nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2009‒05‒23
fifteen papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. The effects of knowledge management on innovative success - an empirical analysis of German firms By Uwe Cantner; Kristin Joel; Tobias Schmidt
  2. Knowledge Coherence, Variety and Productivity Growth: Manufacturing Evidence from Italian Regions By Francesco Quatraro
  3. Evolution of the Knowledge Base in Knowledge Intensive Sectors By Krafft Jackie; Quatraro Francesco; Saviotti Paolo
  4. Managing Knowledge, Creating Networks and Triggering Innovations for Sustainable Agriculture By Anil K Gupta
  5. Innovation, spillovers, and university-industry collaboration: An extended knowledge production function approach By Roderik Ponds; Frank van Oort; Koen Frenken
  6. Innovation, R&D Efficiency and the Impact of the Regulatory Environment : A Two-Stage Semi-Parametric DEA Approach By Astrid Cullmann; Jens Schmidt-Ehmcke; Petra Zloczysti
  7. The distinct effects of Information Technology and Communication Technology on firm organization By Nicholas Bloom; Luis Garicano; Raffaella Sadun; John Van Reenen
  8. Mergers, Innovation, and Productivity: Evidence from Japanese manufacturing firms By HOSONO Kaoru; TAKIZAWA Miho; TSURU Kotaro
  9. How should we support pharmaceutical innovation? By Paul Grootendorst
  10. The Role of R&D and Technology Diffusion in Climate Change Mitigation: New Perspectives Using the Witch Model By Valentina Bosetti; Carlo Carraro; Romain Duval; Alessandra Sgobbi; Massimo Tavoni
  11. Is corporate R&D investment in high-tech sectors more effective? Some guidelines for European research policy By Raquel Ortega-Argiles; Mariacristina Piva; Lesley Potters; Marco Vivarelli
  12. Innovations technologiques, mobilité et demande de main-d’oeuvre qualifiée. Une analyse des industries tunisiennes (Technological innovations, mobility and skilled-labour deamnd : an analysis of tunisian industries). By Sami SAAFI
  13. New Rationales for Innovation Policy? A Comparison of the Systems of Innovation Policy Approach and the Neoclassical Perspective By Alexandra Schröter
  14. Decentralized Organizational Learning: An Experimental Investigation By Andreas Blume; John Duffy; April Mitchell Franco
  15. Venture Capitalism, New Markets and Innovation-led Economic Growth By Cristiano Antonelli; Morris Teubal

  1. By: Uwe Cantner (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Chair of Economics / Microeconomics); Kristin Joel (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Chair of Economics / Microeconomics); Tobias Schmidt (Deutsche Bundesbank, Economic Research Centre)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse the effects of knowledge management on the innovation success of firms in Germany. Using a matching procedure on data from the German Innovation Survey of 2003 ("Mannheim Innovation Panel"), we pair firms applying knowledge management with twin firms with similar characteristics not applying knowledge management. Our focus is on investigating the effects of knowledge management techniques on the economic success of firms with product and process innovations. The results of our matching analysis reveal that firms which apply knowledge management perform better in terms of higher-than-average shares of turnover with innovative products compared to their twins. We do not find a significant effect of knowledge management on the share of cost reductions with process innovation.
    Keywords: knowledge management, innovation, matching estimator
    JEL: O32 L23 L25 M11
    Date: 2009–05–13
  2. By: Francesco Quatraro
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effects of the evolution of knowledge base in the manufacturing sectors on regional productivity growth. Knowledge is viewed as a heterogeneous asset, and an evolutionary perspective is adopted. The results of the empirical estimations corroborate the hypothesis that beyond the traditional measure of knowledge stock, knowledge coherence and variety matter in shaping productivity dynamics. The check for spatial dependence suggests that cross-regional externalities exert additional triggering effects on productivity growth, without debasing the effects of knowledge. Important policy implications stem from the analysis, in that regional innovation strategies should be carefully coordinated so as to reach a higher degree of internal coherence and exert positive effects on productivity.
