nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2008‒09‒13
eight papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. The Knowledge Production of ‘R’ and ‘D’ By Czarnitzki, Dirk; Kraft, Kornelius; Thorwarth, Susanne
  2. Labor markets in rural and urban Haiti--based on the first household survey for Haiti By Verner, Dorte
  3. The Brain Drain between Knowledge Based Economies: the European Human Capital Outflows to the US By Ahmed Tritah
  4. Gender and asset ownership : a guide to collecting individual-level data By Doss, Cheryl; Grown, Caren; Deere, Carmen Diana
  5. Determinants of Inter-Country Internet Diffusion Rates By Wunnava, Phanindra V.; Leiter, Daniel B.
  6. Human capital and the changing structure of the Indian economy By Amin, Mohammad; Mattoo, Aaditya
  7. Technology adoption and the investment climate : firm-level evidence for Eastern Europe and Central Asia By Correa, Paulo G.; Fernandes, Ana M.; Uregian, Chris J.
  8. Trade and Innovation Project: A Synthesis Paper By Osamu Onodera

  1. By: Czarnitzki, Dirk; Kraft, Kornelius; Thorwarth, Susanne
    Abstract: Many studies investigate the relationship between R&D expenditures as an input and patents as an intermediate product or output of a knowledge production function. We suggest that the productivity of research in patent production functions has been underestimated in the literature, as scholars typically use information about R&D, i.e. the sum of research expenditure and development expenditure, due to data availability. However, in most industries only (applied) research will lead to patentable knowledge, and development happens after the initial research phase that may have led to a patent. Instead of using data on R&D, we separate the knowledge creating process into `R’ and `D’. This data stems from R&D surveys of Belgian firms. It turns out that only the `R’ part of R&D expenditure has a significant effect on patents and that development expenditure are insignificant. Thus previous literature relying on R&D expenditure suffers from a measurement error, such that the coefficient of R&D is biased towards zero, as R&D includes a large fraction of irrelevant expenditure, i.e. development expenditure, with respect to patenting.
    Keywords: Patents, Research, Development, Knowledge Production Function
    JEL: O31 O32
    Date: 2008
  2. By: Verner, Dorte
    Abstract: This paper addresses labor markets in Haiti, including farm and nonfarm employment and income generation. The analyses are based on the first Living Conditions Survey of 7,186 households covering the whole country and representative at the regional level. The findings suggest that four key determinants of employment and productivity in nonfarm activities are education, gender, location, and migration status. This is emphasized when nonfarm activities are divided into low-return and high-return activities. The wage and producer income analyses reveal that education is key to earning higher wages and incomes. Moreover, producer incomes increase with farm size, land title, and access to tools, electricity, roads, irrigation, and other farm inputs.
    Keywords: Rural Poverty Reduction,Population Policies,,Rural Development Knowledge&Information Systems
    Date: 2008–03–01
  3. By: Ahmed Tritah
    Abstract: This paper uses the 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2006 U.S. micro censuses data to document the magnitude and nature of European human capital outflow to the United States. I found that while emigration is about a small number of individuals, the share of Europeans who are leaving is increasing as one moves along the educational distribution and ladder of occupations that matter the most in the knowledge economy. Next, using productivity based brain drain indices it is found that aggregate human capital conveyed by emigrants has increased since the 1990s. Finally, as a better understanding on the nature of human capital embodied in European emigrants, I show that the Europeans earn a positive wage premium relative to the US natives. Moreover, this premium is higher for the most recent expatriates cohorts, providing further evidence that the quality of European emigrants has increased.
