nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2009‒09‒11
five papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. "Territorial innovation dynamics: a knowledge based perspective" By Karine Roux; Rani Jeanne Dang; Catherine Thomas; Christian Longhi; D. Talbot
  2. Constructing Epistemic Landscapes: Methods of GIS-Based Mapping By Evers, Hans-Dieter; Genschick, Sven; Schraven, Benjamin
  3. Territorial Capital and Regional Growth: Increasing Returns in Cognitive Knowledge Use By Roberta Capello; Andrea Caragliu; Peter Nijkamp
  4. L'Intelligence Economique et la gestion des connaissances au service des organisations : entre outils communicationnels et informationnels By Audrey Knauf; Stéphane Goria
  5. Successful organizational learning in the management of agricultural research and innovation: The Mexican produce foundations By Ekboir, Javier M.; Dutrénit, Gabriela; Martínez V., Griselda; Vargas, Arturo Torres; Vera-Cruz, Alexandre O.

  1. By: Karine Roux (CEREFIGE - Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine - INPL); Rani Jeanne Dang (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR6227 - Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis); Catherine Thomas (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR6227 - Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis); Christian Longhi (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR6227 - Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis); D. Talbot (GREThA - Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée - CNRS : UMR5113 - Université Montesquieu - Bordeaux IV)
    Abstract: A great deal of studies has focused on the role played by geographical location on the emergence and the building of localised learning capacities (Maskell, Malmberg, 1999). In this perspective, empirical studies have demonstrated that innovation dynamics of clusters results from the quality of interactions and coordination inside the cluster as well as interactions with external, often global, networks. In this context, knowledge exchange between firms and institutions are claimed to be the main drivers of spatial agglomeration (Canals et al, 2008). Hence, cluster policies have followed the main idea that geographic proximity facilitates collective innovation in so far as firms can capture knowledge externalities more easily. This idea is in fact very attractive but contains some limits (Suire et Vicente, 2007): if some clusters are successful others seem to decline. Therefore, in order to understand the territorial dynamics of clusters, the analysis of the specific nature of knowledge and information flows within a cluster is crucial. The objective of the paper is to enhance the analysis of the role of cognitive and relational dimensions of interactions on territorial dynamics of innovation. We focus on the key sub process of innovation: knowledge creation, which is above all a social process based on two key complex social mechanisms: the exchange and the combination of knowledge (Nahapiet and Goshal, 1996). We suggest building a theoretical framework that hinges on these two key mechanisms. In this perspective, we mobilise Boisot's I-Space model (Boisot, 1998) for the diffusion and exchange of knowledge and suggest completing the model by introducing the concept of architectural knowledge (Henderson and Clark, 1990) so as to take the complexity of the combination process into consideration. This analysis is conducted through the illustrative analysis of three different case studies. We will draw upon the case of Aerospace Valley Pole of Competitiveness (PoC), The Secured Communicating Solutions PoC, and Fabelor Competence Cluster. The cases show that the existence of architectural knowledge is pivotal to territorial innovation.
    Keywords: Architectural Knowledge, I-Space Model, Territorial Innovation, Geographical Clusters, Knowledge Management
    Date: 2009–07–06
  2. By: Evers, Hans-Dieter; Genschick, Sven; Schraven, Benjamin
    Abstract: The construction of knowledge maps, demonstrated in this paper, is designed to show the epistemic landscape of cities, countries or regions. Knowledge assets, knowledge producing and disseminating organisations are referenced to spatial objects and integrated into GIS. They are further represented in thematic maps and in 3-D perspective graphs. Special attention is given to mapping and measuring knowledge clusters. Statistical procedures to measure the degree of knowledge clustering are discussed and ways are indicated to compare and determine the emergence of knowledge clusters. We conclude that the construction of knowledge maps showing the complexity of epistemic landscapes will enhance the chances of government agencies, companies and civic organisations to understand and use knowledge for development. This paper is in the first place meant as guideline for the related analysis.
    Keywords: Knowledge and development; knowledge maps; epistemic landscapes; knowledge clusters; Geographic Information System (GIS)
    JEL: N55 C82 C14 A1 C0 M19 O53 O2 B4 D8 O3 B41
    Date: 2009–08–02
  3. By: Roberta Capello (Politecnico di Milano, Italy); Andrea Caragliu (Politecnico di Milano, Italy, VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands); Peter Nijkamp (VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
    Abstract: Knowledge drives the growth of nations and regions in a competitive space-economy. Hence, we would expect a strong correlation between investments in R&D, knowledge and learning processes, on the one hand, and productivity increases, on the other. However, the empirical evidence shows consistent discrepancies between knowledge inputs and economic performance across geographical units. This paper addresses this intriguing issue at the regional level, by highlighting both theoretically and empirically the strategic importance played by cognitive elements as part of “territorial capital” in mediating between knowledge production and regional growth. The main proposition of the paper, subject to empirical testing, is that cognitive elements as part of territorial capital magnify the contribution of knowledge by determining the formation of increasing returns to knowledge exploitation.