    Keywords: knowledge, variety, regional growth, productivity
    JEL: O33 R11
    Date: 2009–02
  3. By: Krafft Jackie; Quatraro Francesco (University of Turin); Saviotti Paolo
    Date: 2009–05
  4. By: Anil K Gupta
    Abstract: "The paper discusses the major knowledge gaps, stress the importance of peer learning and building upon farmers’ own innovations and suggest new initiatives for transforming extension strategies. The author also argues that focus only on primary production in agricultural will not be viable in the long run. Value addition is necessary and extension for the purpose requires lot of action research. Village Knowledge Management Systems (VKMS) need to be developed for which a proposal has already been submitted to the Department of Science and Technology. An outline of the same is given in the paper to trigger further discussion. Farmers suicides in many states should have warranted a review of extension strategies much earlier. The proposed model aims to develop and monitor early warning signals of the socio ecological stress and recommend real time solutions.[IIMA- WP NO- 2009-03-05]"
    Keywords: knowledge management; horizontal knowledge networks;long term sustainability; Honey Bee Network; sustainable agriculture; natural resource management; private and common property rights institutions; non-monetary technologies; Knowledge gaps; National Centre for Integrated Pest Management; Transferring Science for Development and Diffusion of Dryland Technology; Newsweek; indicators of sustainability; Central Scientific Instruments Organization; micro level weather data
    Date: 2009
  5. By: Roderik Ponds; Frank van Oort; Koen Frenken
    Abstract: This paper analyses the effect of knowledge spillovers from academic research on regional innovation. Spillovers are localized to the extent that the underlying mechanisms are geographically bounded. However, university-industry collaboration - as one of the carriers of knowledge spillovers - is not limited to the regional scale. Consequently, we expect spillovers to take place over longer distances. The effect of university-industry collaboration networks on knowledge spillovers is modelled using an extended knowledge production function framework applied to regions in the Netherlands. We find that the impact of academic research on regional innovation is mediated not only by geographical proximity but also by social networks stemming from collaboration networks.
    Keywords: knowledge production function, knowledge spillovers, university-industry collaboration, innovation, social networks
    JEL: C21 O18 O31 R11
    Date: 2009–02
  6. By: Astrid Cullmann; Jens Schmidt-Ehmcke; Petra Zloczysti
    Abstract: This paper assesses the relative efficiency of knowledge production in the OECD using a nonparametric DEA approach. Resources allocated to R&D are limited and should therefore be used efficiently given the institutional and legal constraints. This paper presents efficiency scores based on an intertemporal frontier estimation for the period 1995 to 2004 and analyzes the impact of the regulatory environment using the single bootstrap procedure suggested by Simar and Wilson (2007). The empirical evidence supports the hypothesis that barriers to entry, aimed at reducing competition, lower research efficiency by attenuating the incentive to innovate and to allocate resources efficiently.
    Keywords: R&D efficiency, data envelopment analysis, truncated regression, regulation
    JEL: C14 C24 L50 O31 O57
    Date: 2009
  7. By: Nicholas Bloom; Luis Garicano; Raffaella Sadun; John Van Reenen
    Abstract: Empirical studies on information communication technologies (ICT) typically aggregate the "information" and "communication" components together. We show theoretically and empirically that these have very different effects on the empowerment of employees, and by extension on wage inequality. If managerial hierarchies are devices to acquire and transmit knowledge and information, technologies that reduce information costs enable agents to acquire more knowledge and 'empower' lower level agents. Conversely, technologies reducing communication costs substitute agent's knowledge for directions from their managers, and lead to centralization. Using an original dataset of firms in the US and seven European countries we study the impact of ICT on worker autonomy, plant manager autonomy and spans of control. Consistently with the theory we find that better information technologies (Enterprise Resource Planning for plant managers and CAD/CAM for production workers) are associated with more autonomy and a wider span of control. By contrast, communication technologies (like data networks) decrease autonomy for both workers and plant managers. Our findings are robust to using exogenous variation in cross-country telecommunication costs arising from differential regulatory regimes.