    Keywords: Emigration; brain-drain; human capital; knowledge economy; Europe-US
    JEL: F22 J24 O15
    Date: 2008–06
  4. By: Doss, Cheryl; Grown, Caren; Deere, Carmen Diana
    Abstract: Ownership and control over assets such as land and housing provide direct and indirect benefits to individuals and households, including a secure place to live, the means of a livelihood, protection during emergencies, and collateral for credit that can be used for investment or consumption. Unfortunately, few studies - either at the micro or macro levels- examine the gender dimensions of asset ownership. This paper sets out a framework for researchers who are interested in collecting data on individual level asset ownership and analyzing the gender asset gap. It reviews best practices in existing surveys with respect to data collection on assets at both the household and individual levels, and shows how various questions on individually owned assets can be incorporated with a minimum of effort and cost into existing multi-topic household surveys, using examples of three Living Standard Measurement Study surveys: the 1998-99 Ghana survey, the 2000 Guatemala survey, and the 1997-98 Vietnam survey questionnaires. The analysis shows that it is feasible to add a minimal set of questions to enable calculation of the gender asset gap. Adding a series of extra questions will permit a more satisfactory and nuanced analysis of asset acquisition, use, disposition, and valuation - information that is critical for policies promoting gender equality, poverty reduction, and economic growth.
    Keywords: Access to Finance,,Gender and Law,Agricultural Knowledge&Information Systems,Rural Development Knowledge&Information Systems
    Date: 2008–08–01
  5. By: Wunnava, Phanindra V. (Middlebury College); Leiter, Daniel B. (Morgan Stanley)
    Abstract: This paper employs cross-sectional data from 100 countries to analyze the main determinants of inter-country Internet diffusion rates. We set up an empirical model based on strong theoretical foundations, in which we regress Internet usage on variables that capture social, economic and political differences between these countries. Our results support past findings that economic strength, infrastructure and knowledge of the English language positively affect Internet connectivity. In addition to these indicators, the openness of a country, tertiary enrollment, and income equality are found to also have a significant positive effect on Internet diffusion.
    Keywords: internet, technological diffusion, inequality, education, English proficiency
    JEL: O33 D63 I20
    Date: 2008–08
  6. By: Amin, Mohammad; Mattoo, Aaditya
    Abstract: Using panel data for the fourteen major states of India over the 1980-2000 period, the authors estimate the effect of human capital endowment on the performance of the state economies. They find that greater availability of skilled workers had a positive and significant impact on output in the service sectors. They do not find any such effect for the manufacturing sectors. The paper shows that the differential effect on services and manufacturing arises because service sectors are more skill intensive.
    Keywords: Economic Theory&Research,Transport Economics Policy&Planning,E-Business,Achieving Shared Growth,Access to Finance
    Date: 2008–03–01
  7. By: Correa, Paulo G.; Fernandes, Ana M.; Uregian, Chris J.
    Abstract: The international diffusion of technology presents an opportunity for developing economies distant from the world technological frontier to reduce their income gap relative to advanced economies. It is therefore crucial to understand why, when faced with similar technological alternatives different firms in different countries choose to adopt different vintages of capital. This paper examines technology adoption across firms in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The findings show that access to complementary inputs - managerial capacity, skilled labor, finance, and good infrastructure - and to international knowledge - through foreign direct investment or exports - is an important correlate of technology adoption. The link between market incentives and technology adoption is more nuanced. Although consumer pressure results in technology adoption, competitor pressure does not, suggesting that only firms with rents are able to adopt technology given substantial resource constraints. Privatized firms exhibit better technology adoption outcomes but only when a clear private owner with a profit incentive is present. Better governance is associated with technology adoption only in the countries that joined the European Union in 2004. Future increases in technology adoption by firms in the region will require complementary reforms of the investment climate.
    Keywords: E-Business,Technology Industry,ICT Policy and Strategies,Microfinance,
    Date: 2008–09–01
  8. By: Osamu Onodera
    Abstract: This paper, together with five case studies, is a part of a larger project looking at the various effects that trade and investment can have on innovation. The study looks at the role of trade and investment in technology transfer, the competition effects of trade and investment on innovation as well as economies of scale. The study also looks at Global Value Chains as an organisational innovation in its own right, which is supported by a freer trade and investment environment. The study also forms a contribution to the OECD Innovation Strategy launched at the OECD Ministerial Council Meeting in 2007.
    Keywords: competition, innovation, intellectual property rights, Doha Development Agenda, licensing, technology transfer, MNEs, multinational enterprises, scale economies, global value chains, absorption capacity, TRIPs
    Date: 2008–08–07

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