nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2009‒06‒10
eleven papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. Knowledge Management in the SME and its Relationship to Strategy, Family Orientation and Organization Learning By Zhou, H.; Uhlaner, L.M.
  2. How does tacit knowledge transfer influence innovation speed? The case of science based entrepreneurial firms By Knockaert, M.; Ucbasaran, D.; Wright, M.; Clarysse, B.
  3. Knowledge Management as a Strategic Tool to Foster Innovativeness of SMEs By Zhou, H.; Uhlaner, L.M.
  4. Network-independent partner selection and the evolution of innovation networks By Baum, Joel; Cowan, Robin; Jonard, Nicolas
  5. Localized introduction of biased technological change and productivity growth. The empirical evidence in the Italian manufacturing industry By Antonelli Cristiano; Scellato Giuseppe
  6. Intellectual Property and Traditional Knowledge By WIPO WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ORGANIZATION.
  7. PKN: The Challenge of Building a Virtual Knowledge Network to Address Food and Agribusiness Management Research, Service and Training Needs By Braga, Francesco; Antorini, Matteo; Gandolfi, Pietro
  8. Managing organizational change: Application of the Biomatrix theory to the transformation of a non-profit organization By Anke Wigger
  9. The Organization of the Innovation Industry: Entrepreneurs, Venture Capitalists and Oligopolists By Norbäck, Pehr-Johan; Persson, Lars
  10. Knowledge sourcing: legitimacy deficits for MNC subsidiaries? By Schmidt, Tobias; Sofka, Wolfgang
  11. Does Knowledge-Based Economy Speaks to Consumers? A French Case Study with Respect to Food Products By Giraud, Georges; Lebecque, Annick; Amblard, Corinne; Bord, Cecile; Sulmont-Rosse, Claire; Lefur, Yves

  1. By: Zhou, H.; Uhlaner, L.M. (Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), RSM Erasmus University)
    Abstract: In this study, we examine the prevalence of different KM practices and the organizational determinants of KM among SMEs by conducting a quantitative study of empirical data from nearly 500 Dutch SMEs. Our empirical results show that knowledge is managed in a people-based approach in SMEs. SMEs are most likely to acquire knowledge by staying in touch with professionals and experts outside the company and they incline to share knowledge and experience by talking to each other. Furthermore, KM is dependent on other organizational resources and processes. Organizational learning and competitive strategy with a formality approach are the positive determinants of KM while family orientation is a negative determinant of it. One of the challenges in the current study was to clearly distinguish, on an empirical basis, the previously defined concepts of knowledge management practices and organizational learning. Although in theory, they are distinct, the results of this study lead us to conclude that they may overlap in practice. In the conclusion, we recommend a learning-oriented knowledge management model for SMEs which combines aspects of the two literatures.
    Keywords: knowledge management;strategy;family orientation;organizational learning;SMEs
    Date: 2009–05–11
  2. By: Knockaert, M.; Ucbasaran, D.; Wright, M.; Clarysse, B. (Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School)
    Abstract: The increased pressure put on public research institutes to commercialize their research results has given rise to an increased academic interest in technology transfer in general and science based entrepreneurial firms specifically. By building on innovation speed and knowledge literatures, this paper aims to improve understanding of how tacit knowledge can be effectively transferred from the research institute to the science based entrepreneurial firm. More specifically, we assess under which conditions tacit knowledge contributes to the generation of innovation speed, which is a crucial success parameter for technology based ventures. Using an inductive case study approach, we show that tacit knowledge can only be transferred effectively when a substantial part of the original research team joins the new venture as founders. Our analysis also reveals that the mere transfer of tacit knowledge is insufficient to ensure the successful commercialization of technology. Commercial expertise is also required on the condition that the cognitive distance between the scientific researchers and the person responsible for market interaction is not too large. Our findings have implications for science based entrepreneurs, technology transfer officers, venture capitalists, policy makers and the academic community.
    Keywords: science based entrepreneurial firms; tacit knowledge; technology transfer; innovation speed; cognitive distance
    Date: 2009–04–04
  3. By: Zhou, H.; Uhlaner, L.M. (Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), RSM Erasmus University)
    Abstract: This study examines the relationship between knowledge management (KM) (in terms of external acquisition and internal sharing) and innovation behavior. The concept of absorptive capacity and assumptions from the dynamic capabilities view underlie the proposed framework and hypotheses. The framework is empirically tested using a random sample of 649 Dutch small to medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Our empricial results indicate that external acquisition practices play a key role in fostering SMEs’ innovativeness while internal sharing practices do not appear to have a significant influence. External acquisition activity enhances a firm’s awareness of available knowledge opportunities. Firms which actively acquire external knowledge (regardless of the type of knowledge) may build a greater competitive dynamic capability to sense and seize business opportunities which in turn may lead to new or improved products or processes. We suggest that owners/entrepreneurs of SMEs and their firms will benefit in the long term if they strategically manage knowledge, especially using external acquisition practices.
    Keywords: knowledge management;absorptive capacity;innovation orientation;innovation behavior;SMEs
    Date: 2009–05–11
  4. By: Baum, Joel (Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto); Cowan, Robin (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University); Jonard, Nicolas (Universite du Luxembourg)
    Abstract: Empirical research on strategic alliances has focused on the idea that alliance partners are selected on the basis of social capital considerations. In this paper we emphasize instead the role of complementary knowledge stocks (broadly defined) in partner selection, arguing not only that knowledge complementarity should not be overlooked, but that is may be the true causal force behind alliance formation. To marshal evidence on this point, we design a simple model of partner selection in which firms ally for the purpose if learning and innovating, and in doing so create an industry network. We abstract completely from network-based structural and strategic motives for partner selection and focus instead on the idea that firms' knowledge bases must "fit" in order for joint learning and innovation to be possible, and thus for an alliance to be feasible. The striking result is what while containing no social capital considerations, the simple model replicates the firm conduct, network structure, and contingent effects of network position on performance observed and discussed in the empirical literature.
