nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2008‒10‒13
ten papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. Organizational Innovations and Labor Productivity in a Panel of Italian Manufacturing Firms. By Federico Biagi; Maria Laura Parisi; Lucia Vergano
  2. Enhancing technological progress in a market-socialist context:China's national innovation system at the crossroads By Gabriele, Alberto; Khan, Ali Haider
  3. Organizational Member Learning and the Influential Factors: The Empirical Study of Thailand By Pruksapong, Mutarika
  4. Growth and Competition in a Model of Human Capital Accumulation and Research By Bianco, Dominique
  5. Innovation, convergence and the role of regulation in the Netherlands and beyond By Paul de Bijl; Martin Peitz
  6. The Impact of ICT Usage, Workplace Organisation and Human Capital on the Provision of Apprenticeship Training : A Firm-level Analysis Based on Swiss Panel Data By Heinz Hollenstein; Tobias Stucki
  7. Intellectual Property Rights and the Knowledge Spillover Theory of Entrepreneurship By Zoltan J. Acs; Mark Sanders
  8. Incorporating a new technology into agent-artifact space. The case of control systems automation. By Federica Rossi; Paolo Bertossi; Paolo Gurisatti; Luisa Sovieni
  9. Reti di cooperazione e innovazione. Analisi e valutazione di una politica regionale europea a sostegno dell’innovazione By Margherita Russo; Federica Rossi
  10. Does Inter-Organizational Networking Support Regional Development? Evidence from a Survey of Finnish Enterprises (in Finnish with an English abstract/summary) By MIKA PAJARINEN; PETRI ROUVINEN

  1. By: Federico Biagi; Maria Laura Parisi; Lucia Vergano
    Abstract: We study determinants of the probability of introducing an organizational innovation using three large cross sections of Italian manufacturing firms in the period 1995-2003. We analyze the effect and complementarity of other types of investments, like ICT, R&D, human and physical capital and the adoption of product or process innovations. Furthermore, we estimate the effect of introducing organizational innovations and indirectly technical innovations on the growth rate of labor productivity for the unbalanced panel of firms. Disembodied technological change is well represented by OIs, while product innovations seem to heve an effect on the efficiency of capital inputs only (capital stock-embodied technical change). Process innovations do not have a statistical impact as an indirect input-efficiency driving force, in our data.
    Date: 2008
  2. By: Gabriele, Alberto; Khan, Ali Haider
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the available evidence of China's S&T, R&D, and innovative capabilities, to provide an assessment of the effectiveness and potentialities of its national system of innovation (NSI) ), and to formulate some preliminary policy suggestions aimed at improving China's overall innovation strategy. Our approach focuses particularly on the evolving relationship between China's NSI and the country's overall market socialist social and economic system - both of which are developing fast and undergoing deep qualitative changes - and on related policy challenges. China's innovation strategy aims at embodying world-class best practices from technological world leaders and successful late industrializers, but is also peculiarly Chinese in at least two crucial aspects. The first is China's sheer size, which has allowed her to leapfrog to rank 2 worldwide in terms of the absolute quantitative magnitude of its NSI, at a stage when it still far lags behind all technological leaders in terms of per capita educational, technological, and research achievements. The second is China's specific form of market socialism, which has the potential of conferring her leaders an outstanding advantage in the crucial area of strategic planning, i.e. the capability to master national resources and to earmark them towards key goals accordingly to a clear set of priorities. China's goal is to engineer in a relative short period a decisive qualitative leap in her NSI, developing a systemic ability to generate world-class indigenous innovations. In addition to fostering technical progress, China's development strategy shall also take into account the challenge of establishing a model of innovation compatible with an equitable pattern of income distribution and environmental sustainability, thereby paving the way to the eventual evolution towards a higher and more developed form of socialism. This is the expressed aim of the Chinese leadership. However, the simple NSI approach is not necessarily sensitive to these strategic requirements, and therefore there is a need for more advanced analytical and planning tools. In this context, we propose to consider the utility of nonlinear models of the POLIS (positive feed back loop innovation system) class, which are suitable to chart strategically the market socialist course, as their internal logic is consistent with China's unique catch up strategy.
    JEL: P36 P27 O33
    Date: 2008–09–22
  3. By: Pruksapong, Mutarika
    Abstract: Based on the literatures of organizational learning and change, this research continues to focus on the individual level of learning in organization. Individual learning comprises of at least the cognitive and behavioral aspects as the two represent two different phenomenon and complementary to each other. A questionnaire survey was conducted with employees of corporations in Thailand with an attempt to seek for factors in which influence the level of learning in individuals in both cognitive and behavioral contexts. Among the three influential factors, perceived negative impact from change hinders the cognitive buy-in of change initiative the most, while the general understanding of the necessity of organizational learning and change depicted as the strongest factor in inducing individual’s participative cooperation to change projects. Additionally, the overall results suggest that organizations in which are involved in organizational change movement should pay attention in educating their employees to be highly aware of the importance of organizational learning and change in general, as well as, creating more of the direct positive impact and less of the direct negative impact from any specific change movement, in order to be able to gain employees’ cognitive understanding of and behavioral cooperation to the change.