    JEL: F23 O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2009–05
  8. By: HOSONO Kaoru; TAKIZAWA Miho; TSURU Kotaro
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of merger on innovation and efficiency using a micro dataset of Japanese manufacturing firms including unlisted firms during the period of 1995-1999. We find that the acquirer's total factor productivity (TFP) decreases immediately after mergers and does not significantly recover to the pre-merger level within three years after mergers. We also find that the R&D intensity does not significantly change after mergers in spite of a significant increase in the debt-to-asset ratio. Our results suggest that the costs of business integration are large and persistent. To take into considering large integration costs, we also analyze the post-merger performance from one year after mergers, finding no significant increase in TFP or R&D intensity up to three years after mergers. Given the heterogeneity of mergers, we analyze the post-merger performance by classifying merger types. We find that the recovery of TFP after mergers is significant for mergers across industries or within the same business group, suggesting that a synergy effect works well and integration costs are small for those types of mergers.
    Date: 2009–04
  9. By: Paul Grootendorst
    Abstract: The question as to how society should support pharmaceutical (‘pharma’) innovation is both pertinent and timely: Pharma drugs are an integral component of modern health care and hold the promise to treat more effectively various debilitating health problems. The rate of pharma innovation, however, has declined since the 1980s. Many observers question whether the patent system is capable of providing the appropriate incentives for pharma innovation and point to several promising alternative mechanisms. These mechanisms include both ‘push’ programs – subsidies directed towards the cost of pharma R&D – and ‘pull’ programs – lumpsum rewards for the outputs of pharma R&D, that is, new drugs. I review evidence why our current system of pharma patents is defective and outline the various alternative mechanisms that may spur pharma innovation more effectively.
    Keywords: Pharmaceuticals, R&D, patents, prizes, innovation
    JEL: I18 O34
    Date: 2009–05
  10. By: Valentina Bosetti (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei and CMCC); Carlo Carraro (FEEM, University of Venice, CEPR, CESIFO and CMCC); Romain Duval (OECD, Economics Department); Alessandra Sgobbi (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei and CMCC); Massimo Tavoni (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei and CMCC)
    Abstract: This paper uses the WITCH model, a computable general equilibrium model with endogenous technological change, to explore the impact of various climate policies on energy technology choices and the costs of stabilising greenhouse gas concentrations. Current and future expected carbon prices appear to have powerful effects on R&D spending and clean technology diffusion. Their impact on stabilisation costs depends on the nature of R&D: R&D targeted at incremental energy efficiency improvements has only limited effects, but R&D focused on the emergence of major new low-carbon technologies could lower costs drastically if successful – especially in the non-electricity sector, where such low-carbon options are scarce today. With emissions coming from multiple sources, keeping a wide range of options available matters for stabilisation costs more than improving specific technologies. Due to international knowledge spillovers, stabilisation costs could be further reduced through a complementary, global R&D policy. However, a strong price signal is always required.
    Keywords: Climate policy; Energy R&D; Fund; Stabilisation costs
    JEL: H0 H2 H3 H4 O3 Q32 Q43 Q54
    Date: 2009–02
  11. By: Raquel Ortega-Argiles (European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC); Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS), Sevilla); Mariacristina Piva (Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milano); Lesley Potters (European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC); Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS), Sevilla; Utrecht School of Economics, Utrecht); Marco Vivarelli (European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC); Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS), Sevilla; Universita' Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milano; Institute for the Study of Labour (IZA), Bonn)
    Abstract: This paper discusses the link between R&D and productivity across the European industrial and service sectors. The empirical analysis is based on both the European sectoral OECD data and on a unique micro longitudinal database consisting of 532 top European R&D investors. The main conclusions are as follows. First, the R&D stock has a significant positive impact on labour productivity; this general result is largely consistent with previous literature in terms of the sign, the significance and the magnitude of the estimated coefficients. More interestingly, both at sectoral and firm levels the R&D coefficient increases monotonically (both in significance and magnitude) when we move from the low-tech to the medium and high-tech sectors. This outcome means that corporate R&D investment is more effective in the high-tech sectors and this may need to be taken into account when designing policy instruments (subsidies, fiscal incentives, etc.) in support of private R&D. However, R&D investment is not the sole source of productivity gains; technological change embodied in gross investment is of comparable importance on aggregate and is the main determinant of productivity increase in the low-tech sectors. Hence, an economic policy aiming to increase productivity in the low-tech sectors should support overall capital formation.