    Keywords: Network formation and dynamics, Innovation, Knowledge, Alliances
    JEL: D85 D24 L14 L24 O33
    Date: 2009
  5. By: Antonelli Cristiano (University of Turin); Scellato Giuseppe
    Abstract: The features of the industrial system within which innovation processes take place affect the pace and the characteristics of the innovation processes and influence their evolution. The analysis of the industrial structure and of the innovation strategies of firms cannot be separated. The introduction of general technological changes that concern mainly the position rather than the slope of the maps of isoquants characterize the innovation process of large corporations. Small manufacturing firms instead rely upon technological knowledge implemented by means of learning processes and introduce technological changes typically characterized by a bias finalized to make the most efficient use of locally abundant production factors. Their contribution to economic growth in terms of total factor productivity is important and can be grasped only when the role of output elasticity of production factors in growth accounting is properly appreciated. The empirical evidence for a sample of 6000 Italian firms in the years 1997-2005 confirms that localized technological changes were mainly introduced by small firms with low levels of profitability and high wages and had significant positive effects on their economic efficiency.
    Date: 2009–08
    Abstract: Indigenous and local communities justly cherish traditional knowledge (TK) as a part of their very cultural identities. Maintaining the distinct knowledge systems that give rise to TK can be vital for their future well-being and sustainable development and for their intellectual and cultural vitality. For many communities, TK forms part of an holistic world-view, and is inseparable from their very ways of life and their cultural values, spiritual beliefs and customary legal systems. This means that it is vital to sustain not merely the knowledge but the social and physical environment of which it forms an integral part.[WIPO NO 2; 920(E)]
    Keywords: Traditional Knowledge; Defensive Protection; Intellectual Property
    Date: 2009
  7. By: Braga, Francesco; Antorini, Matteo; Gandolfi, Pietro
    Abstract: The Parma Agribusiness Research & Management Knowledge Network, PARMaKN (PKN in the article) is an innovative public-private partnership, focused on the development of advanced food and agribusiness management research and service activities. PKN was launched in Parma in July 2007 by Societaâ Parmense per gli Insediamenti Produttivi (SPIP), the economic development corporation of the City of Parma. This paper presents the vision, mission and medium term activity plan of PKN.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2008–10
  8. By: Anke Wigger (BiomatrixWeb)
    Date: 2008
  9. By: Norbäck, Pehr-Johan (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Persson, Lars (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: We construct a model where incumbents can either acquire basic innovations from entrepreneurs, or wait and acquire developed innovations from entrepreneurial firms supported by venture capitalists. We show that venture-backed entrepreneurial firms have an incentive to overinvest in development vis à vis incumbents due to strategic product market effects on the sales price of a developed innovation. This will trigger preemptive acquisitions by incumbents, thus increasing the reward for entrepreneurial innovations. We also show that venture capital can emerge in equilibrium if venture capitalists have cost advantages, or if development is associated with double moral hazard problems.
    Keywords: Acquisitions; Entrepreneurship; Innovation; Venture Capital
    JEL: G24 L10 L20 M13 O30
    Date: 2009–01–02
  10. By: Schmidt, Tobias; Sofka, Wolfgang
    Abstract: Multinational corporations (MNC) search increasingly for lead market knowledge and technological expertise around the globe. We investigate whether their subsidiaries gain access to these valuable sources of host country knowledge to the same degree as domestic rivals. We develop a theoretical framework for “why” and “how” a lack of embeddedness and legitimacy (liability of foreignness) may translate into additional obstacles for foreign subsidiaries. We test these hypotheses empirically using a broad dataset of more than 1,000 innovative firms in Germany. We find that MNCs can compete on an equal footing with host country competitors when it comes to generating impulses for innovations from universities. They are significantly challenged by liabilities of foreignness, though, when host country customers are involved. The disadvantages are especially pronounced when the host country industry is at the technological forefront. We suggest that the disadvantages arising from liability of foreignness in the host country are particularly relevant when promising lead customers have to be identified and their tacit and often unarticulated impulses have to be transferred, understood and prioritized.
    Keywords: Liability of foreignness, knowledge spillover, globalization
    JEL: D83 F23 O31 O32
    Date: 2009
  11. By: Giraud, Georges; Lebecque, Annick; Amblard, Corinne; Bord, Cecile; Sulmont-Rosse, Claire; Lefur, Yves
    Abstract: The paradigm of knowledge-based economy states that information asymmetry between consumers and producers will be reduced thanks to information availability and dissemination through the Internet or other media channels. Conversely to this statement, some published articles shown that knowledge-based economy reinforces the information asymmetry between experts and novices among the consumers (Hogg et al., 2007; Gregan-Paxton & Roedder-John, 1997; Alba & Hutchinson, 1987). Accordingly, we will consider the non homogeneity of consumers and will try to identify and qualify the differences between several groups of respondents regarding two food items by means of a k-means clustering applied to a knowledge-oriented questionnaire.
    Keywords: Consumer Knowledge, Clustering, Wine, Cheese, France, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2008–10

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