nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2009‒05‒30
five papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. Technology Innovation and Diffusion as Sources of Output and Asset Price Fluctuations By Diego Comin; Mark Gertler; Ana Maria Santacreu
  2. How ’Open ’ is Innovation in the US and Japan?: Evidence from the RIETI-Georgia Tech inventor survey By John P. Walsh; Sadao Nagaoka
  3. Innovative firms or innovative owners ? determinants of innovation in micro, small, and medium enterprises By de Mel, Suresh; McKenzie, David; Woodruff, Christopher
  4. National Innovation System in the Era of Liberalization: Implications for Science and Technology Policy for Developing Economies By Singh, Lakhwinder; Singh, Baldev
  5. Complementarity between private and public investment in R&D: A Dynamic Panel Data analysis By Sadraoui Tarek; Naceur Ben Zina

  1. By: Diego Comin (Harvard Business School, Business, Government and the International Economy Unit); Mark Gertler (New York University, Department of Economics); Ana Maria Santacreu (New York University, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: We develop a model in which innovations in an economy's growth potential are an important driving force of the business cycle. The framework shares the emphasis of the recent "new shock" literature on revisions of beliefs about the future as a source of fluctuations, but differs by tieing these beliefs to fundamentals of the evolution of the technology frontier. An important feature of the model is that the process of moving to the frontier involves costly technology adoption. In this way, news of improved growth potential has a positive effect on current hours. As we show, the model also has reasonable implications for stock prices. We estimate our model for data post-1984 and show that the innovations shock accounts for nearly a third of the variation in output at business cycle frequencies. The estimated model also accounts reasonably well for the large gyration in stock prices over this period. Finally, the endogenous adoption mechanism plays a significant role in amplifying other shocks.
    Keywords: Business Cycles, Endogenous Technology Adoption, News Shocks, Stock Market.
    JEL: E3 O3
    Date: 2009–06
  2. By: John P. Walsh; Sadao Nagaoka
    Abstract: While individual inventors are key to technological progress, it is becoming increasingly necessary for inventors and their firms to exploit information and capabilities outside the firm in order to combine onefs own resources with resources from the external environment. To better understand the collaborative process in inventions, we collected detailed information on a sample of triadic patents, focusing on the invention process, sources of ideas, and collaboration (the RIETI-Georgia Tech inventor survey), with over 1900 responses from the US and over 3600 responses from Japan. Our results suggest that in both countries, just over 10% of inventions involved an external co-inventor and about 30% involved external (non-co-inventor) collaborators (with the rate of collaboration somewhat higher in Japan). Cross-organizational co-inventions increase as firm size declines, especially in Japan. In both countries, vertical collaborations (both co-inventions and other collaborations) with users and suppliers were the most common. The most important knowledge sources were similar in the two countries: patents, customers, publications, and information from other parts of the firm, although their relative rankings varied somewhat. In particular, patent literature is a relatively more important information source in Japan and scientific literature is relatively more important in the US. Since our evidence suggest that inventors see literature globally, such difference does not seem to be driven by the difference of the disclosed literature (for an example, more early patent disclosure in Japan) as suggested by earlier literature but by that of the incentive and capability of the inventors. While in both countries most R&D funding is provided internally, venture capital and government funding play a greater role in the US than in Japan, with venture capital funds especially important for the smallest US firms. On the other hand, industry funding plays a greater role for university researchersf inventions in Japan. There is some evidence that gopen innovationh through collaborations enhances not only the technical significance of the invention, but also the probability of its commercialization through, for an example, vertical collaboration facilitating better matches between the needs of customers or the capabilities of suppliers.
    Date: 2009–05
  3. By: de Mel, Suresh; McKenzie, David; Woodruff, Christopher
    Abstract: Innovation is key to technology adoption and creation, and to explaining the vast differences in productivity across and within countries. Despite the central role of the entrepreneur in the innovation process, data limitations have restricted standard analysis of the determinants of innovation to consideration of the role of firm characteristics. The authors develop a model of innovation that incorporates the role of both owner and firm characteristics, and use this to determine how product, process, marketing, and organizational innovations should vary with firm size and competition. They then use a new, large, representative survey from Sri Lanka to test this model and to examine whether and how owner characteristics matter for innovation. The survey also allows analysis of the incidence of innovation in micro and small firms, which have traditionally been overlooked in the study of innovation, despite these firms comprising the majority of firms in developing countries. The analysis finds that more than one-quarter of the microenterprises are engaging in innovation, with marketing innovations the most common. As predicted by the model, firm size has a stronger positive effect, and competition a stronger negative effect, on process and organizational innovations than on product innovations. Owner ability, personality traits, and ethnicity have a significant and substantial impact on the likelihood of a firm innovating, confirming the importance of the entrepreneur in the innovation process.
    Keywords: E-Business,Education for Development (superceded),Innovation,Labor Policies,Microfinance
    Date: 2009–05–01
  4. By: Singh, Lakhwinder; Singh, Baldev
    Abstract: The national system of innovations in the recent phase of globalization has undergone dramatic structural transformation. Innovations entails organizational as well as changes in the rules of the game. The history of economic development of the developing and newly industrializing economies shows that national systems of innovation have evolved keeping in view the most pressing requirements of the national economic development. The knowledge generation and transmission are the two essential characteristics of national innovation system that connects the users and producers of knowledge and also allows institutional arrangements to functions as a feedback system. The institutional arrangements are being altered substantially to allow capital to move freely across national borders on the one side and strict trade related intellectual property rights on the other. How these arrangements have affected the national system of innovation both in the developed and developing countries during the recent liberalisation phase of economic development? In this paper an attempt has been made to provide some plausible answers to this question. Input and output indicators have been used with a view to unravel the dramatic structural changes occurring both in the economic and innovation structure of the global economy. The internationalisation of R&D expenditure and its implications for revealed comparative advantage have been examined in order to understand the direction of change during the era of liberalisation. The suitable changes in the science and technology policy have been suggested to strengthen the national system of innovation for generating unique competitive advantage in the developing countries.
    Keywords: National system of innovation; structural transformation; input and output measures of innovations; revealed competitive advantage; public policy; internationalisation of R&D; intellectual property rights
    JEL: O1 O3 O31
    Date: 2009–05–20
  5. By: Sadraoui Tarek (LORIA - ABC (Apprentissage et Biologie Computationnelle) - CNRS : UMR7503 - INRIA - Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy I - Université Nancy II - Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine); Naceur Ben Zina (LORIA - ABC (Apprentissage et Biologie Computationnelle) - CNRS : UMR7503 - INRIA - Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy I - Université Nancy II - Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between private and public investment in R&D, while taking into account the effect of several instruments policies such as subsidies and taxes. We design a new look of knowledge spillovers and R&D cooperation to explain the contribution of public and private R&D on growth. We propose a heterogeneous dynamic panel data model to consider the endogenous effect of R&D investment. We also distinguish between the estimated long and short run results. Our results based on a sample of 23 countries over the period 1992-2004 indicate that both public and private investments in R&D are complementary. By establishing an endogenous growth model, the estimates indicate that public and private R&D depends on the host country's human capital investment. Results indicate that foreign direct investment is a more significant spillover channel than imports.
    Keywords: R&D investment; Technology Spillovers; Complementarities; Economic growth; Dynamic Panel Data; Cointegration; Unit root test; Private investment; Public investment; R&D cooperation
    Date: 2009–07–01

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