nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2012‒05‒08
six papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. Working Paper 04-12 - Le système d’innovation en Wallonie By Bernadette Biatour; Coraline Daubresse; Chantal Kegels
  2. Mapping the scientific knowledge of the Green Chemistry community (In French) By Marianna EPICOCO (GREThA, CNRS, UMR 5113); Vanessa OLTRA (GREThA, CNRS, UMR 5113); Maïder SAINT JEAN (GREThA, CNRS, UMR 5113)
  3. L'innovation dans les firmes multinationales : une revue de la littérature By Lusine Arzumanyan
  4. Problem-based learning in secondary education: Evaluation by a randomized experiment By De Witte, Kristof; Rogge, Nicky
  5. La dynamique des innovations d'exploration et d'exploitation des PME à travers les alliances stratégiques. By Bouzid, Inès
  6. ICT Skills and Employment: New Competences and Jobs for a Greener and Smarter Economy By OECD

  1. By: Bernadette Biatour; Coraline Daubresse; Chantal Kegels
    Abstract: This working paper analyses the performances of the Walloon innovation system in 2010. It concentrates on the six dimensions of the innovation system: knowledge development, human resources, R&D valorisation, innovation absorption capacity, entrepreneurial skills and financing capacity. These pillars are assessed by comparing the Walloon performances with those of European countries and regions with a similar industrial heritage. The analysis underlines the good performances of the mobilisation of financial resources in favour of R&D activities but also a potential problem in terms of human resources available for these activities. Maintaining a sufficient flow of competence by new science graduates and engineers and by the implementation of lifelong learning remains the key challenge in the years to come.
    Keywords: Innovation, Regional economy, Assessment
    JEL: O31 O32 O38 R58
    Date: 2012–02–28
  2. By: Marianna EPICOCO (GREThA, CNRS, UMR 5113); Vanessa OLTRA (GREThA, CNRS, UMR 5113); Maïder SAINT JEAN (GREThA, CNRS, UMR 5113)
    Abstract: This paper aims at investigating the dynamics of scientific knowledge underlying the development of Green Chemistry (GC), an emergent field that is expected to pave the way to a more sustainable chemical industry. By reviewing a broad range of secondary sources and interacting with the community of practitioners, we first show how an epistemic community around GC has emerged and materialized. We then build an original database of scientific publications generated by this community and analyze it through two algorithms for the analysis of citation networks. The results allow us to identify and discuss the scientific knowledge that laid the foundations of the GC community and the main scientific trajectory that emerged along its whole evolution. The results also highlight how GC knowledge evolved over time and spread among different scientific journals, subject areas, countries and organizations. We conclude by noting that policy and industry interests, as well as regulation, appear to have played an important role in shaping the GC community.
    Keywords: green chemistry; scientific knowledge; knowledge dynamics; epistemic community; citation network analysis.
    JEL: O30 O57 L65
    Date: 2012
  3. By: Lusine Arzumanyan (EA3713 - Centre de Recherche Magellan - Université de Lyon - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon III)
    Abstract: Cette communication a pour objectif d'examiner les études récentes à travers une revue de la littérature sur les processus d'innovation dans les firmes multinationales. Le but de cette revue est de fournir une feuille de route de ce domaine en mettant en avant divers aspects empiriques et théoriques qui ont été étudiés dans la littérature.
    Keywords: Processus d'innovation, firme multinationale, siège, filiale, coordination
    Date: 2011
  4. By: De Witte, Kristof (KULeuven, Maastricht Universiteit); Rogge, Nicky (Hogeschool-Universiteit Brussel (HUB))
    Abstract: The effectiveness of problem based learning (PBL) in terms of increasing student knowledge and skills has been extensively studied for higher education students and in non-experimental settings. This paper tests the effectiveness of PBL as an alternative instruction method in secondary education. In a controlled randomized experiment, we estimate its effect on tested student attainments, on perceived student attainments, on autonomous and controlled motivation and on class atmosphere. The outcomes indicate a non-significant negative effect on student achievements, a non-significant effect on motivation and a significant positive effect on class atmosphere.
    Keywords: Problem-based learning; Secondary education; Student achievements; Student motivation;Classroom social climate; Randomized experiment
    Date: 2012–02
  5. By: Bouzid, Inès
    Abstract: L’objectif de cette recherche est de comprendre le rôle que peuvent jouer les alliances complémentaires et additives d’une PME pour concilier les innovations d’exploration et les innovations d’exploitation. La compréhension du contexte de la conclusion des alliances par la PME et les liens qui peuvent exister entre les différentes natures des alliances et des innovations étudiées a été conduite selon deux approches. En effet, la recherche réunit les apports d’une approche exploratoire qualitative et ceux d’une étude confirmatoire quantitative. La recherche montre que la conduite des innovations d’exploration et d’exploitation au moyen des alliances stratégiques est influencée par un ensemble de facteurs contextuels, organisationnels et stratégiques. La phase exploratoire a permis de distinguer clairement les alliances de la PME avec l’industrie et celles avec le monde académique. La phase confirmatoire quant à elle a permis d’éclairer les spécificités des différentes alliances des PME en termes de ressources mobilisées, de choix des partenaires, d’objectifs stratégiques et d’innovations conduites. Cette recherche montre que la conciliation des innovations d’exploration et d’exploitation au sein d’une même PME, au moyen de la mise en oeuvre des alliances complémentaires et additives, s’opère avec différentes natures de partenaires.
    Abstract: The aim of this research is to understand the role played by the complementary and additive alliances of Small to Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs) in order to conciliate both explorative and exploitative innovation. The understanding of the context of the conclusion of SMEs alliances and the links which can exist between the various natures of the alliances and the studied innovations was led according to two approaches. In fact, the research brings together both the contributions of a qualitative exploratory approach with those of a quantitative confirmatory study. The research shows that the driving of both explorative and exploitative innovations by means of the strategic alliances is influenced by a set of contextual, organizational and strategic factors. The exploratory phase has allowed distinguishing clearly between the SMEs’s alliances with the industry and those with the academic word. In the other hand, the confirmatory phase has allowed to clarify the specificities of the various alliances of the SMEs in terms of mobilized resources, partner’s choice, strategic objectives and driven innovation. This research shows that the conciliation of explorative and exploitative innovation within the same SMEs, by means of the implementation of the complementary and additive alliances, takes place with various natures of partners.
    Keywords: Explorative innovation; Exploitative innovation; Complementary alliance; Additive alliance; Resources and competencies; SMEs; Innovation d’exploration; Innovation d’exploitation; Alliance complémentaire; Alliance additive; Ressources et compétences; PME;
    JEL: L14 C93 O31
    Date: 2011–12
  6. By: OECD
    Abstract: Information and communication technologies (ICTs) and the Internet are increasingly viewed as a vital infrastructure for all sectors of the economy. Already, employment in the ICT industry and employment of ICT specialist skills each accounts for up to 5% of total employment in OECD countries and ICT intensive-users account for more than 20% of all workers. In addition, the emerging "green" economy is a "smarter" economy that has increased demand for ICT-skilled jobs not only in the ICT sector, but more rapidly across the wider non-ICT economy. The further creation of new jobs can only occur, however, if the right mix of skills and competences are available in the labour market. Shortages of required ICT-related skills have been observed in some OECD countries, and this is particularly true for skills related to green ICTs.
    Date: 2012–04–19

This nep-knm issue is ©2012 by Laura Stefanescu. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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