    Keywords: territorial; capital; regional growth; cognitive; knowledge; rivalry; R&D
    JEL: R11 R15 R58
    Date: 2009–07–28
  4. By: Audrey Knauf (LORIA - SITE - INRIA - CNRS : UMR7503 - Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy I - Université Nancy II - Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine - INPL); Stéphane Goria (LORIA - SITE - INRIA - CNRS : UMR7503 - Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy I - Université Nancy II - Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine - INPL)
    Abstract: Il existe aujourd'hui une catégorie spécifique d'organisations qui prend la forme de dispositifs territoriaux d'appui aux entreprises avec pour principal objectif : l'aide à la décision par, notamment, des services personnalisés de fourniture d'informations élaborées. Ces dispositifs peuvent prendre diverses formes dont celles : de clusters d'entreprises, de pôles de compétitivité ou encore de dispositifs régionaux d'intelligence économique (DRIE) en partie développés sous la forme de portails d'information et d'assistance informationnelle développés par des institutions ou collectivités territoriales. Dans le cadre de nos travaux, nous avons souhaité mieux comprendre les caractéristiques de ces organisations fondées sur des réseaux de connaissances sur un même territoire. Notre intérêt s'est particulièrement porté sur la mise en œuvre par ces organisations de leurs moyens humains, outils, méthodes et autres services d'IE, de prospective ou d'aide au partage de connaissances. Dans cet ordre d'idées, nous soulignons l'importance de la coordination des activités et des acteurs de ces dispositifs ou de leurs partenaires à partir de deux groupes d'enquêtes. Le premier groupe rassemble deux enquêtes (réalisées à partir d'interviews de représentants de ces organisations) menées auprès de dispositifs d'intelligence économique (dont des DRIE, des pôles de compétitivité et des clusters d'entreprises). L'autre groupe contient deux enquêtes consacrées uniquement aux pôles de compétitivité (l'une sur 49 pôles à partir d'informations collectées sur leur site web et l'autre sur 12 pôles à partir de questionnements par mails).
    Keywords: gestion des connaissances, metier, coordination, mediation, intermediation, dispositif d'intelligence economique, intelligence territoriale, veille strategique, reseau, reseaux de connaissances, reseaux humains, cluster d'entreprise, pôle de compétitivité, innovation, creativite, gestion des risques, territoire
    Date: 2009–06–15
  5. By: Ekboir, Javier M.; Dutrénit, Gabriela; Martínez V., Griselda; Vargas, Arturo Torres; Vera-Cruz, Alexandre O.
    Abstract: "Since the 1980s, developing countries' agriculture has become more complex and diversified. In general, the public research and extension institutions in these countries were criticized for not participating in the emergence of the most dynamic agricultural markets. In recent years, many of these institutions have struggled to adapt to the new environment but they could not overcome the hurdles posed by organizational rigidities, strict public regulations, deteriorating human capital, shrinking budgets and a model of science that hampered their integration into dynamic innovation processes. In general, developing countries applied similar agricultural research policies: separation of financing and implementation of research, reductions in direct budgetary allocations to research and extension institutions, elimination or major reduction of public extension, and introduction of competitive grants programs to induce a transformation of research organizations. Strong anecdotal information suggests that these policies had limited impact on the quality and pertinence of research, and on the performance of the public research institutions. Using a different set of instruments, the Mexican Produce Foundations (PF) had major and diverse impacts on the agricultural innovation and research systems. These impacts resulted mostly from activities the PF introduced as they learned to manage funds for research and extension, and to a lesser extent from the activities they were created for, i.e., manage a competitive fund for agricultural research and extension. The PF were able to introduce these activities because they developed strong abilities to learn, including identifying knowledge gaps and defining strategies to fill them. The questions this report seeks to answer are how an organization that manages public funds for research and extension could sustain organizational innovations over extended periods, and how it could learn and adapt to maximize its impact on the agricultural innovation system. Previous studies found that human resources, organizational cultures and governance structures are three of the most important factors influencing institutional change and innovative capabilities. Despite their importance, these factors have been largely neglected in the literature on agricultural research and extension policies. This document analyzes what role these factors played in the Mexican experience." from text
    Keywords: Agricultural research, Agricultural innovation, Developing countries,
    Date: 2009

This nep-knm issue is ©2009 by Laura Stefanescu. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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