    Keywords: R&D, productivity, high-tech sectors, innovation and industrial policy
    JEL: O33
    Date: 2009–05–19
  12. By: Sami SAAFI (labrii, ULCO)
    Abstract: L’objectif de cet article est de déterminer les effets de la diffusion des innovations technologiques sur la demande de la main d'oeuvre qualifiée pour le cas d’un pays en développement (en l’occurrence la Tunisie). Cette étude présente trois originalités. La première tient à la prise en compte des coûts d'ajustement. La deuxième originalité tient à la mesure de l’innovation. La troisième originalité tient à la nature de données utilisées. L'étude économétrique montre l'existence d'un biais technologique, qui favorise la demande des cadres -supposés la main-d'oeuvre la plus qualifiée-par les industries. A cet effet s'ajoute un second effet favorable à la main d'oeuvre qualifiée: cette dernière est plus fortement complémentaire au capital que les ouvriers, qui sont supposés la main-d'oeuvre non qualifiée.
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to discover the effect of technological innovations diffusion on skilled-labour demand in the case of developing countries (especially in Tunisia). This research presents three originalities. The first takes into considerations the adjustment costs. The second originality depends on the innovation measurement. The third originality is due to the nature of used data. The econometric research shows the existence of skill-biased technical change that favour the industries demand of managers. These later are supposed the most skilled-labour. In addition to this effect, they complement the capital rather than the manual workers, who are supposed unskilled-labour.
    Date: 2009–01
  13. By: Alexandra Schröter (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration)
    Abstract: Ever since its introduction in the 1990s, the systems of innovations (SI) concept has received a great deal of attention from researchers and politicians. The systems of innovation policy (SIP) approach, which is based on the SI concept, is considered an alternative to neoclassical theory. Its goal is to provide new rationales and criteria for innovation policy, as well as concrete implications and guidelines for policymakers, that are more appropriate for innovation processes in comparison to the rationales and criteria of standard economic theory. The aim of this paper is to critically investigate to what extent the SIP approach provides additional rationales for public intervention in innovation processes compared to neoclassical theory.
    Keywords: Innovation, innovation systems, innovation policy
    JEL: O31 O38 P00
    Date: 2009–05–11
  14. By: Andreas Blume; John Duffy; April Mitchell Franco
    Abstract: . . .
    Date: 2008–06
  15. By: Cristiano Antonelli; Morris Teubal
    Abstract: This paper explores the new market-mediating mechanisms linking SU invention on the one hand and economic growth on the other. Two such mechanisms come to our mind under venture capitalism (of which venture capitalism is directly involved only in the first): 1) a systemic rather than haphazard link between radical inventions and the emergence of new product markets; and 2) a link between new product markets) on the one hand and invention & unbundled technology markets on the other. The first highlights not only the volatility and precariousness of the R&D companies which operated prior to venture capitalism, but also, and related to this, the weak links that existed then between radical invention and the emergence of new markets. There are two aspects of 2) above: 2a) derived demand for improvements in the product and process technology underlying a market (and industry); and 2b) a demand for a substitute, disruptive technology which could replace the existing one. In both cases market size signals the ‘benefits’ to be derived from improving or substituting the underlying technology.
    Date: 2009–05

This nep-knm issue is ©2009 by Laura Stefanescu. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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