innovators and imitators the article focuses on their relationships under two different scenarios: prey-predator, in which innovators are regarded as preys, and competing species. Analytic results show that among the feasible equilibria the coexistence equilibrium is the only stable equilibrium under the fi…rst scenario. We also …find conditions on the parameters allowing local stability of the coexistence equilibrium in the second scenario. Such conditions imply the existence of an inverse-U shaped relationship between innovation and imitation.
    Keywords: Imitation; innovation; intellectual property rights; Lotka-Volterra system
    JEL: C6 O34 O33 O31
    Date: 2012–04–20

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