nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2012‒03‒14
six papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. Knowledge-based economies and the institutional environment By Schilirò, Daniele
  2. Highly skilled temporary return, technological change and Innovation: The Case of the TRQN Project in Afghanistan By Kuschminder, Katie; Siegel, Melissa
  3. Organizational Behavior and Human Resources Management for Public to Private Knowledge Transfer: An Analytic Review of the Literature By Branco Ponomariov; Craig Boardman
  4. Innovation in EU merger control: walking the talk By Reinhilde Veugelers
  5. New Technologies in remittances sending: Opportunities for mobile remittances in Africa By Siegel, Melissa; Fransen, Sonja
  6. Les universités québécoises et l'assurance qualité By Robert Lacroix; Louis Maheu

  1. By: Schilirò, Daniele
    Abstract: Modern economies are increasingly based on knowledge and, more generally, on the intangible assets that favour the economic development. Knowledge-based economies are founded on increasing specialization, research, innovation and learning. The change towards a knowledge-based economy is happening on a global scale, a transformation is taking place in all advanced industrialised economies and many developing economies are also aspiring to reach this target. Knowledge-based economies require some critical requisites to become real and efficient economies. These are the four pillars: education and training, innovation, information infrastructure, the institutional regime. This contribution will focus mainly on one of those pillars: the institutional environment. Thus, after examining the definition and the characteristics of a knowledge-based economy, it focuses on the relationship between knowledge-based economies and the role of institutions. Institutions and the institutional environment play a key role in the development of a knowledge economy, so they do matter. The paper argues that various institutional changes must be introduced and these institutional changes that need to be made will involve the public and private sector, as it has been in the case of the Finland’s economy. In addition, because of the difficulties for the institutions to build and establish itself over time, it is necessary a certain degree of flexibility in the institutional regime and, hence, the ability to respond to uncertainties.
    Keywords: knowledge-based economy; institutional environment; institutions; innovation; learning; development
    JEL: O38 O30 D02 D20 O32 D83
    Date: 2010–11
  2. By: Kuschminder, Katie (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG, Maastricht University); Siegel, Melissa (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: Using the specific case of the International Organization for Migration's (IOM) Temporary Return of Qualified Nationals (TRQN) project, this paper illustrates the effect the short-term return of highly qualified migrants abroad can have on capacity building in the origin country through knowledge transfer, innovation and technological change. The paper specifically examines the needs, expectations and delivery of knowledge through the TRQN project in Afghanistan.
    Keywords: migration, return migration, innovation, technological change, migration and development, Afghanistan
    JEL: O33 O15 J24
    Date: 2012
  3. By: Branco Ponomariov; Craig Boardman
    Abstract: This paper reviews the current academic thinking on knowledge transfer channels between universities and private industry, from a human resource perspective. It also offers a general framework for “re-organising” the literature, so as to identify gaps in the understanding of organisational behavior and human resource management for university-industry knowledge transfer. The review highlights that knowledge transfer channels with highest “relational intensity” are also most valued by industry, and that most knowledge transfer channels are not currently institutionalized or formalized. It concludes that knowledge transfer between universities and industry is characterized by important management challenges, which require an understanding of the extent and nature of individuals’ involvement. However, the existing literature emphasises the outcomes rather than processes of knowledge transfer. Future research looking at knowledge transfer processes at the individual and organizational level of analysis would provide valuable information for better policy-making.<P>Comportement des organisations et gestion des ressources humaines dans le cadre des transferts de connaissances du public vers le privé : Revue analytique de littérature<BR>Ce document donne un état des lieux de la réflexion universitaire sur les différents canaux utilisés pour les transferts de connaissances entre les universités et l’industrie, sous l’angle des ressources humaines. Il propose également un cadre général pour « réorganiser » la littérature existante afin de mettre en évidence les points d’ombre qui subsistent quant au comportement des organisations et à la gestion des ressources humaines dans le cadre des transferts de connaissances du monde universitaire vers l’industrie. L’étude souligne que les canaux de transfert de connaissances caractérisés par une forte « intensité relationnelle » sont aussi les mieux appréciés par l’industrie, et que la plupart des canaux de transfert de connaissances ne sont actuellement pas officialisés ou formalisés. Elle conclut que les transferts de connaissances posent des problèmes en termes de management, qui requièrent une meilleure compréhension de la nature et de la portée de l’engagement des individus. Or, la littérature existante est focalisée sur les résultats et non sur les processus de transfert de connaissances. Des recherches analysant les processus de transferts de connaissances aux niveaux individuel et organisationnel permettraient de produire des informations utiles pour l’élaboration des politiques.
    Date: 2012–03–05
  4. By: Reinhilde Veugelers
    Abstract: European Union policymakers have in principle put innovation at the heart of competitiveness, in particular in the Europe 2020 strategy. But in merger control, assessments of the innovation effects of mergers are inadequate, even though mergers and acquisitions can have a significant impact on the development of the structure of an industry, and on its capability to innovate. EU merger control rules include scope for assessing the innovation effects of mergers, but in practice, the European Commission's directorate-general for competition (DG COMP) is not â??walking the talkâ??. Innovation effects are only assessed when claimed by parties to a merger, and this happens rarely. Where innovation effects have been claimed, they have not been decisive in any case, meaning DG COMP has not considered them important enough to influence its decision. A framework should be put in place that makes the reporting of efficiency-related information by the merging parties mandatory, so that innovation effects can be properly assessed for all mergers. In addition, models can be used to make an assessment of the longer-term innovation effects of a merger, and to help inform decision-making. The author acknowledges the excellent research assistance of Joan de Solà-Morales and Hendrik Meder, and would like to thank Lars-Hendrik Röller for discussing and commenting on earlier versions of the paper.
    Date: 2012–02
  5. By: Siegel, Melissa (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG, University of Maastricht); Fransen, Sonja (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG, University of Maastricht)
    Abstract: Mobile remittances have a high development potential as they hold the promise of providing quick, easy and cheap money transfers. In Africa mobile phone usage has increased sharply and mobile banking providers are extending their services, enabling greater opportunities for mobile remittances. The rise of mobile banking in Africa, however, differs substantially across countries, mainly due to a lack of financial infrastructure. Consequently, the opportunities that mobile banking offers for mobile remittances vary geographically. The services provided do not always meet the needs of remittance senders and the African remittances market is generally under-acknowledged as an important market by providers. Restrictive financial regulations play a key role as well. Mobile remittances have the potential to become an important and revolutionary tool for remittances sending in Africa. Effective policies should therefore address the limitations in the regulatory and financial infrastructure for mobile banking to become the foundation for mobile remittances.
    Keywords: Remittances, mobile remittances, Africa, innovation, technology, development
    JEL: F24 L63 O15 O17 O33
    Date: 2012
  6. By: Robert Lacroix; Louis Maheu
    Abstract: <P> S’intéressant de plus en plus à la qualité des services offerts par les universités québécoises, le Gouvernement du Québec a demandé au Conseil supérieur de l’éducation de faire une consultation sur la question de l’assurance qualité appliquée au système universitaire québécois. Le but de cette note est de présenter quelques réflexions sur ce sujet, sans nécessairement faire le tour complet de cette vaste question, et de proposer, pour des raisons qui seront explicitées ultérieurement, la création d’un Conseil québécois de l’enseignement supérieur et de la recherche universitaire.
    Date: 2012–02–01

This nep-knm issue is ©2012 by Laura Stefanescu. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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