    Keywords: Organizational Member Learning; Organizational Learning; Organizational Change; Thailand
    JEL: M19 M12 M10
    Date: 2008–10–07
  4. By: Bianco, Dominique
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between competition and growth in a model of human capital accumulation and research by disentangling the monopolistic mark-up in the intermediate goods sector and the returns to specialization in order to have a better measure of competition. We find that the steady-state output growth rate depends on the parameters describing preferences, human capital accumulation technology and R&D activity. We also show that the relationship between competition and growth is inverse U shaped. This result that seems to be in line this empirical results (Aghion and Gri±th (2005)) is explained by the resource allocation effect.
    Keywords: Endogenous growth; Horizontal differentiation; Technological change; Imperfect competition; Human capital
    JEL: L16 O41 J24 O31 D43
    Date: 2008–10–06
  5. By: Paul de Bijl; Martin Peitz
    Abstract: In the light of converging services for voice, data, and video, this paper discusses the challenges for telecommunications regulation from a European perspective. The Netherlands, a country with excellent conditions for facilities-based competition, is discussed as a case in point. With dynamic issues at the heart of the debate, the role of regulation and government intervention more generally is to create and possibly to sustain conditions among operators to upgrade their networks and to provide innovative services. A fresh look at current regulation suggests that an overhaul may be needed.
    Keywords: telecommunications regulation; convergence; network access; IP networks; competition; innovation; NGN networks
    JEL: L96 L5
    Date: 2008–07
  6. By: Heinz Hollenstein (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Tobias Stucki (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: Firstly, we investigated the determinants of a) the propensity of Swiss firms to provide apprenticeship training, and b) the intensity of training (measured by the employment share of apprentices). We primarily were interested in the relevance as explanatory factors of the three constituent elements of the “new firm paradigm” that emerged in the course of the last twenty years: intensive usage of ICT; redesign of workplace organisation; shift from lower to higher skills. We found that the skill composition of the workforce (including further training), ICT intensity and, to a lesser extent, workplace organisation are important drivers of apprenticeshipbased skill formation, with stronger effects on training propensity than on training intensity. Secondly, we analysed the relationship between apprenticeship training and firm performance. It turned out that productivity and apprenticeships (training propensity or intensity) are negatively correlated. The study is relevant for training policy in advanced economies where the new firm paradigm plays a large and growing role.
    Keywords: Firm-based training, Apprenticeship, Workplace organisation, ICT, Skill formation, Human capital
    JEL: J2 L2 O3 M5
    Date: 2008–09
  7. By: Zoltan J. Acs; Mark Sanders
    Abstract: We develop a model in which stronger protection of intellectual property rights has an inverted U-shaped effect on innovation. Intellectual property rights protection allows the incumbent firms to capture part of the rents of commercial exploration that would otherwise accrue to the entrepreneurs. Stronger patent protection will increase the incentive to do R&D and generate new knowledge. This has a positive impact on entrepreneurship and innovation. However, after some point, further strengthening patent protection will reduce the returns to entrepreneurship sufficiently to reduce overall economic growth.
    Keywords: Intellectual Property Rights, Endogenous Growth, Entrepreneurship, Incentives, Knowledge Spillovers, Rents
    JEL: J24 L26 M13 O3
    Date: 2008–09
  8. By: Federica Rossi; Paolo Bertossi; Paolo Gurisatti; Luisa Sovieni
    Abstract: We contribute to the debate on innovation theory and policy by exploring, through the interpretative framework provided by Lane and Maxfield’s theory of innovation (1997; 2005), a set of case studies concerning the implementation of a new technology for system automation and its incorporation into the structure of agent-artifact space (Lane and Maxfield, 1996). Our purposes are, on the one hand, to illustrate to what extent this theoretical approach can help us make sense of innovation processes, and, on the other, to derive some general implications for innovation theory.
    Keywords: innovation, technological systems, complex systems, innovation networks, control systems automation
    JEL: O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2008–06
  9. By: Margherita Russo; Federica Rossi
    Abstract: Recent developments in innovation theory and policy have led policymakers to assign particular importance to supporting networks of cooperation among heterogeneous economic actors, especially in production systems composed of small and medium enterprises. Such innovative policies call for parallel innovations in policy analysis, monitoring and assessment. Our analysis of a policy experiment aimed at supporting innovation networks in the Italian region of Tuscany intends to address some issues connected with the design, monitoring and evaluation of such interventions. Combining tools from ethnographic research and social networks analysis, we explore the structural elements of the policy programme, its impact on the regional innovation system, and the success of individual networks in attaining their specific objectives. This innovative approach also allows us to derive suggestions for policymakers intending to implement similar programmes.
    Keywords: Innovation policy; local development policies; regional development policies; evaluation management
    JEL: D78 O31 O32 O38 R58
    Date: 2008–06
    Abstract: ABSTRACT : Three fourths of Finnish business enterprises have relationships that are deeper than those associated with normal market transactions, i.e., they are involved in inter-organizational networking. Regionally networking is more commonplace in North Savo, North Karelia/Kainuu, Central Finland and Lapland/Northern Ostrobothnia. Connections to other firms is the most prevalent and qualitatively most important type of networking. Net-working is predominantly a local phenomenon, particularly when it comes to firms’ partner-ships with educational and research institutions as well as public bodies. Networking may be associated with better firm profitability in low-tech industries. Participating in a national cluster may be associated with firms’ better growth prospects. In the absence of functioning local markets for some productive inputs, being engaged in inter-organizational networking may be a necessary conditions for firms’ survival.
    JEL: D21 L14 L22 L25
    Date: 2008–10–07

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